Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Galinsoga parviflora
(gallant soldier)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Galinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Galinsoga parviflora
  • Preferred Common Name
  • gallant soldier
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • G. parviflora is a cosmopolitan fast-growing annual herb with the capacity to invade agricultural and other disturbed areas in most temperate and subtropical regions of the world (

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Growth habit.
TitleHabit
CaptionGrowth habit.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Growth habit.
HabitGrowth habit.©Sheldon Navie
Growth habit.
TitleHabit
CaptionGrowth habit.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Growth habit.
HabitGrowth habit.©Sheldon Navie
Flowers and leaves.
TitleFlowers
CaptionFlowers and leaves.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Flowers and leaves.
FlowersFlowers and leaves.©Sheldon Navie
Leaves simple-opposite, lower leaves with petioles, upper ones without. Leaf blade oval to oblong with sharp apex. Composite flowers 5-8 mm across, borne on long acillary peduncles. Each capitulum bears two types of flower: ligulate female white flowers at the margin and tubular hermaphrodite yellow flowers in the central disc.
TitleG. parviflora plants
CaptionLeaves simple-opposite, lower leaves with petioles, upper ones without. Leaf blade oval to oblong with sharp apex. Composite flowers 5-8 mm across, borne on long acillary peduncles. Each capitulum bears two types of flower: ligulate female white flowers at the margin and tubular hermaphrodite yellow flowers in the central disc.
CopyrightEduardo Leguizamon
Leaves simple-opposite, lower leaves with petioles, upper ones without. Leaf blade oval to oblong with sharp apex. Composite flowers 5-8 mm across, borne on long acillary peduncles. Each capitulum bears two types of flower: ligulate female white flowers at the margin and tubular hermaphrodite yellow flowers in the central disc.
G. parviflora plantsLeaves simple-opposite, lower leaves with petioles, upper ones without. Leaf blade oval to oblong with sharp apex. Composite flowers 5-8 mm across, borne on long acillary peduncles. Each capitulum bears two types of flower: ligulate female white flowers at the margin and tubular hermaphrodite yellow flowers in the central disc.Eduardo Leguizamon
Young seedling.
TitleSeedling
CaptionYoung seedling.
Copyright©Sheldon Navie
Young seedling.
SeedlingYoung seedling.©Sheldon Navie

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Galinsoga parviflora Cav.

Preferred Common Name

  • gallant soldier

Other Scientific Names

  • Adventina parviflora (Cav.) Raf.
  • Baziasa microglossa Steud.
  • Galinsoga hirsuta Baker
  • Galinsoga laciniata Retz.
  • Galinsoga quinqueradiata Ruiz & Pav.
  • Sabazia microglossa DC.
  • Stemmatella sodiroi Hieron.
  • Vigolina acmella (Roth) Poir.
  • Wiborgia acmella Roth
  • Wiborgia parviflora (Cav.) Kunth

International Common Names

  • English: chickweed; French soldier; Peruvian daisy; quickweed; small-flower galinsoga
  • Spanish: boton de oro (Dominican Republic); chumica; escabiosa (Chile); moderna; soldado galante
  • French: Galinsoga à petites fleurs; piquant blanc
  • Chinese: niu xi ju
  • Portuguese: botao-de-ouro; erva-da-moda; picao-branco; picao-bravo

Local Common Names

  • Angola: okalume; onglo
  • Argentina: albahaca silvestre; Botón de oro; picao bravo; saetilla; small flower galinsoga
  • Australia: chick weed; potato weed; yellow weed
  • Brazil: botao de ouro; fazendeiro; picao branco
  • Canada: small-flowered galinsoga; yellow galinsoga
  • Chile: pacuyuyo
  • Colombia: guasco
  • Dominican Republic: yerba boba
  • Ethiopia: abadabbo
  • Germany: Franzosenkraut (Kleinblütiges); Galinzago; Gängelkraut; kleinblütiges Franzosenkraut; kleinblütiges Knopfkraut; Knopfkraut
  • Haiti: herbe aiguiles
  • India: marchia; pardesi
  • Indonesia: balakatjioet losih; bribel
  • Italy: galinsoga
  • Japan: hakidamegiku
  • Kenya: macdonaldi
  • Mexico: rosilla chica
  • Netherlands: knopkruid
  • Pakistan: khanna
  • Peru: chuminca
  • South Africa: quick weed
  • Sweden: tandgängel
  • Uganda: kofume
  • USA: littleflower quickweed
  • Venezuela: canilla de blanca
  • Zimbabwe: kew weed

EPPO code

  • GASPA (Galinsoga parviflora)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

G. parviflora is a cosmopolitan fast-growing annual herb with the capacity to invade agricultural and other disturbed areas in most temperate and subtropical regions of the world (Holm et al., 1979). It is highly competitive and can spread quickly, often being the dominant species in a field. G. parviflora generates considerable economic impact on crop systems, greenhouses, gardens and nurseries. It is listed as an invasive and noxious weed in North America, Europe, Asia, Australia, and on islands in the Pacific Ocean (see Distribution Table for details). 

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Genus: Galinsoga
  •                                 Species: Galinsoga parviflora

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

The genus Galinsoga is named after M. M. Galinsoga, Head of Madrid Botanical Garden in 1880. The name Galinsoga parviflora is derived from the Latin parvu (little) and flore (flower). A revision of the genus Galinsoga (Compositae: Helianthae) was made by Canne (1977).

Although most authorities treat the closely related G. ciliata as a separate species, these two species are almost certain sometimes to be confused in the weed science literature. This account deals primarily with G. parviflora in the stricter sense, but some records or observations may relate more correctly to G. ciliata. See Similarities to Other Species for their distinguishing features.

Description

Top of page

G. parviflora is herbaceous, erect and 20-80 cm tall, depending on growing conditions. Leaves are simple-opposite, the lower leaves with petioles, the upper ones without petioles. Leaf blade oval to oblong with sharp apex. The inflorescence consists of typical Compositae/Asteraceae composite flowers, each 5-8 mm across, borne on long acillary peduncles. Each 'flower'/capitulum bears two types of flower: ligulate female white flowers at the margin and tubular hermaphrodite yellow flowers in the central disc (Kissmann and Groth, 1993). Two types of achenes are present: peripheral (1.5-2 x 0.4-0.7 mm) and central (1.1-1.5 x 0.4-0.5 mm). Both types are black. The dispersal units are achenes bearing pappus or parts of flower structures (involucral bractea and the two paleas) that can easily be transported by wind or animals.

