Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Glomerella cingulata
(anthracnose)

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Datasheet

Glomerella cingulata (anthracnose)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 23 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Glomerella cingulata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • anthracnose
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Sordariomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Anthracnose symptoms on fruit.
TitleGlomerella cingulata on mango
CaptionAnthracnose symptoms on fruit.
Copyright©Anna L. Snowdon
Anthracnose symptoms on fruit.
Glomerella cingulata on mangoAnthracnose symptoms on fruit.©Anna L. Snowdon
Characteristic anthracnose lesion on papaya fruit: dark, sunken, circular necrotic tissue, with pink, erumpent, pinhead-sized acervuli often arranged in circles.
TitleLesion on papaya fruit
CaptionCharacteristic anthracnose lesion on papaya fruit: dark, sunken, circular necrotic tissue, with pink, erumpent, pinhead-sized acervuli often arranged in circles.
Copyright©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
Characteristic anthracnose lesion on papaya fruit: dark, sunken, circular necrotic tissue, with pink, erumpent, pinhead-sized acervuli often arranged in circles.
Lesion on papaya fruitCharacteristic anthracnose lesion on papaya fruit: dark, sunken, circular necrotic tissue, with pink, erumpent, pinhead-sized acervuli often arranged in circles.©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
Anthracnose symptoms, following artificial inoculation via needle puncture of fruit.
TitleGlomerella cingulata on aubergine
CaptionAnthracnose symptoms, following artificial inoculation via needle puncture of fruit.
Copyright©Anna L. Snowdon
Anthracnose symptoms, following artificial inoculation via needle puncture of fruit.
Glomerella cingulata on aubergineAnthracnose symptoms, following artificial inoculation via needle puncture of fruit.©Anna L. Snowdon
Yam leaf (Dioscorea alata) showing typical anthracnose lesions and 'shot-holes'.
TitleSymptoms on yam leaf
CaptionYam leaf (Dioscorea alata) showing typical anthracnose lesions and 'shot-holes'.
Copyright©Sarah Simons
Yam leaf (Dioscorea alata) showing typical anthracnose lesions and 'shot-holes'.
Symptoms on yam leafYam leaf (Dioscorea alata) showing typical anthracnose lesions and 'shot-holes'.©Sarah Simons
Yam leaf (Dioscorea alata) showing spreading necrotic lesions caused by Glomerella cingulata.
TitleSymptoms on yam leaf
CaptionYam leaf (Dioscorea alata) showing spreading necrotic lesions caused by Glomerella cingulata.
Copyright©Sarah Simons
Yam leaf (Dioscorea alata) showing spreading necrotic lesions caused by Glomerella cingulata.
Symptoms on yam leafYam leaf (Dioscorea alata) showing spreading necrotic lesions caused by Glomerella cingulata.©Sarah Simons
Tip rot of banana fruit, with (unusually) perithecia present in the lesion.
TitleG. cingulata on banana
CaptionTip rot of banana fruit, with (unusually) perithecia present in the lesion.
Copyright©Anna L. Snowdon
Tip rot of banana fruit, with (unusually) perithecia present in the lesion.
G. cingulata on bananaTip rot of banana fruit, with (unusually) perithecia present in the lesion.©Anna L. Snowdon
Anthracnose blight on cashew.
TitleSymptoms on cashew
CaptionAnthracnose blight on cashew.
Copyright©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
Anthracnose blight on cashew.
Symptoms on cashewAnthracnose blight on cashew.©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
Mycelium with acervuli and salmon-pink conidia.
TitleGlomerella cingulata on lemon
CaptionMycelium with acervuli and salmon-pink conidia.
Copyright©Anna L. Snowdon
Mycelium with acervuli and salmon-pink conidia.
Glomerella cingulata on lemonMycelium with acervuli and salmon-pink conidia.©Anna L. Snowdon
Sporulation occurs as pink, erumpent, pinhead-sized acervuli often arranged in concentric patterns on the necrotic tissue.
TitleGlomerella cingulata
CaptionSporulation occurs as pink, erumpent, pinhead-sized acervuli often arranged in concentric patterns on the necrotic tissue.
Copyright©CABI BioScience
Sporulation occurs as pink, erumpent, pinhead-sized acervuli often arranged in concentric patterns on the necrotic tissue.
Glomerella cingulataSporulation occurs as pink, erumpent, pinhead-sized acervuli often arranged in concentric patterns on the necrotic tissue.©CABI BioScience
A, T. S. acervulus; B, conidiophores; C, conidia; D, T. S. perithecium; E. asci; F, ascospores; G, appressorium formation of hyphae. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 315. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
TitleG. cingulata - line drawing
CaptionA, T. S. acervulus; B, conidiophores; C, conidia; D, T. S. perithecium; E. asci; F, ascospores; G, appressorium formation of hyphae. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 315. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Copyright©CABI BioScience
A, T. S. acervulus; B, conidiophores; C, conidia; D, T. S. perithecium; E. asci; F, ascospores; G, appressorium formation of hyphae. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 315. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
G. cingulata - line drawingA, T. S. acervulus; B, conidiophores; C, conidia; D, T. S. perithecium; E. asci; F, ascospores; G, appressorium formation of hyphae. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 315. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.©CABI BioScience

