Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Apiognomonia veneta
(sycamore anthracnose)

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Datasheet

Apiognomonia veneta (sycamore anthracnose)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 25 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Apiognomonia veneta
  • Preferred Common Name
  • sycamore anthracnose
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Sordariomycetes
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Apiognomonia veneta (Sacc. & Speg.) Höhn. 1920

Preferred Common Name

  • sycamore anthracnose

Other Scientific Names

  • Discula platani (Peck) Sacc. 1884
  • Gloeosporium nervisequum (Fuckel) Sacc. 1884
  • Gloeosporium platani (Mont.) Oudem. 1873
  • Gnomonia platani Kleb. 1914
  • Gnomonia veneta (Sacc. & Speg.) Kleb. 1905
  • Hymenula platani Lév
  • Sporonema platani Bläumler

International Common Names

  • English: anthracnose of London plane; plane scorch
  • Spanish: antracnosis del platano
  • French: anthracnose du platane

Local Common Names

  • Chile: anthracnosis del genero Platanus
  • Germany: Die Blattnervkrankheit der Platane; Platenenblattbräune

EPPO code

  • APIGVE (Apiognomonia veneta)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Sordariomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Sordariomycetidae
  •                         Order: Diaporthales
  •                             Family: Gnomoniaceae
  •                                 Genus: Apiognomonia
  •                                     Species: Apiognomonia veneta

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

South AfricaPresentIntroducedInvasive

Asia

PakistanPresent2005
South KoreaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveOriginal citation: Kim KyungHee et al., 1997

Europe

BelgiumPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
BulgariaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
CroatiaPresent
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
FrancePresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
GermanyPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
HungaryPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive
ItalyPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
SlovakiaPresent
SloveniaPresent, LocalizedNativeInvasive
SpainPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
UkrainePresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
United KingdomPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasive

North America

United StatesPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
-CaliforniaPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
-IowaPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
-MainePresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
-MassachusettsPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
-MississippiPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
-New HampshirePresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
-OhioPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
-Rhode IslandPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
-VermontPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive
-WashingtonPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasive

Oceania

New ZealandPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced

South America

ChilePresent, LocalizedIntroducedInvasive

Growth Stages

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Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / wilting
Stems / dieback
Stems / dieback
Stems / distortion
Stems / distortion
Whole plant / discoloration
Whole plant / discoloration

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Leaves fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye

References

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Aloj B; Nanni B; Marziano F; Noviello C, 1993. In vitro evaluation of fungicidal activity against the agent of plane tree anthracnose. Informatore Fitopatologico, 43(6):53-56

Ammon V; Vann S; McCracken F, 1991. Incidence of anthracnose and twig canker in two Mississippi sycamore plantations. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 21(8):1253-1256

Anon, 1958. What's wrong with my trees? Oaks and Laurels in California hard hit by leaf diseases. Misc.Pap.Calif.For.range Exp.Sta. 26 pp.2.

Antheunis N; Malevez N; Delmotte R, 1982. The nutritional status of the urban tree. [Etat nutritif de l'arbre en ville.] Revue de l'Agriculture, 35(1):1823-1836; 3 fig.; 4 ref.

Antheunis N; Temmerman LO De, 1983. Influence of nutrition on the decline of urban trees: the case of plane trees attacked by scorch. [Influence de l'etat nutritif dans le deperissement de l'arbre en ville: cas du platane victime de l'anthracnose.] Revue de l'Agriculture, 36(2):301-311; 4 pl.; 8 ref.

Baldan BP; Locci R, 1975. Investigations on the pathology of trees. III. Fungal disorders of lignified organs of Platanus. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale, IV, 11(3/4):101-113

Barnard EL; Dixon WN, 1983. Insects and diseases: Important problems of Florida’s forest and shade tree resources. Gainesville, USA: Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Bulletin No. 196-A, 120.

Biocca M; Motta E; Barbera G; Testa N, 1988. First results of an investigation on the health state of Platanus in Latium. Informatore Agrario, 44(50):82-84

Bogavac M, 1959. The Plane leaf miner - L. platani Stgr. [Platanov miner - Litho colletis platani Stgr.] Zast. Bilja No. 51, (51-61 + 8 photos). 7 refs.

Bongini V, 1939. Phytopathological notes. [Note fitopatologiche.] Boll. Lab. sper. R. Oss. Fitopat., Torino 16 [issued 1940] (54-64). R.A.M. 19 (443-4).