Plant Type

Top of page Annual
Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Seed propagated

Distribution

Top of page

G. parviflora is an American weed, and its centre of origin is considered to be the mountainous area of Mesoamerica (i.e., Mexico and Central America; Vibrans, 2009). Because this species was first described from material collected in South America (a cultivated plant from Peru), it has been erroneously cited as native to this part of the world (Vibrans, 2009). Currently, G. parviflora is a cosmopolitan species widely distributed in North America, Europe, Africa, Asia and Australasia. It is considered a weed in at least 40 countries, mostly temperate and sub-tropical but also at higher altitudes in many tropical countries (Holm et al., 1979). 

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2014)Naturalized
BotswanaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2014)Naturalized
BurundiPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2014)Naturalized
Cabo VerdePresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2014)Naturalized
CameroonPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2014)Naturalized
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2014)Naturalized
Congo, Republic of thePresentNgongo and Lunze (2000)
EgyptPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2014)Naturalized
EritreaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2014)Naturalized
EswatiniPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2014)Naturalized
EthiopiaPresent, WidespreadTessema et al. (1999); EPPO (2014); USDA-ARS (2014); CABI (Undated);
KenyaPresent, WidespreadWaithaka (1976); Maina et al. (2001); USDA-ARS (2014)
LesothoPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)
MadagascarPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2014)Naturalized
MalawiPresentIntroducedNaturalizedTerry and Michieka (1987); USDA-ARS (2014)Naturalized
MauritiusPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2014)
MozambiquePresentCABI (Undated b)
NigeriaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2014)Naturalized
RéunionPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2014)
RwandaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2014)Naturalized
Saint HelenaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2014)Naturalized
SomaliaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2014)Naturalized
South AfricaPresent, WidespreadToit and Court de Billot (1991); USDA-ARS (2014)
SudanPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014);
TanzaniaPresent, WidespreadOwenya et al. (1987); Moyer et al. (1989); USDA-ARS (2014)
TunisiaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2014)
UgandaPresentUgen et al. (2002); USDA-ARS (2014); CABI (Undated)
ZambiaPresentUSDA-ARS (2014)
ZimbabwePresent, WidespreadSchwerzel et al. (1979); USDA-ARS (2014)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentCABI (Undated b)
ArmeniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-ARS (2014)
AzerbaijanPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)Casual alien
BhutanPresent, WidespreadParker (1992); USDA-ARS (2014)
CambodiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1979)
ChinaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-BeijingPresentIntroducedInvasiveWang HuaFeng et al. (2011)
-GuangxiPresentIntroducedInvasiveLiu Jian et al. (2006)Weed
-GuizhouPresentIntroducedInvasiveLiu Jian et al. (2006)Weed
-HainanPresentIntroducedInvasiveLiu Jian et al. (2006)Weed
-HebeiPresentIntroducedInvasiveLiu Jian et al. (2006)Weed
-SichuanPresentIntroducedInvasiveLiu Jian et al. (2006)Weed
-TibetPresentIntroducedInvasiveLiu Jian et al. (2006)Weed
-YunnanPresentIntroducedInvasiveLiu Jian et al. (2006)Weed
GeorgiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2014)Naturalized
Hong KongPresentIntroducedInvasiveWu (2001)
IndiaPresent, WidespreadNeogi and Rao (1980); Nankar et al. (1981)
-Arunachal PradeshPresentIntroducedInvasiveChandra (2012)
-Himachal PradeshPresentIntroducedInvasiveRana (2002); Chandra (2012)Weed
-Jammu and KashmirPresentIntroducedInvasiveChandra (2012)
-KarnatakaPresentCABI (Undated b)
-Madhya PradeshPresentParadkar et al. (2002)
-ManipurPresentIntroducedInvasiveChandra (2012)
-MeghalayaPresentIntroducedInvasiveChandra (2012)
-MizoramPresentIntroducedInvasiveChandra (2012)
-NagalandPresentIntroducedInvasiveChandra (2012)
-SikkimPresentIntroducedInvasiveChandra (2012)
-TripuraPresentIntroducedInvasiveChandra (2012)
-Uttar PradeshPresentIntroducedInvasiveChandra (2012)
-UttarakhandPresent, WidespreadPandey et al. (2002); Chandra (2012)
-West BengalPresentIntroducedInvasiveChandra (2012)
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)Original citation: Waterhouse (1993)
IranPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)
IsraelPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)Casual alien
JapanPresentIntroducedInvasiveMito and Uesugi (2004); Usami (1976)
LebanonPresentCABI (Undated b)
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1979)
NepalPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2014)Naturalized
PakistanPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2014)Naturalized
PhilippinesPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated);
South KoreaPresent, WidespreadKang et al. (1996)
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2014)Naturalized
TaiwanPresentIntroducedHsu (1973); Holm et al. (1979); Sun EnJang and Huang MingHuei (1995); CABI (Undated)
ThailandPresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)Original citation: Waterhouse (1993)
TurkeyPresentEPPO (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)
YemenPresent, WidespreadWalter (1981); USDA-ARS (2014)