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Glomerella cingulata (Stonem.) Spauld. & Schrenk

Preferred Common Name

  • anthracnose

Other Scientific Names

  • Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc.

International Common Names

  • English: anthracnose of cinnamon; anthracnose tear-stain; black spot of fruit; brown blight (of coffee and tea); dieback (citrus); fruit rot; ripe rot of pepper; stem canker; tear stain
  • Spanish: antracnosis de la berenjena; antracnosis del chile verde; chancro del sauce; cocoteo de la cebolla
  • French: anthracnose de l'aubergine; anthracnose du piment; chancre noir du saule

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Schwarzer: Weide Krebs

EPPO code

  • GLOMCI (Glomerella cingulata)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Sordariomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Sordariomycetidae
  •                         Family: Glomerellaceae
  •                             Genus: Glomerella
  •                                 Species: Glomerella cingulata

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentMridha et al., 1990
ChinaPresent
-AnhuiPresentGuo et al., 2014
-BeijingPresentHe et al., 2001; Yan et al., 2011
-GansuPresentYang et al., 2011
-GuangdongPresentZhang and Qi, 1994; Huang et al., 2012; Huang, 2013
-GuangxiPresentTan et al., 2010; Pan et al., 2016
-HainanPresentLiu et al., 1986
-HebeiPresentDu et al., 2015
-HenanPresentChen et al., 1993
-Hong KongPresentGrasso, 1970
-HubeiPresentWang et al., 2010
-HunanPresentGong et al., 1992
-JiangsuPresentGong et al., 1992; Wang et al., 2012
-JiangxiPresentXu et al., 1993
-LiaoningPresentXu et al., 2013
-ShaanxiPresent
-ShanghaiPresentRen et al., 2008
-SichuanPresentWang et al., 2010; Li et al., 2016
-XinjiangPresentLu et al., 2012
-YunnanPresentShao et al., 2012
-ZhejiangPresentSong et al., 2002; Zhang and Xu, 2012
Georgia (Republic of)PresentGulua, 1989
IndiaPresentPankaj et al., 2013
-Andhra PradeshPresentPhilip et al., 1994
-Arunachal PradeshPresentBag, 2004
-AssamPresentAli and Saikia, 1991
-BiharPresentPrasad et al., 1984; Vinod et al., 2014
-DelhiPresentPratibha-Shukla et al., 1991
-GujaratPresentAbraham and Daniel, 1988
-HaryanaPresentSumbali and Mehrotra, 1982
-Himachal PradeshPresentMeeta & Bhatia, 1992; Gautam et al., 2012
-Indian PunjabPresentKumar et al., 1994
-Jammu and KashmirPresentKalha et al., 1993
-KarnatakaPresentPhilip et al., 1994
-KeralaPresentSrinivasan et al., 1995; Malini et al., 2013
-Madhya PradeshPresentDadwal and Jamaluddin, 1992
-MaharashtraPresentGupta et al., 1994
-ManipurPresentSingh, 1989
-MeghalayaPresentChakravarty, 1983
-OdishaPresent
-RajasthanPresentChandra & Pathak, 1992
-SikkimPresentSrivastava, 1989
-Tamil NaduPresentLakshman, 1992
-Uttar PradeshPresentMugnai et al., 1993
-West BengalPresentGiri et al., 1989
IndonesiaPresent
-JavaPresentSuhardi, 1993
-SumatraPresentParnata, 1976
IranPresentMiralbolfathy, 1991; Rahimlou et al., 2014
IsraelPresentShabi and Katan, 1983
JapanPresentTakeuchi et al., 2012; Takushi et al., 2013
-HonshuPresentFukaya and Kato, 1992
-KyushuPresentMatsuo, 1990
Korea, Republic ofPresentChung, 1993; Kwon et al., 2012; Park et al., 2012; Park and Seo, 2013
MalaysiaPresentTan et al., 1992; Mahmodi et al., 2013; Sakinah et al., 2013
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentTan et al., 1992
-SabahPresentAnon., 1972; Yun et al., 2009
-SarawakPresentKueh, 1990
OmanPresentWaller & Bridge, 1978
PakistanPresentAnsar et al., 1994
PhilippinesPresentDodd et al., 1991
Saudi ArabiaPresentAlwadie and Baka, 2003
SingaporeRestricted distributionTan and Tow, 1992; AVA, 2001
South East AsiaPresent
Sri LankaPresentAlahakoon and Brown, 1994
TaiwanPresentAnn et al., 1994
ThailandPresentSangchote, 1987; Udayanga et al., 2013
TurkeyPresentSalih and Cengiz, 1976; Berner et al., 2012; Akgül et al., 2016
VietnamPresentWhittle, 1992