Butin H; Kehr R, 1998. Gloeosporidina platani sp. nov., the spermatial state of the anthracnose fungus Apiognomonia veneta (Sacc. & Speg.) H÷hn. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 28(5):297-305; 27 ref.

Byther RS; Maloy OC, 1992. Sycamore anthracnose (leaf and twig blight). Extension Bulletin - Cooperative Extension, College of Agriculture & Home Economics, Washington State University, No. EB1263:2 pp.

Channon AD, 1972. Annual Report of the West of Scotland Agricultural College for the year ended 30th September, 1972. 1972, 130 pp.; See RPP 51, 3045.

Chatfield JA; Taylor NA; Draper EA; Nameth S; Boggs JF, 2002. Infectious disease problems of ornamental plants in Ohio: 2001. Special Circular - Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, No.186:46-52.

d’Aguilar R; Pralavorio JM; Rabasse S; Mouton IR, 1977. Introduction en France du tigre du platane: Corythucha ciliata (Say) (Het. Tingidae). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 82:1-6.

Daskalova I, 1980. More attention to the protection of park plants. Rastitelna Zashchita, 28(9):19-22

Day WR, 1947. The leaf scorch of Planes, caused by Gnomonia veneta (Sacc. and Speg.) Kleb. Quart. J. For. 47 (1) (22).

Diminic D; Hrasovec B; Mato?evic D, 2003. Up-to-day knowledge and experience on main bark diseases of trees in Zagreb urban areas. In: Second International Symposium on plant health in urban horticulture, Berlin, Germany, 27-29 August, 2003 [ed. by Balder, H.\Strauch, K. H.\Backhaus, G. F.]. Berlin, Germany: Biologische Bundesanstalt für Land- und Forstwirtschaft, 32-34. [Mitteilungen aus der Biologischen Bundesanstalt für Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Heft 394.] http://www.bba.de/veroeff/mitt/pdfs/mitt394.pdf

Dimond AE; Potts SF, 1949. Control of Sycamore anthracnose [Gnomonia veneta] [on Platanus acerifolia] with mist blown fungicidal spray concentrates. Proc. nat. Shade Tree Conf. 1948 (130-4). 4 refs.

Ellis MB; Ellis JP, 1997. Microfungi on land plants: an identification handbook. Ed. 2. Slough, UK: Richmond Publishing Company Ltd., 868 pp.

Filer TH; Solomon JD; McCracken FI; Oliveria FL; Lewis R Jr; Weiss MJ; Rogers TJ, 1977. Sycamore [Platanus occidentalis] pests: A guide to major insects, diseases, and air pollution. 1977, 36 pp.; 23 pl. (col.).

Garibaldi A, 1990. Parasitic fungi of urban plants. Quaderno GRIFA, No. 10:13-17.

Greig BJW; Pratt JE; Gibbs JN; Brasier CM; Burdekin DA; Strouts RG; Parker EJ; Young CWT; Redfern DB; Gregory SC; Low JD, 1973. Report on Forest Research for the year ended March 1973. 1973, 189 pp.; 15 fig., 1 diag., 13 graphs, 29 tab. See RPP 52, 3076.

Gullino ML, 1991. Parasitic fungi of tree species. Panorama Floricolo, No. 130:4-7; 5 ref.

Hitchcock LA; Cole ALJ, 1978. Gloeosporium platani, the causal fungus of the plane-tree anthracnose disease. Mauri Ora, 6:107-110

Hitchcock LA; Cole ALJ, 1978. Gnomonia platani, the ascogenous state of Gloeosporium platani, found in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 16(3):411

Ivanová H; Bernadovicová S; Pastircáková K, 2007. Influence of changed ecological conditions on occurrence of London plane (Platanus × hispanica Münchh.) anthracnose. Folia Oecologica, 34(1):1-8. http://sav.savzv.sk/savnew

Kim KyungHee; Yang SungIl; Lee JongKyu, 1997. Occurrence of sycamore anthracnose and cultural characteristics of a causal fungus, Apiognomonia veneta. FRI Journal of Forest Science (Seoul), No. 56:52-57; 7 ref.

Locci R; Quaroni S; Locci JH, 1975. Investigations on the pathology of trees. IV. Research on fungi isolated from Platanus in the Milan district. [Indagini sulla patologia delle piante arboree. IV. Ricerche su miceti isolati da Platanus nel Milanese.] Baldan, B. P.; Locci, R. (Investigations on the pathology of trees. III. Fungal disorders of lignified organs of Platanus.: Indagini sulla patologia delle piante arboree. III. Alterazioni fungine dei organi lignificati di platano. Rivista-di-Patologia-Vegetale,-IV):11: 3-4, 125-141 + 4 pl.