Europe

AlbaniaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2014)Naturalized
AustriaPresentSteden and Schulte (2000); USDA-ARS (2014); CABI (Undated)
BelarusPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2014)Naturalized
BelgiumPresent, LocalizedGofflot and Verhoyen (1990); DAISIE (2014)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCABI (Undated b)Naturalized
BulgariaPresentKonstantinov and Nikolova (1983); Toskov and Dimitrova (2002); DAISIE (2014)
CroatiaPresent, WidespreadPandža et al. (2001); DAISIE (2014)
CyprusPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)Casual alien
CzechiaPresentCABI (Undated); DAISIE (2014)Original citation: Mertelík et al. (1996)
DenmarkPresentDAISIE (2014)
EstoniaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedDAISIE (2014)Naturalized
CzechoslovakiaPresentDAISIE (2014)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent, WidespreadHulina (1978); Muminović (1990)
FinlandPresentDAISIE (2014)
FrancePresent, LocalizedDAISIE (2014)
-CorsicaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedDAISIE (2014)Naturalized
GermanyPresentHilbig and Mahn (1971); Schmidt (1986); Steden and Schulte (2000); DAISIE (2014)
GreecePresent, LocalizedDAISIE (2014)
HungaryPresent, LocalizedDAISIE (2014)
IrelandPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2014)
ItalyPresentCantele et al. (1984); DAISIE (2014)
LatviaPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2014)
LiechtensteinPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2014)
LithuaniaPresentZinikevičiu¯tė and Baleliu¯nas (1998); DAISIE (2014)
LuxembourgPresentIntroducedNaturalizedDAISIE (2014)Naturalized
MoldovaPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2014)Casual alien
MontenegroPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)Casual alien
NetherlandsPresentDAISIE (2014)
North MacedoniaPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2014)Casual alien
NorwayPresent, WidespreadGreve (2001); DAISIE (2014); CABI (Undated)
PolandPresent, WidespreadChoroszewski (1994); Zając and Zając (2001); Klikocka and Wesolowski (2002); DAISIE (2014)
PortugalPresentDAISIE (2014)
-AzoresPresentDAISIE (2014)
-MadeiraPresentIntroducedNaturalizedDAISIE (2014)Naturalized
RomaniaPresent, WidespreadSlonovschi (1982); Chiriță et al. (1998); DAISIE (2014)
RussiaPresentSafonov (1992); USDA-ARS (2014)
SerbiaPresentEPPO (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)
SlovakiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)Casual alien
SloveniaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedDAISIE (2014)Naturalized
SpainPresent, WidespreadBosque and Izquierdo (1997); DAISIE (2014); CABI (Undated);
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2014)Naturalized
SwedenPresentDAISIE (2014)
SwitzerlandPresent, LocalizedStalder (1978); DAISIE (2014)
UkrainePresent, WidespreadGamor et al. (1983); DAISIE (2014)
United KingdomPresentDAISIE (2014)

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentBroome et al. (2007)Uncertain if native or introduced
CanadaPresent, WidespreadCanne (1977); Warwick and Sweet (1983)
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-ARS (2014)
-ManitobaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-ARS (2014)
-New BrunswickPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-ARS (2014)
-OntarioPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-ARS (2014)
-QuebecPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-ARS (2014)Naturalized
Costa RicaPresentNativeDavidse et al. (2014)
Dominican RepublicPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
El SalvadorPresentNativeDavidse et al. (2014)
GuadeloupePresentAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
GuatemalaPresent, LocalizedBatra (1979)
HaitiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
JamaicaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
MartiniquePresentBroome et al. (2007)Uncertain if native or introduced
MexicoPresent, WidespreadNativeMartínez D. et al. (1983); Amador-Ramírez (2002); USDA-ARS (2014)
NicaraguaPresentNativeDavidse et al. (2014)
Puerto RicoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2014)
-ArizonaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS (2014)
-ArkansasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2014)
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS (2014)
-ColoradoPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS (2014)
-ConnecticutPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS (2014)
-District of ColumbiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2014)
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2014)
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasiveWagner et al. (1999)
-IllinoisPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS (2014)
-IndianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2014)
-IowaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2014)
-KansasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2014)
-KentuckyPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2014)
-MainePresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2014)
-MarylandPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2014)
-MassachusettsPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS (2014)
-MichiganPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS (2014)
-MinnesotaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS (2014)
-MissouriPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2014)
-NebraskaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS (2014)
-New HampshirePresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS (2014)
-New JerseyPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2014)
-New MexicoPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS (2014)
-New YorkPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS (2014)
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2014)
-North DakotaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS (2014)
-OhioPresentIntroducedGao et al. (1999); CABI (Undated)
-OklahomaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2014)
-OregonPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2014)
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS (2014)
-Rhode IslandPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS (2014)
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2014)
-TennesseePresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2014)
-TexasPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS (2014)
-VermontPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS (2014)
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2014)
-WashingtonPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-NRCS (2014)
-West VirginiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2014)
-WisconsinPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2014)

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, LocalizedShukla et al. (1979); Macleod and Frost (2002); EPPO (2014)
-Lord Howe IslandPresentIntroducedInvasiveMurray (1992)
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedInvasiveMurray (1992)
-Northern TerritoryPresentIntroducedInvasiveMurray (1992)
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedInvasiveMurray (1992)
-South AustraliaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedMurray (1992)Naturalized
-TasmaniaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedMurray (1992)Naturalized
-VictoriaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedMurray (1992)Naturalized
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2014)Naturalized
New ZealandPresentIntroducedInvasiveUSDA-ARS (2014)
Norfolk IslandPresentIntroducedInvasiveOrchard (1994)
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2014)
VanuatuPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2014)

South America

ArgentinaPresentInvasiveMitidieri and Bianchini (1973); Nobile et al. (2002); USDA-ARS (2014); CABI (Undated)
BoliviaPresentNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2014)Probably introduced. Now naturalized.
BrazilPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-AcrePresentLorenzi (1982)
-AlagoasPresentLorenzi (1982)
-AmazonasPresentLorenzi (1982)
-BahiaPresentLorenzi (1982)
-CearaPresentLorenzi (1982)
-Espirito SantoPresentLorenzi (1982)
-Fernando de NoronhaPresentLorenzi (1982)
-GoiasPresentLorenzi (1982)
-MaranhaoPresentLorenzi (1982)
-Mato GrossoPresentLorenzi (1982)
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentLorenzi (1982)
-Minas GeraisPresentLorenzi (1982); Laca-Buendia and Brandão (1994)
-ParaPresentLorenzi (1982)
-ParaibaPresentLorenzi (1982)
-ParanaPresent, WidespreadLorenzi (1982); Zagonel et al. (2000); Mondin (2014)
-PernambucoPresentLorenzi (1982)
-PiauiPresentLorenzi (1982)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentLorenzi (1982)
-Rio Grande do NortePresentLorenzi (1982)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentLorenzi (1982); Mondin (2014)
-RondoniaPresentLorenzi (1982)
-Santa CatarinaPresentLorenzi (1982); Mondin (2014)
-Sao PauloPresentLorenzi (1982); Mondin (2014)
-SergipePresentLorenzi (1982)
ChilePresent, WidespreadFinot S. et al. (1996); Russo et al. (2001); I3N-Chile (2014); CABI (Undated)
-Easter IslandPresentIntroducedInvasiveI3N-Chile (2014)
ColombiaPresent, LocalizedCABI (Undated); USDA-ARS (2014)Original citation: Montenegro-Gálvez and Criollo-Escobar (1978)
EcuadorPresentNaturalizedUSDA-ARS (2014)Probably introduced. Now naturalized
ParaguayPresent, LocalizedCABI (Undated); Grosse (1996)Original citation: Cabrera and (1963)
PeruPresent, LocalizedUSDA-ARS (2014)
UruguayPresent, LocalizedCABI (Undated); USDA-ARS (2014)Original citation: Cabrera and (1963)
VenezuelaPresentCABI (Undated)