Africa

AngolaPresent
BeninPresentSikirou et al., 2011
CongoPresentBoher et al., 1983
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentMuimba-Kankolongo et al., 1991
Côte d'IvoirePresentLourd et al., 1979
EthiopiaPresentKranz, 1987
GhanaPresentAwuah, 1991
KenyaPresentKarachi, 1982
MadagascarPresentIMI Herbarium, undated
MalawiPresentAnon., 1990
MauritiusPresentLutchmeah, 1993
MozambiquePresentCarvalho, 1974
NigeriaPresentNwankiti et al., 1987
RwandaPresentSemal et al., 1976
South AfricaPresentKorsten et al., 1994
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentHernandez-Hernandez et al., 1985
TanzaniaPresentTeri and Sijaona, 1985; IBPGR, 1993
TogoPresentKranz & Palti, 1984
TunisiaPresentBoulila and Mahjoub, 1994; Rhaiem and Taylor, 2016
UgandaPresentIMI Herbarium, undated; Firman and Waller, 1977

North America

CanadaPresentNewcombe et al., 1991; Tu, 1991
-AlbertaPresentMuir, 1977
-British ColumbiaPresentSieber and Dorworth, 1994
-Nova ScotiaPresentPaulitz, 1995
-OntarioPresentTu, 1990
-SaskatchewanPresentMortensen and Makowski, 1995
MexicoPresentOrozco Santos & Gonzalez Garza, 1986; Flores-Flores et al., 2013
USAPresent
-AlabamaPresentLatham et al., 1995
-ArkansasPresentOlcott-Reid & Moore, 1995
-CaliforniaPresentScharpf, 1986
-ColoradoPresentHawksworth et al., 1977
-FloridaPresentMcMillan, 1994
-GeorgiaPresentBrenneman and Reilly, 1989
-HawaiiPresentAlvarez et al., 1977
-LouisianaPresentHadden et al., 1989
-MainePresentLambert, 1990
-MarylandPresentMaas et al., 1989
-MichiganPresent
-MississippiPresentRoy et al., 1994
-North CarolinaPresentShane and Sutton, 1981
-OhioPresentEllis and Madden, 1993
-OklahomaPresentKoelsch et al., 1995
-OregonPresentNewcombe et al., 1991
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-South CarolinaPresentWhiting and Roncadori, 1994
-TexasPresentRouse et al., 1991
-WashingtonPresentNewcombe et al., 1991
-WisconsinPresentJeffers, 1991

