Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Gomphrena globosa
(globe amaranth)

Ventosa-Febles E, 2017. Gomphrena globosa (globe amaranth). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.25617.20203482841

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Datasheet

Gomphrena globosa (globe amaranth)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 05 June 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Gomphrena globosa
  • Preferred Common Name
  • globe amaranth
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Gomphrena globosa is an annual herb native to Central America now cultivated worldwide as an ornamental, as well as having uses in traditional medicine and as a source of betacyanins for use in the food and cosmetic industry. It has escap...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Gomphrena globosa (Globe amaranth); habit, showing flowers and leaves. Walmart, Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.
TitleFlowers and leaves
CaptionGomphrena globosa (Globe amaranth); habit, showing flowers and leaves. Walmart, Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Gomphrena globosa (Globe amaranth); habit, showing flowers and leaves. Walmart, Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.
Flowers and leavesGomphrena globosa (Globe amaranth); habit, showing flowers and leaves. Walmart, Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Gomphrena globosa (Globe amaranth); habit, showing flowers and leaves. Walmart, Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.
TitleFlowers and leaves
CaptionGomphrena globosa (Globe amaranth); habit, showing flowers and leaves. Walmart, Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Gomphrena globosa (Globe amaranth); habit, showing flowers and leaves. Walmart, Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.
Flowers and leavesGomphrena globosa (Globe amaranth); habit, showing flowers and leaves. Walmart, Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Gomphrena globosa

Preferred Common Name

  • globe amaranth

Other Scientific Names

  • Amaranthoides globosa (L.) M.Gómez
  • Amaranthoides globosus var. albiflorus M. Gómez
  • Gomphrena eriopoda Gillies ex Moq.
  • Gomphrena globosa subsp. africana Stuchlik
  • Gomphrena globosa subsp. mexicana Stuchlik
  • Gomphrena globosa var. albiflora Moq.
  • Gomphrena globosa var. albiflora Stuchlik
  • Gomphrena globosa var. aureiflora Stuchlik
  • Gomphrena globosa var. carnea Moq.
  • Gomphrena rubra Moq.
  • Gomphrena tumida Seidl ex Opiz
  • Xeraea globosa (L.) Kuntze

International Common Names

  • English: bachelor’s buttons; gomphrena; perpetua
  • Spanish: amaranto globoso; perpetua
  • French: amarantine; amarantine globuleuse; gomphrena a tete globuleuse
  • Chinese: qian ri hong

Local Common Names

  • Colombia: immortale
  • Cuba: flor de San Diego; inmortal; San Diego
  • Germany: Gemeiner Kugelamarant
  • Honduras: amor seco
  • India/Jammu and Kashmir: gundi
  • India/West Bengal: botam phul
  • Laos: saam pii
  • Netherlands: kogelamarant
  • Portugal: perpétua roxa
  • USA/Hawaii: boxu; lehua moa loa; lehua pepa

EPPO code

  • GOMGL (Gomphrena globosa)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Gomphrena globosa is an annual herb native to Central America now cultivated worldwide as an ornamental, as well as having uses in traditional medicine and as a source of betacyanins for use in the food and cosmetic industry. It has escaped cultivation in gardens and is now found waste grounds and disturbed sites in tropical and subtropical countries. It is listed as an invasive species by CeNBIO, and classified as an invasive plant in Cuba, Hawaii and Costa Rica.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Caryophyllales
  •                         Family: Amaranthaceae
  •                             Genus: Gomphrena
  •                                 Species: Gomphrena globosa

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Gomphrena is a genus in the Amaranthaceae, a family comprising 180 genera and 2000 to 2500 species of herbs and shrubs (Stevens, 2019). Although native to Central America, G. globosa was first described from India (Flora of Panama, 2020)

Description

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The following description is adapted from Flora of China Editorial Committee (2020):