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Deserts Present, no further details
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContext
Allium cepa (onion)LiliaceaeMain
Allium sativum (garlic)LiliaceaeMain
Apium graveolens (celery)ApiaceaeMain
Arachis hypogaea (groundnut)FabaceaeMain
Asparagus densiflorus (asparagus fern)LiliaceaeMain
Avena sativa (oats)PoaceaeMain
Beta vulgaris var. saccharifera (sugarbeet)ChenopodiaceaeMain
Brassica carinata (African cabbage)BrassicaceaeMain
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (cauliflower)BrassicaceaeMain
Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage)BrassicaceaeMain
Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera (turnip rape)BrassicaceaeMain
Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)SolanaceaeMain
Chrysanthemum (daisy)AsteraceaeMain
Chrysanthemum vestitumAsteraceaeMain
CitrusRutaceaeMain
Coffea (coffee)RubiaceaeMain
Cucumis sativus (cucumber)CucurbitaceaeMain
Cucurbita moschata (pumpkin)CucurbitaceaeMain
Daucus carota (carrot)ApiaceaeMain
Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation)CaryophyllaceaeMain
Echinochloa frumentacea (Japanese millet)PoaceaeMain
Eleusine coracana (finger millet)PoaceaeMain
Fabaceae (leguminous plants)FabaceaeMain
FreesiaIridaceaeMain
Gerbera (Barbeton daisy)AsteraceaeMain
Gladiolus hybrids (sword lily)IridaceaeMain
Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeMain
Gossypium (cotton)MalvaceaeMain
Helianthus annuus (sunflower)AsteraceaeMain
Hordeum vulgare (barley)PoaceaeMain
Impatiens (balsam)BalsaminaceaeMain
Inula helenium (Elecampane)AsteraceaeMain
Lactuca sativa (lettuce)AsteraceaeMain
Lens culinaris subsp. culinaris (lentil)FabaceaeMain
Limonium sinuatum (sea pink)PlumbaginaceaeMain
Malus domestica (apple)RosaceaeMain
Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)SolanaceaeMain
Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeMain
Phacelia tanacetifolia (California bluebell)HydrophyllaceaeMain
Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)FabaceaeMain
Pinus caribaea (Caribbean pine)PinaceaeMain
Pisum sativum (pea)FabaceaeMain
Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeMain
Rosa (roses)RosaceaeMain
Sambucus nigra (elder)CaprifoliaceaeMain
Secale cereale (rye)PoaceaeMain
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeMain
Sorghum bicolor (sorghum)PoaceaeMain
Spinacia oleracea (spinach)ChenopodiaceaeMain
Triticum (wheat)PoaceaeMain
Triticum aestivum (wheat)PoaceaeMain
Vicia faba (faba bean)FabaceaeMain
Vigna unguiculata (cowpea)FabaceaeMain
Zantedeschia (calla-lilies)AraceaeMain
Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeMain

Growth Stages

Top of page Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

The chromosome number reported for G. parviflora is 2n=16 (Canne, 1983).

Physiology and Phenology

G. parviflora exhibits an early summer flush characterized by high peaks (Toit and Cout-de-Billot, 1991). Germination was observed from late March until early November, during which 3-4 generations took place. One plant produced 13,400 capitula in its lifetime and produced 400,000 seeds. Stem height and leaf area increased more in summer-germinating plants than plants germinating in the spring or autumn, growth rate of G. parviflora being dependent on season of germination.

Germination of exposed seeds is highest in the first year, suggesting that many seeds either germinate or die before the second year. Within two years all exposed seeds are dead. Laboratory tests confirm that exposed seeds lose viability more rapidly than buried seeds, and that the deeper the seeds are buried, the better they retain viability (Schwerzel et al., 1979).

Longevity

G. parviflora is an annual weed with a short life cycle, often less than 40 days, which can occur in the autumn, spring or summer in temperate areas and at any time of year in the tropics.

Population Size and Structure

Galinsoga parviflora exhibits density-dependent mortality, which increases at a higher nitrogen level. At lower densities the plant grows more vigorously in a mixture than compared to pure stands, but at higher densities it was completely suppressed by G. quadriradiata (Rai and Tripathi, 1986).

Nutrition

Shoot extracts of G .parviflora increased soil pH and reduced aluminium down to a depth of 20 cm when applied to the soil surface as a lime top dressing and leached with 3 pore volumes of deionised water (Meda et al., 2002).

Environmental Requirements

Sun species, among them G. parviflora, were more competitive with shade species at high light intensities, whereas at low light, the competitive ability depended on the initial weight of the plant (Corre, 1984). Rai and Tripathi (1986) showed that G. parviflora was very sensitive to shading.

G. parviflora is a C3 plant (Kissmann and Groth, 1993). High temperature seems to enhance growth, flowering and maturity. It is inferred that Galinsoga belongs to a type of weed of which the seed is light sensitive (Usami, 1976). Rate of germination is stimulated by alternating temperatures, with the highest rate at a day temperature of 30°C and a night temperature of 20°C, with a 16-hour photoperiod and 11,000 lux. The germination of irradiated seeds in the laboratory decreases as the red:far-red light ratio decreases in the range from 2 to 0.04 (Zweep et al., 1990).