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosPresentSweetmore et al., 1994
BelizePresentDenham and Waller, 1981
Costa RicaPresentDuran and Mora, 1988
CubaPresentSuarez, 1990
DominicaPresentPrior and Ryder, 1987
GrenadaPresentBeddoe, 1994
GuadeloupePresentBayart and Pallas, 1994
GuatemalaPresentArriola et al., 1976
HaitiPresentAitken Soux, 1985
HondurasPresentGranadino and Cave, 1994
JamaicaPresentFagan, 1988
MartiniquePresentKaan, 1973
NicaraguaPresentTorrez-Zuniga et al., 1994
PanamaPresentTrujillo et al., 1986
Puerto RicoPresentMignucci et al., 1988
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentBeddoe, 1994
Saint LuciaPresentLawrence et al., 1990
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentBeddoe, 1994
Trinidad and TobagoPresentBeddoe, 1994

South America

ArgentinaPresentGally et al., 1994; Larran et al., 2011; Perez et al., 2012
BrazilPresentPitta Dematte, 1994
-AcrePresentCardoso and Valentim, 1982
-AlagoasPresentMuniz et al., 2003
-AmazonasPresentJunqueira et al., 1985
-BahiaPresentRam et al., 1972; Oliveira et al., 2012
-CearaPresentCarvalho and Ponte, 1982
-Espirito SantoPresentPeres et al., 2003; Mafacioli et al., 2006
-Espirito SantoPresentPeres et al., 2003; Mafacioli et al., 2006
-GoiasPresentVieira et al., 2007
-Minas GeraisPresentDianese et al., 1985
-ParaPresentCosta et al., 2013a; Costa et al., 2013b; Gomes et al., 2005
-ParaibaPresentAlmeida et al., 2003
-ParanaPresentMafacioli et al., 2006; Carneiro et al., 2012
-PernambucoPresentAlmeida and Aquino, 1978
-Rio de JaneiroPresentPoltronieri et al., 2014; Nogueira and Brioso, 2015
-Rio Grande do SulPresentMedeiros and Guerrero, 1988
-RondoniaPresentRodrigues et al., 1987
-Santa CatarinaPresentMedeiros and Guerrero, 1988
-Sao PauloPresentSilveira et al., 1992; Poltronieri et al., 2014
ChilePresentPeredo and Valenzuela, 1988
ColombiaPresentBravo et al., 1993
French GuianaPresentBereau, 1977
GuyanaPresentBeddoe, 1994
ParaguayPresentMathieson and Follin, 1981
PeruPresentLenne and Brown, 1991
SurinamePresentVis et al., 1976
VenezuelaPresentMazzani, 1994

Europe

AustriaPresent
BelarusPresentEvsikov and Ivanyuk, 2001
Czech RepublicPresentOndrej, 1983
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentOndrej, 1983
DenmarkPresentAnon., 1974
FrancePresentDenoyes and Baudry, 1995
GermanyPresentRapp and Richter, 1990
GreecePresentGraniti et al., 1993; Thomidis and Exadaktylou, 2011
HungaryPresentVajna et al., 1984
ItalyPresentGaribaldi et al., 1995
-SicilyPresentGuarnaccia et al., 2016
MonacoPresent
NetherlandsPresentvan Dijke et al., 1988; Kamerman et al., 1983
PolandPresentOrlikowski and Wojdyla, 1991
RomaniaPresentTeodorescu et al., 1985
Russian FederationPresentAgaev, 1993
SerbiaPresentIvanovic et al., 2007
SloveniaPresentCevnik et al., 2000
SpainPresentGarcia-Jimenez & Alfaro, 1985; Palou et al., 2013
SwedenPresentConstantinescu and Jonsson, 1987
SwitzerlandPresentRuegg & Seigfreid, 1996
UKPresentIMI Herbarium, undated; Dickens and Cook, 1989
UkrainePresentKowalski, 2004
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentIvanovic and Ivanovic, 1992

Oceania

American SamoaPresentBrooks, 2002
AustraliaPresentCameron et al., 1989
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentLenne and Parbery, 1976
-New South WalesPresentFitzell et al., 1984
-QueenslandPresentChakraborty et al., 1996
-VictoriaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresentSweetingham et al., 1995
FijiPresentAnon., 1983
GuamPresentSchreiner and Wall, 1990; Harris and Schreiner, 1992
New CaledoniaPresentLamouroux et al., 1995
New ZealandPresentBeever et al., 1995
NiuePresentIPPC, 2011Present: at low prevalence
SamoaPresentCarlos and Misipati, 1992
Solomon IslandsPresentWinch et al., 1984