Luisi N; Bravo TJ; Valdivieso JA, 1987. Anthracnose of the genus Platanus in the central-southern region of Chile. Bosque, 8(1):3-6

Maceljski M, 1986. Current status of Corythuca ciliata in Europe. Bulletin OEPP, 16(4):621-624

McCain AH; Hamilton WD, 1975. Evaluation of fungicides for control of sycamore anthracnose. Flower and Nursery Report, January-February, 10-11; 2 ref.

McCraken FI, Filer TH Jr. , 1971. Sycamore anthracnose epidemic in Mississippi-Yazoo delta. Plant Disease Reporter, 55(1):93-94.

Milevoj L; Kravanja N, 1999. Health problems of trees in urban areas. [Zdravstvena problematika drevja v urbanem okolju.] Biotehniska fakulteta, Oddelek za agronomijo, SI-1111, Ljubljana, 2995.

Milne KL; Hudson HJ, 1987. Artificial infection of leaves of the London plane by ascospores and conidia of Apiognomonia veneta. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 88(3):399-401

Monod M, 1983. Monographie taxonomique des Gnomoniaceae (Ascomycètes de l’ordre des Diaporthales) I. Sydowia, Beih. 9:1-315.

Neely D; Himelick EB, 1963. Temperature and Sycamore anthracnose severity. Plant Dis. Reptr. 47 (3), (171-5). 5 refs.

Neely D; Himelick EB, 1967. Characteristics and nomenclature of the Oak anthracnose fungus. Phytopathology 57 (11), (1230-6). [26 refs.].

Neely D; Himelick EB, 1989. Control of sycamore anthracnose. American Nurseryman, 170(7):89-91

Nikusch IW, 1992. The sycamore lace bug, Corythuca ciliata (Say) and the rhododendron leafhopper Graphocephala coccinea (Forster), two new, spreading problem pests in public green spaces in Germany. Gesunde Pflanzen, 44(9):311-315

Piester EA, 1946. Trees for city streets. Brooklyn bot. Gdn. Rec. (Plants and Gardens) 1946. 2 (n.s.) (1). (33-6).

Rathke S, 1978. Leaf vein disease of Platanus (Gnomonia veneta (Sacc. & Speg.)). Nachrichtenblatt fur den Pflanzenschutz in der DDR, 32(12):256

Schuldt PH, 1952. Anthracnose fungi on Sycamore [Platanus occidentalis] and Oak in Iowa. Abstr. of thesis, in Iowa St. Coll. J. Sci. 26 (2), (279-80).

Schuldt PH, 1955. Comparison of anthracnose fungi on Oak, Sycamore, and other trees [in Iowa]. Contr. Boyce Thompson Inst. 18 (2), (85-107). 16 refs.

Snyder HD, 1957. Single spray control of Gnomonia veneta on Platanus occidentalis and P. acerifolia. Absrt. in Phytopathology 47 (4), (246).

Strouts RG, 1991. Anthracnose of London plane (Platanus hispanica). Arboriculture Research Note - Department of the Environment, UK, No. 46 (Ed. 2):3 pp.

Strouts RG, 1996. The health of non-woodland amenity trees in England, 1995. Arboriculture Research and Information Note - Department of the Environment, UK, No. 133/PATH/96:9 pp.; 17 ref.

Sutton BC, 1980. The Coelomycetes. Fungi imperfecti with pycnidia, acervuli and stromata. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Svihra P; McCain AH, 1992. Susceptibility of planetrees to anthracnose and powdery mildew in California. Journal of Arboriculture, 18(3):161-163

Swart WJ; Wingfield MJ; Baxter AP, 1990. First report of Discula platani on plane trees in South Africa. Phytophylactica, 22(1):143-144

Tello ML; Redondo C; Mateo-Sagasta E, 2000. Health status of plane trees (Platanus spp.) in Spain. Journal of Arboriculture, 26(5):246-254; 11 ref.

Vasil'eva EA; Ovcharenko GV; Shkarlet OD, 1988. Data on pests and diseases of Platanus in the Crimea. Byulleten' Gosudarstvennogo Nikitskogo Botanicheskogo Sada, No. 66:72-76; 6 ref.