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 1
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 1 40
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 30 40
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 2 10

Rainfall

Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall5001500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Summer

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • shallow

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Galinsoga mosaic virus Pathogen

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

Many of the natural enemies mentioned here are polyphagous species. Batra (1979) comments that host-specific natural enemies should be sought in the area of origin of the weed in the mountainous regions of Latin America.

Fungi: G. parviflora is a host to Plasmopara yunnannensis (Tao and Qin, 1987) and seeds have been found bearing more than 15 fungal species (among them Alternaria, Ascochyta, Penicillum, Phoma, Drechslera, Trichoderma, Fusarium and Botrytis sp.) (Lorenzi, 1986; Prete et al., 1986). Ten fungal species were identified infecting G. ciliata and G. parviflora, the most notable being Glomerella cingulata, the causal agent of anthracnose in G. parviflora (Gasich, 1997).

Viruses: Tomato spotted mosaic wilt virus on G. parviflora plants growing in nearby fields of vegetable crops has been reported in Belgium (Gofflot and Verhoyen, 1990) and Argentina (Gracia and Feldman, 1989). Cucumber mosaic virus was isolated in G. parviflora plants near a celery and lettuce field in the USA (Bruckart and Lorbeer, 1976). G. parviflora was reported as a new host of Turnip mosaic virus in Zimbabwe. Myzus persicae, Brevicoryne brassicae and Aphis fabae transmitted the virus from infected to healthy cabbage plants (Chivasa et al., 2002). Tomato spotted wilt virus infection was detected in the Czech Republic where the main vector Frankliniella occidentalis was also present (Mertelik and Mokra, 1998). A virus disease of sunflower caused by Sunflower mosaic virus had a very narrow host range, infecting only one weed host, G parviflora (Nagaraju et al., 1997).

Mites: several mite species have been found on G. parviflora in the USA (Batra, 1979).

Insects: Agrotis ipsilon, a serious pest of maize, sorghum, soybean, cabbage and rape crops in Brazil, develops its first-instar larvae in G. parviflora plants (Link and Severo-Pedrolo, 1987). Other noctuids, such as Heliothis, Plutella and Pieris spp., feed on G. parviflora (Rai and Tripathi, 1985). Thrips tabaci, the vector of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus, is usually found in G. parviflora plants in tobacco fields of Poland (Wegorek and Lipa, 1979). The host plant for the larvae of Dioxyna bidentis or Paroxyna bidentis is G. parviflora in southern Norway (Greve, 2001). G. parviflora was reported as a supplementary or alternative food for Arion lusitianicus (Kozlowski and Kozlowska, 2000).

In an extensive survey in the USA, 122 insect species were found on G. parviflora plants, among them 22 crop pests, including three virus vectors (Batra, 1979). Orthezia insignis, a serious eucalyptus pest in India, may be found feeding on G. parviflora (Srikanth et al., 1988).

Nematodes: species of the genus Meloidogyne (arenaria, thamesi, hapla, javanica and schachtii) and Globodera rostochiensis, that produce serious root damage in Hungary, Brazil (Lordello et al., 1988) and the Philippines (Zorrilla and Davide, 1983), have been found in G. parviflora.

Bacteria: results indicated that G. parviflora can maintain Ralstonia solanacearum (race 3 biovar ) in the absence of potato as a source of infection in the following years (Barchend and Schmidt, 2002).

Parasitized aphids were observed on G. parviflora in Chile (Russo et al., 2000).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

G. parviflora spreads by seeds. Seed viability is usually high (90%). One plant can set as many as 30,000 seeds (achenes), but it is common to find 5000-10,000 seeds/plant (Kissmann and Groth, 1993). Seed output and dry-matter yield increases with population density, although seed output is reduced at very high densities (Rai and Tripathi, 1983). Achenes can be dispersed by wind, animals, or water. They can also be dispersed by human activities, such as movement of soil or plants. In Finland, the most effective means of dispersal is believed to be seedlings inadvertently grown in nurseries or commercial greenhouses.

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionAgricultural weed Yes Yes Damalas, 2008
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes Yes Damalas, 2008
HorticultureWeed in gardens and yards Yes Yes Damalas, 2008
Medicinal useUsed in traditional African medicine Yes Yes Damalas, 2008
Nursery tradeWeed in nurseries Yes Yes Damalas, 2008
Ornamental purposesContaminant in common ornamental plants Yes Yes Damalas, 2008

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
True seeds (inc. grain) seeds
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
Wood

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections Positive
Animal/plant products Negative
Biodiversity (generally) Positive
Crop production Negative
Environment (generally) Positive
Fisheries / aquaculture Negative
Forestry production Negative
Human health Positive
Livestock production Negative
Native fauna Negative
Native flora Negative
Rare/protected species Negative
Tourism Negative
Trade/international relations Negative
Transport/travel Negative

Economic Impact

Top of page

Kranz et al. (1982) found that the critical periods of weed competition for beans were at initial crop development and flowering/pod formation. Leaf development, plant height, pod number per plant, seed number per pod, seed production and harvest index were all reduced by weed competition; seed production was reduced by 51%. Other than G. parviflora, other weeds present were Cyperus rotundusBidens pilosa and Brachiaria plantaginea.

In a maize crop, in which the weed flora was dominated by G. parviflora (80% of the total weed dry matter), weed competition reduced growth, yield and harvest index of the maize crop (Hegewald, 1982). Grassy weeds including G. parviflora offered maximum competition to a maize crop reducing grain yield by 77.4%, followed by non-grassy weeds (44.2%) and sedges (38.4%) (Pandey et al., 2002).

Wheat crops with no weed control over the whole growing season gave significant lower yields than wheat crops with weed control from 13-55 days after sowing. G. parviflora populations ranged from 241-1907 plants/m². These weed populations reduced the number of ears of wheat/m², but showed little effect on grain weight or number (Thomas et al., 1978).

Competition for more than 30 days by G. parviflora, at a density of 241 plants/m² and Chenopodium album at 5 plants/m², significantly reduced wheat grain yields in a season where a frost occurred (Thomas and Schwerzel, 1979).