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / extensive mould
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / lesions: on pods
Fruit / lesions: scab or pitting
Inflorescence / blight; necrosis
Inflorescence / lesions; flecking; streaks (not Poaceae)
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal patterns
Leaves / necrotic areas
Stems / canker on woody stem
Stems / dieback
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / gummosis or resinosis

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aspergillus flavus Antagonist
Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite
Hyponectria sceptri Pathogen
Nectria tuberculariformis Pathogen
Nectriella muelleri Pathogen

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

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Abraham KJ, Daniel M, 1988. Phytoalexins and related post-infectional compounds of forest crops of Gujarat. Advances in Forestry Research in India, 1:191-197; 14 ref.

Agaev RN, 1993. A dangerous disease of lupin. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), No. 8:40-41

Agostini JP, Timmer LW, 1994. Population dynamics and survival of strains of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on citrus in Florida. Phytopathology, 84(4):420-425

Aitken-Soux P, 1985. Some pests and diseases generally encountered in coffee nurseries. Feuille d'Extension, No. 53:5 pp.

Akgül DS, Awan QN, Güler PG, Önelge N, 2016. First report of anthracnose and stem end rot diseases caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Neofusicoccum australe on avocado fruits in Turkey. Plant Disease, 100(8):1792. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Alahakoon PW, Brown AE, 1994. Host range of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on tropical fruit crops in Sri Lanka. International Journal of Pest Management, 40(1):23-26

Ali MS, Saikia UN, 1991. New host records. Indian Phytopathology, 44(4):558-559

Almeida FA, Araújo E, Gonçalves Junior H, Barreto AF, Carvalho RAG, 2003. Diagnostic and quantification of barbados cherry diseases in the State of Paraíba, Brazil. (Diagnóstico e quantificação de doenças fúngicas da acerola no Estado da Paraíba.) Fitopatologia Brasileira, 28(2):176-179. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/fb/v28n2/a10v28n2.pdf

Almeida Junior JL de, Aquino M de LN, 1978. Anthracnose or fruit rot of coconut palm Cocos nucifera L. in Pernambuco State. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Pernambucana, 2(1):37-44

Alvarez AM, Hylin JW, Ogata JN, 1977. Postharvest diseases of papaya reduced by biweekly orchard sprays. Plant Disease Reporter, 61(9):731-735

Alvarez AM, Nishijima WT, 1987. Postharvest diseases of papaya. Plant Disease, 71(8):681-686; 24 ref.

Alwadie HM, Baka ZAM, 2003. New records of fungal pathogens of Euphorbia inarticulata from Aseer Region, South-West Saudi Arabia. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 36(3/4):195-209.

Ann PJ, Huang RC, Chen MF, 1994. Effects of environmental factors on disease incidence of mango anthracnose. Plant Pathology Bulletin, 3(1):34-44

Anon., 1983. Diseases of vegetables. Horticultural Division, Agricultural Institute, Dublin, Research Report, Horticulture, 44-45.

Anon., 1990. Annual Report 1989, Bvumbwe Agricultural Research Station - Plant Pathology. Bvumbwe, Malawi: Ministry of Agriculture, 6575.

Ansar M, Saleem A, Iqbal A, 1994. Cause and control of guava decline in the Punjab (Pakistan). Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 6(1):41-44; 6 ref.

Arauz LF, 2000. Mango anthracnose: economic impact and current options for integrated management. Plant Disease, 84(6):600-611; 78 ref.

Arriola MC de, Menchu JF, Rolz C, 1976. Characteristics, handling and storage of papaya. Informe Tecnico, No.104.

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore.

Awuah RT, 1991. Aetiology, suscept range and distribution of leaf spot of rough lemon in the Ashanti region of Ghana. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 39(2-3):106-111

Badel J, Kelemu S, 1994. In vitro inhibition of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz and other phytopathogenic fungi by culture filtrates of Bacillus subtilis. Fitopatología Colombiana, 18(1-2):30-35; 11 ref.

Bag TK, 2004. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc. - an incitant of flower and fruit drop of papaya. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 34(1):164.

Bailey JA, Jeger MJ, 1992. Colletotrichum: Biology, Pathology and Control. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Basak AB, Fakir GA, Mridha MAU, 1994. Studies on the prevalence of six major fruit rot diseases of chilli at different stages of fruit development in Chittagong District. Chittagong University Studies, Science, 18(1):125-128; 17 ref.