Vigouroux A, 1979. Die-back of plane trees. Causes, importance and possible countermeasures. [Les 'deperissements' des platanes. Causes - importance - mesures envisageables.] Revue Forestiere Francaise, 31(1):28-39; 6 pl.; 25 ref.

Vigouroux A, 1986. Platanus diseases, with special reference to canker stain; the present situation in France. Bulletin OEPP, 16(3):527-532

Vinis G, 1974. Summer falling of the leaves of Plane trees bordering the road. Novenyvedelem, 10(7):304-309.

Wittmann W; Fickert W, 1988. Leaf disease of plane (Discula platani (Pesk.) Sacc.) (= Gloeosporium nervisequum Sacc.) (= Gloeosporium platani (Mont.) Sacc.). Teleomorph: Apiognomonia veneta (Sacc. & Speg.) Hohn. (= Gnomonia veneta Kleb.). Pflanzenschutz, No. 5:4

Wulf A; Butin H, 1987. Diseases and pests of plane trees. Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes, 39(10):145-148

Distribution References

Ammon V, Vann S, McCracken F, 1991. Incidence of anthracnose and twig canker in two Mississippi sycamore plantations. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 21 (8), 1253-1256. DOI:10.1139/x91-174

Anon, 1972. Annual Report of the West of Scotland Agricultural College for the year ended 30th September, 1972. Glasgow. 130 pp.

Antheunis N, Malevez N, Delmotte R, 1982. The nutritional status of the urban tree. (Etat nutritif de l'arbre en ville.). Revue de l'Agriculture. 35 (1), 1823-1836.

Antheunis N, Temmerman L O De, 1983. Influence of nutrition on the decline of urban trees: the case of plane trees attacked by scorch. (Influence de l'etat nutritif dans le deperissement de l'arbre en ville: cas du platane victime de l'anthracnose.). Revue de l'Agriculture. 36 (2), 301-311.

Bogavac M, 1959. The Plane leaf miner - L. platani Stgr. (Platanov miner - Litho colletis platani Stgr.). Zastita Bilja. 51-61.

Butin H, Kehr R, 1998. Gloeosporidina platani sp. nov., the spermatial state of the anthracnose fungus Apiognomonia veneta (Sacc. & Speg.) Höhn. European Journal of Forest Pathology. 28 (5), 297-305.

Byther R S, Maloy O C, 1992. Sycamore anthracnose (leaf and twig blight). In: Extension Bulletin - Cooperative Extension, College of Agriculture & Home Economics, Washington State University, 2 pp.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chatfield J A, Taylor N A, Draper E A, Nameth S, Boggs J F, 2002. Infectious disease problems of ornamental plants in Ohio: 2001. In: Special Circular - Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center. Wooster, USA: Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Ohio State University. 46-52.

Daskalova I, 1980. More attention to the protection of park plants. (Po-golyamo vnimanie na opazvaneto na parkovata rastitelnost.). Rastitelna Zashchita. 28 (9), 19-22.

Diminic D, Hrasovec B, Matošević D, 2003. Up-to-day knowledge and experience on main bark diseases of trees in Zagreb urban areas. In: Second International Symposium on plant health in urban horticulture, Berlin, Germany, 27-29 August, 2003. [ed. by Balder H, Strauch K H, Backhaus G F]. Berlin, Germany: Biologische Bundesanstalt für Land- und Forstwirtschaft. 32-34.

Dimond A E, Potts S F, 1949. Control of Sycamore anthracnose [Gnomonia veneta] [on Platanus acerifolia] with mist blown fungicidal spray concentrates. In: Proceedings of the National Shade Tree Conference, 1949 [Proc. nat. Shade Tree Conf. 1949], 130-4.

Forestry Commission, UK, 1973. Report on Forest Research for the year ended March 1973. London, UK: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 189 pp.

Garibaldi A, 1990. Parasitic fungi of urban plants. (Funghi parassiti del verde urbano.). In: Quaderno GRIFA, 13-17.

Gullino M L, 1991. Parasitic fungi of tree species. (Funghi parassiti di specie arboree da alberate.). Panorama Floricolo. 4-7.

Hitchcock L A, Cole A L J, 1978. Gnomonia platani, the ascogenous state of Gloeosporium platani, found in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany. 16 (3), 411.

Hitchcock L A, Cole A L J, 1978a. Gloeosporium platani, the causal fungus of the plane-tree anthracnose disease. Mauri Ora. 107-110.

