Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Gonocephalum
(false wireworm)

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Datasheet

Gonocephalum (false wireworm)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Gonocephalum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • false wireworm
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
False wire worm adult.
TitleAdult
CaptionFalse wire worm adult.
CopyrightE. Neering
False wire worm adult.
AdultFalse wire worm adult.E. Neering

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Gonocephalum

Preferred Common Name

  • false wireworm

Other Scientific Names

  • Hopatrum Blackburn, 1907

International Common Names

  • English: darkling beetles; surface beetles

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Staubkafer

EPPO code

  • GONASP (Gonocephalum sp.)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Tenebrionidae
  •                             Genus: Gonocephalum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

CameroonPresentAllsopp (1980)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentAllsopp (1980)
Congo, Republic of thePresentAllsopp (1980)
EthiopiaPresentHILL (1966)
KenyaPresentAllsopp (1980)
MalawiPresentAllsopp (1980)
MauritiusPresentAllsopp (1980)
SenegalPresentFerrer (2001)
South AfricaPresentDrinkwater (1992)
TanzaniaPresentAllsopp (1980)
UgandaPresentAllsopp (1980)
ZambiaPresentAllsopp (1980)
ZimbabwePresentMlambo (1983)

Asia

BangladeshPresentAlam (1962)
IndiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Andhra PradeshPresentReddy et al. (1992)
-KarnatakaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Coleman & Kunhi Kannan, 1918
-Tamil NaduPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Rangarajan et al. (1977)
-West BengalPresentModak and Haldar (2006)
IndonesiaPresentAllsopp (1980)
PhilippinesPresentAllsopp (1980)
South KoreaPresentAllsopp (1980)
TurkeyPresentAllsopp (1980)

Europe

BulgariaPresentAllsopp (1980)
ItalyPresentAllsopp (1980)
RussiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Central RussiaPresentAllsopp (1980)

North America

United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-HawaiiPresentWilliams (1931)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentForrester (1980); CABI (Undated)
-QueenslandPresentAllsopp (1980)
-South AustraliaPresentAllsopp (1980)
-Western AustraliaPresentAllsopp (1980); Woods et al. (1990)

Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / internal feeding
Growing point / external feeding
Leaves / external feeding
Seeds / internal feeding
Stems / external feeding
Whole plant / wilt

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anomalon morleyi Parasite Larvae
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Adults/Larvae
Epyris extraneus Parasite Larvae
Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogen Adults/Larvae

References

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Alam MZ, 1962. A list of insects and mites of East Pakistan. Dhaka, Bangladesh: Department of Agriculture.

Allsopp PG, 1979. False wireworms in southern and central Queensland. Queensland Agricultural Journal, 105(3):276-278

Allsopp PG, 1979. Identification of false wireworms (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) from southern Queensland and northern New South Wales. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 18(3):277-286

Allsopp PG, 1980. The biology of false wireworms and their adults (soil-inhabiting Tenebrionidae) (Coleoptera): a review. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 70(3):343-379

Allsopp PG; Forrester NW, 1992. Spatial distribution and sequential sampling of adults of Gonocephalum macleayi and Pterohelaeus darlingensis in different cropping regimes. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 65(3):235-240

Breniere J, 1960. Note sur Gonocephalum simplex Fabr. coleoptere tenebrionida nuisible au tabac de Madagascar. Agronome Tropical, 14:459-469.

Coleman LC; Kunhi Kannan K, 1918. Ground beetles attacking crops in Mysore. Bulletin of the Department of Agriculture, Mysore (Entomology), 5:1-16.

Doyen JT; Matthews EG; Lawrence JF, 1989. Classification and annotated checklist of the Australian genera of Tenebrionidae (Coleoptera). Invertebrate Taxonomy, 3(3):229-260

Drinkwater TW, 1992. Laboratory evaluation of insecticide baits for control of the dusty surface beetle, Gonocephalum simplex F. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Crop Protection, 11(4):380-384

Ferrer J, 2001. On the presence of Gonocephalum sculptithorax Gridelli (1948) and of Gonocephalum rastellii Ferrer spec. composita, in Senegal (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Opatrini). (Sur la présence de Gonocephalum sculptithorax Gridelli (1948) et de Gonocephalum rastellii Ferrer spec. composita, au Sénégal (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Opatrini).) Nouvelle Revue d'Entomologie, 18(1):13-14.

Forrester NW, 1980. Insect pests of sunflowers. Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales, 91(5):34-37

Hill BG, 1966. Insects of cultivated and wild plants, Harar Province Ethiopia, 1960-1964. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 56:659-670.

Hooper GHS, 1959. A preliminary investigation into control of false wireworm on the Darling Downs. Queensland Journal of Agricultural Science, 16:251-252.

Kaszab K, 1952. Die indomalaischen und ostasiatischen Arten der Gettung Gonocephalum Solier (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Entomologischen Arbeiten aus dem Museum G. Frey, 3:416-688.

Mlambo SS, 1983. Occurrence and pest status of the dusty surface beetle (Gonocephalum simplex) in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Agricultural Journal, 80(6):235-238

Modak BK; Haldar DP, 2006. Stylocephalus triradiata sp. n., a new septate gregarine (Apicomplexa: Conoidasida) from a tenebrionid beetle in West Bengal, India. Journal of Natural History (India), 2(1):61-68.

