Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Glomerella cingulata
(anthracnose)

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Datasheet

Glomerella cingulata (anthracnose)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 25 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Glomerella cingulata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • anthracnose
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Sordariomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Anthracnose symptoms on fruit.
TitleGlomerella cingulata on mango
CaptionAnthracnose symptoms on fruit.
Copyright©Anna L. Snowdon
Anthracnose symptoms on fruit.
Glomerella cingulata on mangoAnthracnose symptoms on fruit.©Anna L. Snowdon
Characteristic anthracnose lesion on papaya fruit: dark, sunken, circular necrotic tissue, with pink, erumpent, pinhead-sized acervuli often arranged in circles.
TitleLesion on papaya fruit
CaptionCharacteristic anthracnose lesion on papaya fruit: dark, sunken, circular necrotic tissue, with pink, erumpent, pinhead-sized acervuli often arranged in circles.
Copyright©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
Characteristic anthracnose lesion on papaya fruit: dark, sunken, circular necrotic tissue, with pink, erumpent, pinhead-sized acervuli often arranged in circles.
Lesion on papaya fruitCharacteristic anthracnose lesion on papaya fruit: dark, sunken, circular necrotic tissue, with pink, erumpent, pinhead-sized acervuli often arranged in circles.©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
Anthracnose symptoms, following artificial inoculation via needle puncture of fruit.
TitleGlomerella cingulata on aubergine
CaptionAnthracnose symptoms, following artificial inoculation via needle puncture of fruit.
Copyright©Anna L. Snowdon
Anthracnose symptoms, following artificial inoculation via needle puncture of fruit.
Glomerella cingulata on aubergineAnthracnose symptoms, following artificial inoculation via needle puncture of fruit.©Anna L. Snowdon
Yam leaf (Dioscorea alata) showing typical anthracnose lesions and 'shot-holes'.
TitleSymptoms on yam leaf
CaptionYam leaf (Dioscorea alata) showing typical anthracnose lesions and 'shot-holes'.
Copyright©Sarah Simons
Yam leaf (Dioscorea alata) showing typical anthracnose lesions and 'shot-holes'.
Symptoms on yam leafYam leaf (Dioscorea alata) showing typical anthracnose lesions and 'shot-holes'.©Sarah Simons
Yam leaf (Dioscorea alata) showing spreading necrotic lesions caused by Glomerella cingulata.
TitleSymptoms on yam leaf
CaptionYam leaf (Dioscorea alata) showing spreading necrotic lesions caused by Glomerella cingulata.
Copyright©Sarah Simons
Yam leaf (Dioscorea alata) showing spreading necrotic lesions caused by Glomerella cingulata.
Symptoms on yam leafYam leaf (Dioscorea alata) showing spreading necrotic lesions caused by Glomerella cingulata.©Sarah Simons
Tip rot of banana fruit, with (unusually) perithecia present in the lesion.
TitleG. cingulata on banana
CaptionTip rot of banana fruit, with (unusually) perithecia present in the lesion.
Copyright©Anna L. Snowdon
Tip rot of banana fruit, with (unusually) perithecia present in the lesion.
G. cingulata on bananaTip rot of banana fruit, with (unusually) perithecia present in the lesion.©Anna L. Snowdon
Anthracnose blight on cashew.
TitleSymptoms on cashew
CaptionAnthracnose blight on cashew.
Copyright©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
Anthracnose blight on cashew.
Symptoms on cashewAnthracnose blight on cashew.©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
Mycelium with acervuli and salmon-pink conidia.
TitleGlomerella cingulata on lemon
CaptionMycelium with acervuli and salmon-pink conidia.
Copyright©Anna L. Snowdon
Mycelium with acervuli and salmon-pink conidia.
Glomerella cingulata on lemonMycelium with acervuli and salmon-pink conidia.©Anna L. Snowdon
Sporulation occurs as pink, erumpent, pinhead-sized acervuli often arranged in concentric patterns on the necrotic tissue.
TitleGlomerella cingulata
CaptionSporulation occurs as pink, erumpent, pinhead-sized acervuli often arranged in concentric patterns on the necrotic tissue.
Copyright©CABI BioScience
Sporulation occurs as pink, erumpent, pinhead-sized acervuli often arranged in concentric patterns on the necrotic tissue.
Glomerella cingulataSporulation occurs as pink, erumpent, pinhead-sized acervuli often arranged in concentric patterns on the necrotic tissue.©CABI BioScience
A, T. S. acervulus; B, conidiophores; C, conidia; D, T. S. perithecium; E. asci; F, ascospores; G, appressorium formation of hyphae. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 315. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
TitleG. cingulata - line drawing
CaptionA, T. S. acervulus; B, conidiophores; C, conidia; D, T. S. perithecium; E. asci; F, ascospores; G, appressorium formation of hyphae. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 315. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Copyright©CABI BioScience
A, T. S. acervulus; B, conidiophores; C, conidia; D, T. S. perithecium; E. asci; F, ascospores; G, appressorium formation of hyphae. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 315. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
G. cingulata - line drawingA, T. S. acervulus; B, conidiophores; C, conidia; D, T. S. perithecium; E. asci; F, ascospores; G, appressorium formation of hyphae. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 315. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.©CABI BioScience