Ivanová H, Bernadovičová S, Pastirčáková K, 2007. Influence of changed ecological conditions on occurrence of London plane (Platanus × hispanica Münchh.) anthracnose. Folia Oecologica. 34 (1), 1-8. http://sav.savzv.sk/savnew

Locci R, Quaroni S, Locci J H, 1975. Investigations on the pathology of trees. IV. Research on fungi isolated from Platanus in the Milan district. (Indagini sulla patologia delle piante arboree. IV. Ricerche su miceti isolati da Platanus nel Milanese.). Rivista di Patologia Vegetale, IV. 11 (3/4), 125-141 + 4 pl.

Lodhi E M, Khalid A N, Niazi A R, 2007. Mycoflora of senescing leaves of ornamental plants. I. New fungal records on some monocots for Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 39 (3), 881-885. http://www.pjbot.org

Luisi N, Bravo T J, Valdivieso J A, 1987. Anthracnose of the genus Platanus in the central-southern region of Chile. (Antracnosis del género Platanus en la región centro-sur de Chile.). Bosque. 8 (1), 3-6.

Milevoj L, Kravanja N, 1999. Health problems of trees in urban areas. (Zdravstvena problematika drevja v urbanem okolju.). In: Zbornik predavanj in referatov 4. Slovenskega Posvetovanja o Varstvu Rastlin v Portorožu od 3. do 4. Marca 1999. [Zbornik predavanj in referatov 4. Slovenskega Posvetovanja o Varstvu Rastlin v Portorožu od 3. do 4. Marca 1999.], Ljubljana, Slovenia, Društvo za varstvo rastlin Slovenije. 421-428.

Neely D, Himelick E B, 1963. Temperature and Sycamore anthracnose severity. Plant Disease Reporter. 47 (3), 171-5.

Neely D, Himelick E B, 1967. Characteristics and nomenclature of the Oak anthracnose fungus. Phytopathology. 57 (11), 1230-6.

Piester E A, 1946. Trees for city streets. Brooklyn bot. Gdn. Rec. 2 (1), 33-6.

Rathke S, 1978. Leaf vein disease of Platanus (Gnomonia veneta (Sacc. & Speg.)). (Die Blattnervkrankheit der Platane (Gnomonia veneta (Sacc. et Speg.)).). Nachrichtenblatt fur den Pflanzenschutz in der DDR. 32 (12), 256.

Schuldt P H, 1952. Anthracnose fungi on Sycamore [Platanus occidentalis] and Oak in Iowa. 279-80.

Snyder H D, 1957. Single spray control of Gnomonia veneta on Platanus occidentalis and P. acerifolia. In: Phytopathology, 47 (4) 246.

Strouts R G, 1991. Anthracnose of London plane (Platanus × hispanica). In: Arboriculture Research Note - Department of the Environment, UK, 3 pp.

Strouts R G, 1996. The health of non-woodland amenity trees in England, 1995. In: Arboriculture Research and Information Note - Department of the Environment, UK, Farnham, UK: Arboricultural Advisory and Information Service, Forestry Commission Research Station. 9 pp.

Svihra P, McCain A H, 1992. Susceptibility of planetrees to anthracnose and powdery mildew in California. Journal of Arboriculture. 18 (3), 161-163.

Swart W J, Wingfield M J, Baxter A P, 1990. First report of Discula platani on plane trees in South Africa. Phytophylactica. 22 (1), 143-144.

Tello M L, Redondo C, Mateo-Sagasta E, 2000. Health status of plane trees (Platanus spp.) in Spain. Journal of Arboriculture. 26 (5), 246-254.

Vasil'eva E A, Ovcharenko G V, Shkarlet O D, 1988. Data on pests and diseases of Platanus in the Crimea. Byulleten' Gosudarstvennogo Nikitskogo Botanicheskogo Sada. 72-76.

Vigouroux A, 1979. Die-back of plane trees. Causes, importance and possible countermeasures. (Les 'deperissements' des platanes. Causes - importance - mesures envisageables.). Revue Forestiere Francaise. 31 (1), 28-39.

Vigouroux A, 1986. Platanus diseases, with special reference to canker stain; the present situation in France. (Les maladies du platane, avec référence particulière au chancre coloré; situation actuelle en France.). Bulletin OEPP. 16 (3), 527-532. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2338.1986.tb00317.x

Vinis G, 1974. Summer falling of the leaves of Plane trees bordering the road. Novenyvedelem. 10 (7), 304-309.

Wulf A, Butin H, 1987. Diseases and pests of plane trees. (Krankheiten und Schädlinge der Platane.). Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes. 39 (10), 145-148.

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