A 70% cover of G. parviflora and Amaranthus hybridus caused reduction in grain and shoot dry-matter yields of Eragrostis tef and wheat, which in turn promoted weed growth. The losses in E. tef could be partially recovered with nitrogen fertilizer (Pulschen, 1992).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Allelopathic
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

Top of page

In areas of Latin America (Mexico, Colombia), young stems and leaves are eaten raw or cooked. The same is reported in Tanzania, where G. parviflora exists in abundance and it is consumed as a leafy vegetable. Plants can be dried, ground into a powder, and then used as a flavouring in soups. In Africa, the species is also reported to be used as a medicine for treating nettle stings by rubbing it on the skin. In Uganda, it is reported as a traditional herbal drug used for treating bleeding (Damalas, 2008). 

Uses List

Top of page

Human food and beverage

  • Emergency (famine) food
  • Flour/starch
  • Food additive
  • Spices and culinary herbs
  • Vegetable

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page

G. parviflora is commonly confused with G. ciliata. The latter differs in being much more hairy, with many glandular hairs 0.5 mm or longer on the peduncles, whereas G. parviflora has only few, less than 0.5 mm long. Also G. ciliata has aristate (long-pointed) pappus-scales on the seeds; those of G. parviflora are not long pointed. G. ciliata may also be more shade-tolerant than G. parviflora (Rai and Tripathi, 1986b).

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Cultural Control

The critical period of competition between lettuce and G. parviflora, Bidens pilosa, Amaranthus hybridus and Raphanus raphanistrum, depends on transplanting date. For maximum crop production the crop must be kept weed free only during the first week after transplanting. If the lettuce crop is transplanted later the weed-free period must be extended to 2 weeks (García Blanco, 1983).

Increasing Stevia rebaudiana cv. BPP72 density, plus 0.08 mm black polyethylene sheeting as mulch, achieved significant reductions in G. parviflora populations (Baltazar et al., 1980).

Solarization with 0.11 mm transparent polyethylene sheeting is effective in reducing viability of G. parviflora seed; microwaves have been found to affect G. parviflora seed viability (Barker and Craker, 1991). It is possible that higher temperatures under the sheeting (41.5°C) as opposed to the control (35.2°C) caused lethal injuries in embryo tissues of the seed.

Mechanical control with pre-emergence harrowing achieves a degree of control in maize, peas, beans and other row crops.

Host-Plant Resistance

Among a total of seven varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris studied, differences were observed in ability to compete against G. parviflora (Senesac et al., 1979).

Biological Control

Vulgamycin, produced by a new strain of Streptomyces sp., demonstrates some control of G. parviflora (Babczinski et al., 1991). Although no pre-emergence applications of vulgamycin showed any control of G. parviflora, post-emergence applications resulted in good control of several weeds, including G. parviflora. Cotton, barley and maize showed 10% damage, whereas sunflowers demonstrated no tolerance to the compound.

Chemical Control

Chemical control may be achieved with isoproturon, bromoxynil, 2,4-D, MCPA and dicamba in winter and spring cereals.

Rimsulfuron, a sulfonylurea herbicide, gives adequate control of G. parviflora in maize and potatoes, as do atrazine and related herbicides in sorghum.

Urea derivatives are applied to cotton, celery, onion and carrot crops. Metribuzin has been successfully tested in tomatoes.

Imazaquin, fomesafen and acifluorfen are used for G. parviflora control in soybeans.

Desmetryn, nitrofen and chloroxuron are used for G. parviflora control in cabbage.

In flower crops (chrysanthemum, gerbera, gladiolus, freesia and carnation), oxadiazon and napropamide are used.

Chemical control of G. parviflora in orchards may be achieved with terbacil, simazine and diuron.

Prolonged herbicide application using metamitron resulted in development of resistance in G. parviflora (Schmidt, 1986).

 

References

Top of page

1975. Competition studies. Rhodesia, Henderson Research Station, Weed Research Team: Annual report 1973/74. Department for Research and Specialist Services. Salisbury, 4-7

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Amador Ramirez MD, 2002. Critical period of weed control in transplanted chilli pepper. Weed Research Oxford, 42(3) :203-209.

Amin AW; Budai CS, 1994. Some weed host plants of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne species in south-eastern Hungary. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 12(1):59-65.

Baltazar AM; Paller EC; Valente FV, 1980. Weed control in cabbage. Philippines, University of the Philippines at Los Banos, College of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy: Weed Science Report 1978-1979., 80-91

Barker AV; Craker LE, 1991. Inhibition of weed seed germination by microwaves. Agronomy Journal, 83(2):302-305

Batra SWT, 1979. Insects associated with weeds of the northeastern United States: Quickweeds, Galinsoga ciliata and G. parviflora (Compositp). Environmental Entomology, 8(6):1078-1082

Bosque JL; Izquierdo J, 1997. Relationship between edaphic properties and weed distribution in horticultural crops along the Catalan coast. Proceedings of the 1997 congress of the Spanish Weed Science Society, Valencia, Spain, 24-26 November 1997., 255-260; 15 ref.

Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Bruckart WL; Lorbeer JW, 1976. Cucumber mosaic virus in weed hosts near commercial fields of lettuce and celery. Phytopathology, 66(3):253-259

Cabrera AL, 1963. Flora de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. Parte VI. Compuestas. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Coleccion Cientifica del INTA.

Canne JM, 1977. A revision of the genus Galinsoga (Compositae: Heliantheae). Rhodora, 79(819):319-389

Canne JM, 1983. Cytological and morphological observations in Galinsoga and related genera (Asteraceae). Rhodora, 85:355-366.

Cantele A; Zanin G; Zuin MC, 1984. Evolution of the weed flora of maize in Friuli (northeast Italy) and the part played by monoculture. Comptes rendus du 7eme colloque international sur l'ecologie, la biologie et la systematique des mauvaises herbes Paris, France; COLUMA/EWRS, Vol.1:437-447

Chandra SK, 2012. Invasive Alien Plants of Indian Himalayan Region- Diversity and Implication. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 3:177-184.