Murray DAH; Wicks R, 1984. Baiting for soil-dwelling insects. Proceedings of the Fourth Australian Applied Entomological Research Conference, Adelaide 24-28 September 1984. Pest control: recent advances and future prospects [edited by Bailey, P.; Swincer, D.] Adelaide, Australia; South Australian Government Printer, 268-273

Pelley RH le, 1968. Pests of Coffee. London and Harlow, UK: Longmans, Green and Co Ltd.

Radford BJ; Allsopp PG, 1987. Use of insecticides and a press wheel to control soil insects affecting sorghum and sunflower establishment in southern Queensland. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 26(2):161-167

Rangarajan AV; Mahadevan NR; Iyemperumal S, 1975. Pest complex of sunflower (Helianthus annus Linn.) in Tamil Nadu. Indian Journal of Entomology, 37(2):188-191

Reddy MV; Kumar VPK; Reddy BK, 1992. Occurrence of Gonocephalum sp. (Tenebrionidae: Coleoptera) as a pest of groundnut in India. Tropical Pest Management, 38(1):108

Robertson LN, 1990. Population phenology of false wireworms in central Queensland crops. In: Kochman J, ed. Proceedings of the 8th Workshop of the Australian Sunflower Association. Toowoomba, Australia: Australian Sunflower Association, 148-151.

Robertson LN, 1993. Population dynamics of false wireworms (Gonocephalum macleayi, Pterohelaeus alternatus, P. darlingensis) and development of an integrated pest management program in central Queensland field crops: a review. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 33(7):953-962

Robertson LN; Kettle BA, 1994. The effects of stubble retention on soil insect damage to sunflower seedlings in central Queensland. In: Cunningham I, ed. Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Tropical Agricultural Entomology. Mareeba, Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries, 200-210.

Robertson LN; Simpson GB, 1988. Sampling and dispersion of Pterohelpus alternatus Pascoe and Gonocephalum macleayi (Blackburn) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae in soil. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences, 45(2):189-193

Robertson LN; Simpson GB, 1989. The use of germinating-seed baits to detect soil insect pests before crop sowing. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 29(3):403-407

Watt JC, 1974. A revised subfamily classification of Tenebrionidae (Coleoptera). New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 1(4):381-452

Wet EEde, 1989. Female reproductive system of adult Gonocephalum subcontractum (Gridelli) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 52(2):285-300

Williams FX, 1931. Handbook of the insects and other invertebrates of Hawaiian sugar cane fields. Honolulu, Hawaii: Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association.

Woods W; Michael P; Grimm M, 1990. Insect and allied pests of extensive farming. 3rd edn. Perth, Australia:Western Australian Department of Agriculture/Plant Protection Society of Western Australia.

Distribution References

Alam MZ, 1962. A list of insects and mites of East Pakistan., Dhaka, Bangladesh: Department of Agriculture.

Allsopp P G, 1980. The biology of false wireworms and their adults (soil-inhabiting Tenebrionidae) (Coleoptera): a review. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 70 (3), 343-379. DOI:10.1017/S0007485300007628

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Drinkwater T W, 1992. Laboratory evaluation of insecticide baits for control of the dusty surface beetle, Gonocephalum simplex F. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Crop Protection. 11 (4), 380-384. DOI:10.1016/0261-2194(92)90067-F

Ferrer J, 2001. On the presence of Gonocephalum sculptithorax Gridelli (1948) and of Gonocephalum rastellii Ferrer spec. composita, in Senegal (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Opatrini). (Sur la présence de Gonocephalum sculptithorax Gridelli (1948) et de Gonocephalum rastellii Ferrer spec. composita, au Sénégal (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Opatrini).). Nouvelle Revue d'Entomologie. 18 (1), 13-14.

Forrester N W, 1980. Insect pests of sunflowers. Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales. 91 (5), 34-37.

HILL B G, 1966. Insects of cultivated and wild plants, Harar Province, Ethiopia, 1960-64. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 56 (pt. 4), 659-670 pp. DOI:10.1017/S0007485300056662

Mlambo S S, 1983. Occurrence and pest status of the dusty surface beetle (Gonocephalum simplex) in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Agricultural Journal. 80 (6), 235-238.

Modak B K, Haldar D P, 2006. Stylocephalus triradiata sp. n., a new septate gregarine (Apicomplexa: Conoidasida) from a tenebrionid beetle in West Bengal, India. Journal of Natural History (India). 2 (1), 61-68.

Reddy M V, Kumar V P K, Reddy B K, 1992. Occurrence of Gonocephalum sp. (Tenebrionidae: Coleoptera) as a pest of groundnut in India. Tropical Pest Management. 38 (1), 108.

Williams F X, 1931. Handbook of the Insects and other Invertebrates of Hawaiian Sugar Cane Fields. Honolulu, Hawaii: Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association.

Woods W, Michael P, Grimm M, 1990. Insect and allied pests of extensive farming., Perth, Australia: Western Australian Department of Agriculture/Plant Protection Society of Western Australia.

Distribution Maps

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