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Glomerella cingulata (Stonem.) Spauld. & Schrenk

Preferred Common Name

  • anthracnose

Other Scientific Names

  • Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc.

International Common Names

  • English: anthracnose of cinnamon; anthracnose tear-stain; black spot of fruit; brown blight (of coffee and tea); dieback (citrus); fruit rot; ripe rot of pepper; stem canker; tear stain
  • Spanish: antracnosis de la berenjena; antracnosis del chile verde; chancro del sauce; cocoteo de la cebolla
  • French: anthracnose de l'aubergine; anthracnose du piment; chancre noir du saule

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Schwarzer: Weide Krebs

EPPO code

  • GLOMCI (Glomerella cingulata)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Sordariomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Sordariomycetidae
  •                         Family: Glomerellaceae
  •                             Genus: Glomerella
  •                                 Species: Glomerella cingulata

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentMahiout et al. (2018)
AngolaPresentCABI (Undated a)
BeninPresentSikirou et al. (2011)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Muimba-Kankolongo et al., 1991
Congo, Republic of thePresentBoher et al. (1983)
Côte d'IvoirePresentLourd et al. (1979)
EthiopiaPresentKranz (1987)
GhanaPresentAwuah (1991)
KenyaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Karachi, 1982
MadagascarPresentHerb IMI (Undated)
MalawiPresentAnon (1990)
MauritiusPresentLutchmeah (1993)
MozambiquePresentCarvalho (1974)
NigeriaPresentNwankiti et al. (1987)
RwandaPresentSemal et al. (1976)
South AfricaPresentKorsten et al. (1994)
TanzaniaPresentTeri and Sijaona (1985); IBPGR (1993)
TogoPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Kranz & Palti, 1984
TunisiaPresentBoulila and Mahjoub (1994); Rhaiem and Taylor (2016)
UgandaPresentFirman and Waller (1977); Herb IMI (Undated)