Batista TFC, Oliveira FC, Tabosa SAS, Nunes MAL, 2007. Occurrence of antracnose on fruits of açaí, Euterpe oleracea, in Muaná, Pará, Brazil. (Ocorrência de antracnose em frutos de açaí, Euterpe oleracea, em Muaná, Pará.) Fitopatologia Brasileira, 32(4):360. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/fb/v32n4/15.pdf

Bauharmont P, 1994. Fertilization of young plantations of Arabica coffee in Cameroon. Cafe Cacao, 38(1):25-40.

Bayart JD, Pallas B, 1994. Tolerance of yam anthracnose of a benzimidazole. Results of the first study conducted in Guadeloupe. Phytoma, No. 461:37-40

Beddoe TW, 1994. Mango cultivation and varieties in the West Indies. Tropical Fruits Newsletter, No. 10:3-4.

Beever RE, Olsen TL, Parkes SL, 1995. Vegetative compatibility groups in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Glomerella cingulata) from apple and other fruits. Australasian Plant Pathology, 24(2):126-132

Bereau M, 1977. Study of anthracnose of Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia) in French Guiana. Nouvelles Agronomiques des Antilles et de la Guyane, 3(1):1-11

Berner DK, Cavin CA, Erper I, Tunali B, 2012. First report of anthracnose of mile-a-minute (Persicaria perfoliata) caused by Colletotrichum cf. gloeosporioides in Turkey. Plant Disease, 96(10):1578. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Biggs AR, 1999. Effects of calcium salts on apple bitter rot caused by two Colletotrichum spp. Plant Disease, 83(11):1001-1005; 14 ref.

Blank HG, 1982. Again an increase in waste through fruit rotting in storage. Mitteilungendes Obstbauversuchsringesdes Alten Landes, 37(7):232-237.

Boher B, Daniel JF, Fabres G, Bani G, 1983. The role of Pseudotheraptus devastans (Distant) (Het. Coreidae) and of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. in the development of lesions and leaf-fall in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Agronomie, 3(10):989-993

Boulila M, Mahjoub M, 1994. Inventory of olive disease in Tunisia. Bulletin OEPP, 24(4):817-823; 25 ref.

Bravo N, Bejarano C, Pineda L B, 1993. Anthracnose of passion fruit in the Valley of Cauca. ASCOLFI Informa, 19(2):10-11

Brenneman TB, Reilly CC, 1989. Recent occurrence of pecan anthracnose caused by Glomerella cingulata. Plant Disease, 73(9):775

Brooks F, 2002. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2002. Land Grant Technical Report No. 44. Pago Pago, American Samoa: American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program.

Brown AE, Sreenivasaprasad S, Timmer LW, 1996. Molecular characterization of slow-growing orange and key lime anthracnose strains of Colletotrichum from citrus as C. acutatum. Phytopathology, 86(5):523-527; 23 ref.

Caliman ME, Oliveira CSLde, Pereira J, Bezerra JL, 2013. First report of Glomerella cingulata causing leaf spot on Dieffenbachia seguine in Brazil. Agrotrópica, 25(2):125-128. http://www.ceplac.gov.br/paginas/agrotropica/revistas/agrotropica_25_2.pdf

Cameron DF, Chakraborty S, Davis RD, Edye LA, Irwin JAG, Manners JM, Staples IB, 1989. A multi-disciplinary approach to anthracnose diseases of Stylosanthes in Australia. Proceedings of the XVI International Grassland Congress, 4-11 October 1989, Nice, France., 719-720; 4 ref.

Cannon P, Bridge PD, Monte E, 2000. Linking the past, present and futures of Colletotrichum systematics. In: Prusky D, Freeman S, Dickman MM, eds. Colletotrichum: host specificity, pathology and host pathogen interaction. Minnesota, USA: APS Press, 1-20.

Cao JD, 1988. A study on tung tree anthracnose. Forest Pest and Disease, No. 1:4-5

Cardoso JE, Valentim JF, 1982. Occurrence of anthracnose on Stylosanthes spp. in Acre and behaviour of introduced genetic material towards the causal agent (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). Fitopatologia Brasileira, 7(1):17-22

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