Chirita N; Chirita D; Popa F; Beraru C, 1998. Effectiveness of some new herbicides for controlling dicotyledonous weeds of soyabeans. Cerceta^breve~ri Agronomice i^circumflex~n Moldova, 31(3/4):89-94; 4 ref.

Choroszewski P, 1994. Infestation of potato cultures with weeds in Poland. Ochrona Roslin, 38(7):9-11

Corre WJ, 1983. Growth and morphogenesis of sun and shade plants. III. The combined effects of light intensity and nutrient supply. Acta Botanica Neerlandica, 32(4):277-294

DAISIE, 2014. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do

Damalas CA, 2008. Distribution, biology, and agricultural importance of Galinsoga parviflora (Asteraceae). Weed Biology and Management, 8(3):147-153. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/wbm

Davidse G; Sousa-Peña M; Knapp S; Chiang Cabrera F, 2014. Asteraceae. 5(2). In: Flora Mesoamericana [ed. by Davidse, G. \Sousa Sánchez, M. \Knapp, S. \Chiang Cabrera, F.]., Mexico: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Finot SVL; Urbina PA; Minoletti OML; Wilckens ER; Figueroa RM; Riquelme CM, 1996. Achene and seedling morphology of Asteraceae weed species from south-central Chile. I. Agro-Ciencia, 12(1):15-29; 26 ref.

Gamor FD; Komendar VI; Abramova LM; Mirkin BM, 1983. Dependence of distribution of trans-Carpathian weeds on altitude. Ukrains'kii Botanichnii Zhurnal, 40(4):54-57, 95

Gao GY; Boggs JF; Bennett PJ; Martin JC; Chatfield JA; Rose MA; Rimelspach JW; Zondag RH; Street JR; Pound WE, 1999. Weed problems in Ohio turf, landscapes, and nurseries: 1998. Special Circular - Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, No. 165:55-58; 4 ref.

Garcia Blanco H, 1983. Competition period of a natural community of dicotyledenous weeds on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Biologico, 49(9/10):247-252

Garcia M XR, 1985. Some contributions to the Galician flora. Anales del Jardin Botanico de Madrid, 42(1):191-196

Gofflot A; Verhoyen M, 1990. Speedy development of tomato spotted wilt virus infection transmitted by Frankliniella occidentalis in ornamental greenhouse cultivars in Belgium. Parasitica, 46(2-3):85-88

Gracia O; Feldman JM, 1989. First report of tomato spotted wilt virus on celery and three weed species in Argentina. Plant Disease, 73(10):859

Greve L, 2001. Dioxyna bidentis (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830) (Diptera, Tephritidae) new to Norway. Norwegian Journal of Entomology, 48(2):250; 4 ref.

Grosse A, 1996. Flora and Fauna Catalog of Introduced Paraguay species. I3N - IABIN Invasive Information Network.

Hegewald HB, 1982. Species composition and nutrient content of weeds in grain maize 1977. Angewandte Botanik, 56(3/4):279-281

Hilbig W; Mahn EG, 1971. The mapping of arable weeds as a basis for the objective use of herbicides. SYS Reporter, 3:2-23.

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herbenger JP; Plucknett DL, 1979. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons.

Hsu C-C, 1973. Some noteworthy plants found in Taiwan. Taiwania, 18:62-72

Hulina N, 1978. The weed association Panico-Galinsogetum Tx ex Becker 1942 in Turopolje Region. Fragmenta Herbologica Jugoslavica, 6(106-115):73-79

I3N-Chile, 2014. Red de Información sobre especies invasoras ([English title not available]). Santiago, Chile: Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Facultad de Química y Biología. http://i3n.usach.cl/index.asp

Ivany JA; Sweet RD, 1973. Cornell Univ., Ithaca, New York 14850, USA.Weed-Science, 21(1):41-45.

Jha PK; Sah JP; Chettri MK, 1992. Amaranth productivity under biological stresses. Crop Research (Hisar), 5(2):195-198; 4 ref.

Kang BH; Kwon YW; Lee HK, 1996. Current status and problem of exotic weeds in Korea. Import and export of agricultural products and plant quarantine. '96 International Symposium, Seoul, Korea Republic, 19 May 1996., 101-128; 30 ref.

Kissmann K; Groth D, 1993. Plantas infestantes e Nocivas. Sao Paulo, Brazil: BASF Brasileira Tomo II.

Klikocka H; Wesolowski M, 2002. Studies on introduction of weed-control and soil tillage in Solanum tuberosum L. cultivation in Poland. Landbauforschung Vo^umlaut~lkenrode, 52(1):53-58; 12 ref.

Konstantinov KA; Nikolova V, 1983. Changes in the weed associations of the main vegetable crops. Gradinarska i Lozarska Nauka, 20(5):82-89

Kranz WR; Vieira C; Cardoso AA; Reis MS, 1982. Effects on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars of weed competition. Anais, I reuniao nacional de pesquisa de feijao. Centro Nacional de Pesquisa-Arroz, Feijao Goiania Brazil, 224-225

Laca-Buendia JP; Brandao M, 1994. Survey and quantitative analysis of weeds occurring in coffee plantations in areas formerly occupied by cerrado in Triangulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaiba. Daphne, Revista do Herba^acute~rio PAMG da EPAMIG, 4(4):71-76; 13 ref.

Link D; Severo Pedrolo S, 1987. Biological aspects of Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel, 1767) at Santa Maria-RS. Revista do Centro de Ciências Rurais, 17(4):309-317; [4 fig.]; 7 ref.

Liogier HA, 1997. Descriptive flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent Islands: Spermatophyta-Dicotyledoneae Vol. 5: Acanthaceae to Compositae. Puerto Rico: Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico.

Liu Jian; Dong Ming; Miao SL; Li ZhenYu; Song MingHua; Wang RenQing, 2006. Invasive alien plants in China: role of clonality and geographical origin. Biological Invasions, 8(7):1461-1470.

Lordello RRA; Lordello AIL; Paulo EM, 1988. Reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica in weeds. Paper presented at the XII Brazilian Nematology Congress held at Dourados, MS, Brazil from 1-5 Feb. Lab. Nematol., IAC, Caixa Postal 28, 13001, Campinas, SP, Brazil. Nematologia Brasileira, 12:84-92.