Asia

BangladeshPresentMridha et al. (1990)
ChinaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-AnhuiPresentGuo et al. (2014)
-BeijingPresentHe Wei et al. (2001); Yan et al. (2011)
-GansuPresentYang et al. (2011)
-GuangdongPresentZhang and Qi (1994); Huang et al. (2012); Huang (2013)
-GuangxiPresentTan HaiWen et al. (2010); Pan et al. (2016)
-HainanPresentLiu et al. (1986)
-HebeiPresentDu et al. (2015)
-HenanPresentChen et al. (1993)
-HubeiPresentWang et al. (2010)
-HunanPresentGong et al. (1992)
-JiangsuPresentWang et al. (2012); Gong et al. (1992)
-JiangxiPresentXu Yi and Zhu BaoLian (1993)
-LiaoningPresentXu et al. (2013)
-ShaanxiPresentCABI (Undated a)
-ShanghaiPresentRen XiaoJie et al. (2008)
-SichuanPresentWang et al. (2010); Li et al. (2016)
-XinjiangPresentLu DongSheng et al. (2012)
-YunnanPresentShao ShuXia et al. (2012)
-ZhejiangPresentSong ZhiQiang et al. (2002); Zhang and Xu (2012)
GeorgiaPresentGulua (1989)
Hong KongPresentGrasso (1970)
IndiaPresentPankaj Sharma et al. (2013)
-Andhra PradeshPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Philip et al. (1994)
-Arunachal PradeshPresentBag (2004)
-AssamPresentAli and Saikia (1991)
-BiharPresentPrasad et al. (1984); Vinod Kumar et al. (2014)
-DelhiPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Pratibha-Shukla et al., 1991
-GujaratPresentAbraham and Daniel (1988)
-HaryanaPresentSumbali and Mehrotra (1982)
-Himachal PradeshPresentCABI (Undated); Original citation: Meeta & Bhatia, 1992
-Jammu and KashmirPresentKalha et al. (1993)
-KarnatakaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Philip et al. (1994)
-KeralaPresentSrinivasan et al. (1995); Malini Nilamudeen et al. (2013)
-Madhya PradeshPresentDadwal and Jamaluddin (1992)
-MaharashtraPresentGupta et al. (1994)
-ManipurPresentSingh (1989)
-MeghalayaPresentChakravarty (1983)
-OdishaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-PunjabPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Kumar et al., 1994
-RajasthanPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Chandra & Pathak, 1992
-SikkimPresentSrivastava (1989)
-Tamil NaduPresentLakshman (1992)
-Uttar PradeshPresentMugnai et al. (1993)
-West BengalPresentGiri et al. (1989)
IndonesiaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-JavaPresentSuhardi (1993)
-SumatraPresentParnata (1976)
IranPresentCABI (Undated); Rahimlou et al. (2014)Original citation: Miralbolfathy, 1991
IsraelPresentShabi and Katan (1983)
JapanPresentTakeuchi et al. (2012); Takushi et al. (2013)
-HonshuPresentFukaya and Kato (1992)
-KyushuPresentMatsuo (1990)
MalaysiaPresentCABI (Undated); Mahmodi et al. (2013); Sakinah et al. (2013)Original citation: Tan et al. (1992)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Tan et al. (1992)
-SabahPresentYun HaKwan et al. (2009); CABI (Undated)
-SarawakPresentKueh (1990)
OmanPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Waller & Bridge, 1978
PakistanPresentAnsar et al. (1994)
PhilippinesPresentDodd et al. (1991)
Saudi ArabiaPresentAlwadie and Baka (2003)
SingaporePresent, LocalizedTan and Tow (1992); AVA (2001)
South KoreaPresentKwon JinHyeuk et al. (2012); Chung (1993); Park et al. (2012); Park and Seo (2013)
Sri LankaPresentAlahakoon and Brown (1994)
TaiwanPresentAnn et al. (1994)
ThailandPresentSangchote (1987); Udayanga et al. (2013)
TurkeyPresentSalih and Cengiz (1976); Berner et al. (2012); Akgül et al. (2016)
VietnamPresentWhittle (1992)