Herbs annual, erect, 20-60 cm tall. Stem stout, branched; branches slightly quadrangular, gray strigose, slightly inflated at nodes. Petiole 1-1.5 cm, long gray hairy; leaf blade oblong or oblong-obovate, 3.5-13 × 1.5-5 cm, papery, long white hairy and ciliate, narrowing toward base, margin undulate, apex acute or obtuse. Heads terminal, 1-3, usually purple, sometimes light purple or white, 2-2.5 cm in diam. Bracts 2, opposite, green, ovate or cordate, 1-1.5 cm, gray hairy; bracts white, purple at apex, ovate, 3-5 mm; bracteoles purple, triangular-lanceolate, much longer than bracts, 1-1.2 cm. Tepals not rigid after anthesis, lanceolate, 5-6 mm, outside densely white lanose, apex acuminate. Filaments connate into a tube, 5-parted at apex. Styles linear, shorter than tube of stamens; stigmas 2, furcate. Utricles subglobose, 2-2.5 mm in diam. Seeds brown, shiny, reniform. Fl. and fr. Jun-Sep.

Plant Type

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Annual
Herbaceous
Seed propagated

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentNaturalized
Cabo VerdePresentNaturalized
CameroonPresentNaturalizedCultivated
ChadPresentIntroduced
EgyptPresentIntroducedCultivated
EthiopiaPresentIntroducedCultivated
GuineaPresentIntroducedNaturalized
KenyaPresentIntroducedCultivated
MalawiPresentIntroducedCultivated
MauritiusPresentIntroducedCultivated
MozambiquePresentIntroducedCultivated
NigeriaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated
RéunionPresentCultivated
RwandaPresentIntroducedCultivated
Sierra LeonePresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated
South AfricaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedCultivated
UgandaPresentIntroduced
ZambiaPresentIntroducedCultivated

Asia

BhutanPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated
CambodiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated
ChinaPresentCultivated
-FujianPresent
-GuangxiPresent
-GuizhouPresent
-HebeiPresent
-HubeiPresent
-ShanxiPresent
-SichuanPresent
-XinjiangPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
IndiaPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-Jammu and KashmirPresentIntroducedInvasiveKashmir Himalaya
-OdishaPresent
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated
IsraelPresent
JapanPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-HonshuPresentIntroducedNaturalized
LaosPresentNaturalizedCultivated
MalaysiaPresentNaturalizedCultivated
NepalPresentIntroducedNaturalized
North KoreaPresentIntroducedCultivated
PakistanPresentIntroducedCultivated
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated
Saudi ArabiaPresentIntroducedCultivated
South KoreaPresentIntroducedCultivated
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated
ThailandPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated
VietnamPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated
YemenPresentIntroducedCultivated

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentNaturalized
BahamasPresentIntroduced
BarbadosPresentNaturalized
BelizePresentIntroduced
Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba
-Sint EustatiusPresentIntroduced
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedTortola
CanadaPresentIntroduced
Cayman IslandsPresentNaturalized
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCultivated
CubaPresentInvasiveCultivated
DominicaPresentNaturalized
Dominican RepublicPresentNaturalizedCultivated
GrenadaPresentNaturalized
GuadeloupePresentNaturalized
GuatemalaPresentNativeCultivated
HaitiPresentNaturalizedCultivated
JamaicaPresentNaturalizedCultivated
MartiniquePresentNaturalized
MexicoPresentIntroducedIn 13 states
NicaraguaPresentNaturalizedCultivated
PanamaPresentNative
Puerto RicoPresentNaturalizedCultivated
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentNaturalized
Saint LuciaPresentNaturalized
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNaturalized
Sint MaartenPresentIntroduced
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedSt. Croix, St. Thomas
United StatesPresentIntroduced
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasive
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedSt. Charles, St. Helena, St. Landry, Bienville, Oucahita
-MarylandPresentIntroduced
-MassachusettsPresentIntroduced
-OhioPresentIntroducedWood, Franklin
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroducedAllegheny, Erie, Philadelphia
-TexasPresentIntroducedStarr, Hidalgo, Cameron, Refugio, Travis, Montgomery, Tarrant Coole
-VirginiaPresentIntroduced

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced
-Northern TerritoryPresentIntroduced
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-PohnpeiPresentIntroduced
FijiPresentIntroducedCultivated
French PolynesiaPresent
GuamPresentNaturalized
KiribatiPresentNaturalizedGilbert Islands
Marshall IslandsPresentNaturalized
New ZealandPresentIntroducedCultivated
Papua New GuineaPresentNaturalizedCultivated