Europe

AustriaPresentCABI (Undated a)
BelarusPresentEvsikov and Ivanyuk (2001)
CzechiaPresentOndřej (1983)
CzechoslovakiaPresentOndřej (1983)
DenmarkPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Anon. (1974)
FrancePresentDenoyes and Baudry (1995)
GermanyPresentRapp and Richter (1990)
GreecePresentThomidis and Exadaktylou (2011); Graniti et al. (1993)
HungaryPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Vajna et al., 1984
ItalyPresentGaribaldi et al. (1995)
-SicilyPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Guarnaccia et al. (2016)
MonacoPresentCABI (Undated a)
NetherlandsPresentKamerman et al. (1983); CABI (Undated)
PolandPresentOrlikowski and Wojdyła (1991)
RomaniaPresentTeodorescu et al. (1985)
RussiaPresentAgaev (1993)
SerbiaPresentIvanović et al. (2007)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentIvanović and Ivanović (1992)
SloveniaPresentČevnik et al. (2000)
SpainPresentPalou et al. (2013); CABI (Undated)
-Canary IslandsPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Hernandez-Hernandez et al., 1985
SwedenPresentConstantinescu and Jonsson (1987)
SwitzerlandPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Ruegg & Seigfreid, 1996
UkrainePresentKowalski (2004)
United KingdomPresentDickens and Cook (1989); Herb IMI (Undated)

North America

BarbadosPresentSweetmore et al. (1994)
BelizePresentDenham and Waller (1981)
CanadaPresentNewcombe et al. (1991); Tu (1991)
-AlbertaPresentMuir (1977)
-British ColumbiaPresentSieber and Dorworth (1994)
-Nova ScotiaPresentPaulitz (1995)
-OntarioPresentTu (1990)
-SaskatchewanPresentMortensen and Makowski (1995)
Costa RicaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Duran and Mora (1988)
CubaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Suarez (1990)
DominicaPresentPrior and Ryder (1987)
GrenadaPresentBeddoe (1994)
GuadeloupePresentBayart and Pallas (1994)
GuatemalaPresentArriola et al. (1976)
HaitiPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Aitken Soux, 1985
HondurasPresentGranadino and Cave (1994)
JamaicaPresentFagan (1988)
MartiniquePresentKaan (1973)
MexicoPresentCABI (Undated); Flores-Flores et al. (2013)Original citation: Orozco Santos & Gonzalez Garza, 1986
NicaraguaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Torrez-Zuniga et al. (1994)
PanamaPresentTrujillo et al. (1986)
Puerto RicoPresentMignucci et al. (1988)
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentBeddoe (1994)
Saint LuciaPresentLawrence et al. (1990)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentBeddoe (1994)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentBeddoe (1994)
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a)
-AlabamaPresentLatham et al. (1995)
-ArkansasPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Olcott-Reid & Moore, 1995
-CaliforniaPresentScharpf (1986)
-ColoradoPresentHawksworth et al. (1977)
-FloridaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: McMillan (1994)
-GeorgiaPresentBrenneman and Reilly (1989)
-HawaiiPresentAlvarez et al. (1977)
-LouisianaPresentHadden and Black (1989)
-MainePresentLambert (1990)
-MarylandPresentMaas et al. (1989)
-MichiganPresentCABI (Undated a)
-MississippiPresentRoy et al. (1994)
-North CarolinaPresentShane and Sutton (1981)
-OhioPresentEllis and Madden (1993)
-OklahomaPresentKoelsch et al. (1995)
-OregonPresentNewcombe et al. (1991)
-PennsylvaniaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-South CarolinaPresentWhiting and Roncadori (1994)
-TexasPresentRouse et al. (1991)
-WashingtonPresentNewcombe et al. (1991)
-WisconsinPresentJeffers (1991)

Oceania

American SamoaPresentBrooks (2002)
AustraliaPresentCameron et al. (1989)
-New South WalesPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Fitzell et al. (1984)
-Northern TerritoryPresentLenne and Parbery (1976)
-QueenslandPresentChakraborty et al. (1996)
-VictoriaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-Western AustraliaPresentSweetingham et al. (1995)
FijiPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Anon. (1983)
GuamPresentSchreiner and Wall (1990); Harris and Schreiner (1992)
New CaledoniaPresentLamouroux et al. (1995)
New ZealandPresentBeever et al. (1995)
NiuePresentIPPC (2011)Present: at low prevalence
SamoaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Carlos and Misipati (1992)
Solomon IslandsPresentWinch et al. (1984)

South America

ArgentinaPresentLarran et al. (2011); Gally et al. (1994); Perez et al. (2012)
BrazilPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Pitta Dematte (1994)
-AcrePresentCardoso and Valentim (1982)
-AlagoasPresentMuniz et al. (2003)
-AmazonasPresentJunqueira et al. (1985)
-BahiaPresentRam et al. (1972); Oliveira et al. (2012)
-CearaPresentCarvalho and Ponte (1982)
-Espirito SantoPresentMafacioli et al. (2006); Peres et al. (2003)
-GoiasPresentVieira et al. (2007)
-Minas GeraisPresentDianese et al. (1985)
-ParaPresentGomes et al. (2005); Costa et al. (2013); Costa et al. (2013a)
-ParaibaPresentAlmeida et al. (2003)
-ParanaPresentMafacioli et al. (2006); Carneiro et al. (2012)
-PernambucoPresentAlmeida Junior and Aquino (1978)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentPoltronieri et al. (2014); Nogueira and Brioso (2015)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentMedeiros and Guerrero (1988)
-RondoniaPresentRodrigues et al. (1987)
-Santa CatarinaPresentMedeiros and Guerrero (1988)
-Sao PauloPresentSilveira et al. (1992); Poltronieri et al. (2014)
ChilePresentPeredo and Valenzuela F. (1988)
ColombiaPresentBravo et al. (1993)
French GuianaPresentBereau (1977)
GuyanaPresentBeddoe (1994)
ParaguayPresentMathieson and Follin (1981)
PeruPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Lenne and Brown (1991)
SurinamePresentVis et al. (1976)
VenezuelaPresentMazzani (1994)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / extensive mould
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / lesions: on pods
Fruit / lesions: scab or pitting
Inflorescence / blight; necrosis
Inflorescence / lesions; flecking; streaks (not Poaceae)
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal patterns
Leaves / necrotic areas
Stems / canker on woody stem
Stems / dieback
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / gummosis or resinosis

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aspergillus flavus Antagonist
Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite
Hyponectria sceptri Pathogen
Nectria tuberculariformis Pathogen
Nectriella muelleri Pathogen

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

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Abraham KJ, Daniel M, 1988. Phytoalexins and related post-infectional compounds of forest crops of Gujarat. Advances in Forestry Research in India, 1:191-197; 14 ref

Agaev RN, 1993. A dangerous disease of lupin. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), No. 8:40-41

Agostini JP, Timmer LW, 1994. Population dynamics and survival of strains of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on citrus in Florida. Phytopathology, 84(4):420-425

Aitken-Soux P, 1985. Some pests and diseases generally encountered in coffee nurseries. Feuille d'Extension, No. 53:5 pp

Akgül DS, Awan QN, Güler PG, Önelge N, 2016. First report of anthracnose and stem end rot diseases caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Neofusicoccum australe on avocado fruits in Turkey. Plant Disease, 100(8):1792. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Alahakoon PW, Brown AE, 1994. Host range of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on tropical fruit crops in Sri Lanka. International Journal of Pest Management, 40(1):23-26

Ali MS, Saikia UN, 1991. New host records. Indian Phytopathology, 44(4):558-559

Almeida FA, Araújo E, Gonçalves Junior H, Barreto AF, Carvalho RAG, 2003. Diagnostic and quantification of barbados cherry diseases in the State of Paraíba, Brazil. (Diagnóstico e quantificação de doenças fúngicas da acerola no Estado da Paraíba.) Fitopatologia Brasileira, 28(2):176-179. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/fb/v28n2/a10v28n2.pdf

Almeida Junior JL de, Aquino M de LN, 1978. Anthracnose or fruit rot of coconut palm Cocos nucifera L. in Pernambuco State. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Pernambucana, 2(1):37-44

Alvarez AM, Hylin JW, Ogata JN, 1977. Postharvest diseases of papaya reduced by biweekly orchard sprays. Plant Disease Reporter, 61(9):731-735

Alvarez AM, Nishijima WT, 1987. Postharvest diseases of papaya. Plant Disease, 71(8):681-686; 24 ref

Alwadie HM, Baka ZAM, 2003. New records of fungal pathogens of Euphorbia inarticulata from Aseer Region, South-West Saudi Arabia. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 36(3/4):195-209

Ann PJ, Huang RC, Chen MF, 1994. Effects of environmental factors on disease incidence of mango anthracnose. Plant Pathology Bulletin, 3(1):34-44

Anon., 1983. Diseases of vegetables. Horticultural Division, Agricultural Institute, Dublin, Research Report, Horticulture, 44-45.