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedBuenos Aires, Corrientes
BoliviaPresentIntroducedLa Paz, Pando
BrazilPresentNaturalized
-AcrePresentNaturalized
-AmazonasPresentNaturalized
-BahiaPresentNaturalized
-CearaPresentNaturalized
-Distrito FederalPresentNaturalized
-Espirito SantoPresentNaturalized
-MaranhaoPresentNaturalized
-Mato GrossoPresentNaturalized
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNaturalized
-Minas GeraisPresentNaturalized
-ParaPresentNaturalized
-ParaibaPresentNaturalized
-ParanaPresentNaturalized
-PernambucoPresentNaturalized
-PiauiPresentNaturalized
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNaturalized
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNaturalized
-RoraimaPresentNaturalized
-Santa CatarinaPresentNaturalized
-Sao PauloPresentNaturalized
EcuadorPresentNaturalizedCultivated
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroduced
French GuianaPresentNaturalized
GuyanaPresentNaturalized
PeruPresentIntroducedCultivated
SurinamePresentNaturalized
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedWidely cultivated and escaping in Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta, Amacura, Guyana

History of Introduction and Spread

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Gomphrena globosa is native to Panama and Guatemala in Central America (Floridata, 2015). It has been introduced in cultivation in the warmer regions of the world and is often found as a garden escape, but rarely if ever naturalized in the Old World.

Habitat

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Gomphrena globosa is found as a garden escape in waste grounds and disturbed sites in tropical and subtropical countries (Liogier and Martorell, 1982; Flora of Nicaragua, 2020).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number for G. globosa is 2n=38 (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2020)

Physiology and Phenology

Gomphrena globosa flowers and fruits between June and September (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020)

Longevity

Gomphrena globosa is an annual (World Flora Online, 2020)

Environmental Requirements

Found at altitudes of 10-500 m (Flora of Nicaragua, 2020). Mature plants exhibit good drought resistance and extremely good heat tolerance (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Tolerated Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Intentional Introduction

Gomphrena globosa is propagated in cultivation by seed (Gilman and Howe, 1999)

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Wind Yes Staples et al. (2000)

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Gregarious
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally

Uses

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Economic Value

Gomphrena globosa flowers are a source of betacyanins which are used as additives in the food and cosmetic industries and as a natural purple-red food dye.

Social Benefit

The flowers of G. globosa are used in traditional medicine to treat colic, diabetes and problems with the prostate and reproductive systems. It is also used to treat a variety of respiratory problems, including cough, asthma and bronchitis, and problems with the kidneys and urinary system (Encyclopedia of Life, 2020)

The flowers are long lasting and retain shape and colour after drying which makes them desirable for flower arrangements. In Hawaii, it is commonly used in long-lasting leis and in Nepal it is used to make garlands for Brother’s day (Encyclopedia of Life, 2020)

Environmental Services

Gomphrena globosa is used as a soil improver and for phytoremediation in arsenic contaminated soil (Signes-Pastor et al., 2015)

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Host of pest
  • Soil improvement

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo

Human food and beverage

  • Food additive

Materials

  • Dyestuffs

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Cut flower
  • garden plant

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Encyclopedia of Life, 2020. Encyclopedia of Life. In: Encyclopedia of Life . http://www.eol.org

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Nicaragua, 2020. Flora of Nicaragua. (Flora de Nicaragua). In: Flora de Nicaragua St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://tropicos.org/Project/FN

Flora of Pakistan, 2015. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

Flora of Panama, 2020. Flora of Panama (WFO). In: Flora of Panama (WFO) St. Louis, MO and Cambridge, MA, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FOPWFO

Floridata, 2015. Floridata Online Encyclopedia of Plants and Nature. Tallahassee, Florida, USA: Floridata.

Gilman EF, Howe T, 1999. Gomphrena Globosa Fact Sheet FPS-234. Florida, USA: University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service.

Liogier, H. A., Martorell, L. F., 1982. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis, Río Piedras, Puerto Rico: Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015. Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder. In: Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/plantfinder/plantfindersearch.aspx

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2020. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96

Signes-Pastor, A. J., Munera-Picazo, S., Burló, F., Cano-Lamadrid, M., Carbonell-Barrachina, A. A., 2015. Phytoremediation assessment of Gomphrena globosa and Zinnia elegans grown in arsenic-contaminated hydroponic conditions as a safe and feasible alternative to be applied in arsenic-contaminated soils of the Bengal Delta. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187(6), 387. doi: 10.1007/s10661-015-4618-z

Staples, G. W., Herbst, D. R., Imada, C. T., 2000. Survey of invasive or potentially invasive cultivated plants in Hawaii. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers, https://bishopmuseumpress.org/products/op65

Stevens, P. F., 2019. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14. In: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14 . St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

USDA-ARS, 2015. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

World Flora Online, 2020. World Flora Online. In: World Flora Online : World Flora Online Consortium.http://www.worldfloraonline.org

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Boggan J, Funk V, Kelloff C, Hoff M, Cremers G, Feuillet C, 1997. Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas., [ed. by Boggan J, Funk V, Kelloff C, Hoff M, Cremers G, Feuillet C]. Washington DC, USA: Department of Biological Diversity of the Guianas Program, NMNH, Smithsonian Institution.

Brundu G, Camarda I, 2004. The exotic flora of Chad: a first contribution. Weed Technology. 18 (Suppl.), 1226-1231. DOI:10.1614/0890-037X(2004)018[1226:TEFOCA]2.0.CO;2

CABI, 2020. CABI Distribution Database: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Dahl C, 1997. Flora List for Pohnpei. College of Micronesia-FSM. http://www.geocities.com/TheTropics/Cabana/4705/Botany.html

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2020. Flora of China. In: Flora of China, St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Floridata, 2020. Floridata. In: Floridata, Tallahassee, Florida, USA: Floridata. http://www.floridata.com/

Gera A, Kritzman A, Cohen J, Raccah B, Antignus Y, 2000. Tospoviruses infecting vegetable crops in Israel. Bulletin OEPP. 30 (2), 289-292. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2338.2000.tb00897.x

Gobatto D, Oliveira L A de, Franco D A de S, Velásquez N, Daròs J A, Eiras M, 2019. Surveys in the chrysanthemum production areas of Brazil and Colombia reveal that weeds are potential reservoirs of chrysanthemum stunt viroid. Viruses. 11 (4), 355. DOI:10.3390/v11040355

Guézou A, Trueman M, Buddenhagen C E, Chamorro S, Mireya Guerrero A, Pozo P, Atkinson R, 2010. An extensive alien plant inventory from the inhabited areas of Galapagos. PLoS ONE. e10276. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0010276

Holtze M, 1892. Introduced Plants into the Northern Territory. Transactions and Proceedings and Report of the Royal Society of South Australia. Vol. XV for 1891-91. (Tate, R. Ed.).

IABIN, 2008. [English title not available]. (Paraguay. Red interamericana de Informacion sobre Biodiversidad Red de Informacion sobre Especies Invasoras (I3N)).,

Khuroo A A, Irfan Rashid, Zafar Reshi, Dar G H, Wafai B A, 2007. The alien flora of Kashmir Himalaya. Biological Invasions. 9 (3), 269-292. http://www.springerlink.com/content/p47k291348887h31/?p=3f7396e4601240f4a981389077081fd3&pi=3 DOI:10.1007/s10530-006-9032-6

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015. Tropicos database., St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2015. Kew Herbarium Catalogue., London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://specimens.kew.org/herbarium/

Senna L, de Siqueira JC, Marchioretto MS, 2015. Gomphrena globosa. Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB25100

Staples G W, Herbst D R, Imada C T, 2000. Survey of invasive or potentially invasive cultivated plants in Hawaii. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. https://bishopmuseumpress.org/products/op65

USDA-ARS, 2015. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2015. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Villaseñor J L, Espinosa-Garcia F J, 2004. The alien flowering plants of Mexico. Diversity and Distributions. 10 (2), 113-123. DOI:10.1111/j.1366-9516.2004.00059.x

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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13/01/17 Original text by:

Eduardo Ventosa-Febles, Consultant, Puerto Rico

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