Anon., 1990. Annual Report 1989, Bvumbwe Agricultural Research Station - Plant Pathology. Bvumbwe, Malawi: Ministry of Agriculture, 6575.

Ansar M, Saleem A, Iqbal A, 1994. Cause and control of guava decline in the Punjab (Pakistan). Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 6(1):41-44; 6 ref

Arauz LF, 2000. Mango anthracnose: economic impact and current options for integrated management. Plant Disease, 84(6):600-611; 78 ref

Arriola MC de, Menchu JF, Rolz C, 1976. Characteristics, handling and storage of papaya. Informe Tecnico, No.104

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore

Awuah RT, 1991. Aetiology, suscept range and distribution of leaf spot of rough lemon in the Ashanti region of Ghana. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 39(2-3):106-111

Badel J, Kelemu S, 1994. In vitro inhibition of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz and other phytopathogenic fungi by culture filtrates of Bacillus subtilis. Fitopatología Colombiana, 18(1-2):30-35; 11 ref

Bag TK, 2004. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc. - an incitant of flower and fruit drop of papaya. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 34(1):164

Bailey JA, Jeger MJ, 1992. Colletotrichum: Biology, Pathology and Control. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Basak AB, Fakir GA, Mridha MAU, 1994. Studies on the prevalence of six major fruit rot diseases of chilli at different stages of fruit development in Chittagong District. Chittagong University Studies, Science, 18(1):125-128; 17 ref

Batista TFC, Oliveira FC, Tabosa SAS, Nunes MAL, 2007. Occurrence of antracnose on fruits of açaí, Euterpe oleracea, in Muaná, Pará, Brazil. (Ocorrência de antracnose em frutos de açaí, Euterpe oleracea, em Muaná, Pará.) Fitopatologia Brasileira, 32(4):360. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/fb/v32n4/15.pdf

Bauharmont P, 1994. Fertilization of young plantations of Arabica coffee in Cameroon. Cafe Cacao, 38(1):25-40

Bayart JD, Pallas B, 1994. Tolerance of yam anthracnose of a benzimidazole. Results of the first study conducted in Guadeloupe. Phytoma, No. 461:37-40

Beddoe TW, 1994. Mango cultivation and varieties in the West Indies. Tropical Fruits Newsletter, No. 10:3-4

Beever RE, Olsen TL, Parkes SL, 1995. Vegetative compatibility groups in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Glomerella cingulata) from apple and other fruits. Australasian Plant Pathology, 24(2):126-132

Bereau M, 1977. Study of anthracnose of Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia) in French Guiana. Nouvelles Agronomiques des Antilles et de la Guyane, 3(1):1-11

Berner DK, Cavin CA, Erper I, Tunali B, 2012. First report of anthracnose of mile-a-minute (Persicaria perfoliata) caused by Colletotrichum cf. gloeosporioides in Turkey. Plant Disease, 96(10):1578. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Biggs AR, 1999. Effects of calcium salts on apple bitter rot caused by two Colletotrichum spp. Plant Disease, 83(11):1001-1005; 14 ref

Blank HG, 1982. Again an increase in waste through fruit rotting in storage. Mitteilungendes Obstbauversuchsringesdes Alten Landes, 37(7):232-237

Boher B, Daniel JF, Fabres G, Bani G, 1983. The role of Pseudotheraptus devastans (Distant) (Het. Coreidae) and of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. in the development of lesions and leaf-fall in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Agronomie, 3(10):989-993

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