Lorenzi H, 1982. Weeds of Brazil, terrestrial and aquatic, parasitic, poisonous and medicinal. (Plantas daninhas de Brasil, terrestres, aquaticas, parasitas, toxicas e medicinais.) Nova Odessa, Brazil: H. Lorenzi, 425 pp.

Lorenzi H, 1986. Plantas daninhas do Brasil. Centro de Tecnologia Copersucar.

Macleod IL; Frost PR, 2002. Dimethenamid-P - a new selective herbicide for Australian horticulture. 13th Australian Weeds Conference: weeds "threats now and forever?", Sheraton Perth Hotel, Perth, Western Australia, 8-13 September 2002: papers and proceedings, 204-205; 1 ref.

Maina JM; Thuranira EG; Kibata GN; Musembi FJ; Nyanyu G; Muthamia JGN; Okuro JO; Mutura I; Amboga S; Micheni AN; Mureithi F; Overfield D; Terry PJ, 2001. Participatory development of weed management strategies in maize based cropping systems in Kenya. The BCPC Conference: Weeds, 2001, Volume 1 and Volume 2. Proceedings of an international conference held at the Brighton Hilton Metropole Hotel, Brighton, UK, 12-15 November 2001, 199-204; 13 ref.

Martinez D G; Medina P J; Tasistro S A; Fischer C A, 1983. Methods of controlling weeds in maize, Zea mays; effect of control methods, density and distribution of the crop. Revista Chapingo, 8(40):83-89

Mertelfk J; G÷tzovß B; Mokrß V, 1996. Epidemiological aspects of tomato spotted wilt virus infection in the Czech Republic. Acta Horticulturae, No. 432:368-375; 13 ref.

Mitidieri A; Bianchini PR, 1973. Herbicide evaluation for weed control in spinach, spinach beet and red beet. Informe Tecnico, Estacion Experimental Agropecuaria San Pedro, Argentina, No. 14:14 pp.

Mito T; Uesugi T, 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research, 8(2):171-191.

Mondin CA, 2014. Galinsoga in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil (Galinosoga in the list of species of the flora of Brazil). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB104151

Monte JP del; Sobrino E, 1993. Distribution in Spain of five allochthonous species, weeds of gardens in the central region. Proceedings of the 1993 Congress of the Spanish Weed Science Society, Lugo, Spain, 1-3 December 1993 Madrid, Spain; Sociedad Espanola de Malherbologia (Spanish Weed Science Society), 29-36

Montenegro-Galvez V; Criollo-Escobar H, 1978. The effect of competition between cool climate Phaseolus beans cv. Diacol Andino and weeds. Revista de Ciencias Agricolas, 8(1/14):26-34

Moyer JR; Owenya ZJ; Kibuwa SP, 1989. Weed populations and agronomic practice at wheat farms on the Hanang plains in Tanzania. Tropical Pest Management, 35(1):26-29; 9 ref.

Muminovic S, 1990. Competitive effects between weeds and crops in the field. Fragmenta Herbologica Jugoslavica, 19(2):103-116

Murray L, 1992. Galinsoga parviflora Cav. New South Wales Flora Online. http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?page=nswfl&lvl=sp&name=Galinsogãparviflora

Nagaraju; Muniyappa V; Singh SJ; Virupakshappa K, 1997. Occurrence of a mosaic virus disease on sunflower in Karnataka. Indian Phytopathology, 50(2):277-281; 8 ref.

Nankar JT; Singh M; Mukhtar Singh, 1981. Weed flora in relation to season and location and economics of weed control in potato in the hills and plains of north-western India. In: Proceedings of the Eighth Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference, 1981. Parbhani, India: Dep. Agron., Marathwada Agric. Univ., 79-83.

Neogi B; Rao RR, 1980. Floristic composition of the weed flora, seasonal variation and phenology of some weeds of agriculture lands in Khasi Hills, Meghalaya. Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy, B, 46(4):579-586

Ngongo M; Lunze L, 2000. Dominant plant species as indices of soil productivity and the response of common bean and application of compost. African Crop Science Journal, 8(3):251-261; 42 ref.

Nobile RA; Edreira GE; Rienzo Jdi, 2002. Phenological development of Galinsoga parviflora Cav. "smallflower galinsoga" in C=rdoba city's green belt (Argentine). AgriScientia, 19:67-72; 12 ref.

Orchard AE, 1994. Flora of Australia. Vol. 49, Oceanic islands 1. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Owenya ZJ; Makoko BR; Moyer JR, 1987. Weed populations and cultural practices on wheat farms of the Hanang complex in Tanzania. Fifth Regional Wheat Workshop for Eastern, Central and Southern Africa and the Indian Ocean., 209-214; 6 ref.

Pandey AK; Prakash V; Singh RD; Mani VP, 2002. Studies on crop-weed competition and weed dynamics in maize under mid-hill conditions of N-W Himalayas. Indian Journal of Weed Science, 34(1/2):63-67; 7 ref.

Pandza M; Franjic J; Trinajstic I; Skvorc Z; Stancic Z, 2001. The most recent state of affairs in the distribution of some neophytes in Croatia. Natura Croatica, 10(4):259-275.

Paradkar V; Tiwari JP; Yadav SK, 2002. Survey of weeds in semi irrigated and irrigated wheat of satpurazone of Madhya Pradesh. Bharatiya Krishio Anusandhan Patrika, 17:2-3, 99-105.

Parker C, 1992. Weeds of Bhutan. Weeds of Bhutan., vi + 236 pp.

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Prete CEC; Nunes Júnior J; Menten JOM, 1984. Fungi associated with weed seeds. Summa Phytopathologica, 10(3/4):260-267; 19 ref.

Pulschen L, 1992. The influence of weeds on yield parameters of teff (Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter) and wheat (Triticum turgidum (L.) Thell. var. durum (Desf.) Mac.Key) with different levels of nitrogen fertilizer. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, Sonderheft 13:191-196

Pysek P; Sádlo J; Mandák B, 2002. Catalogue of alien plants of the Czech Republic. Preslia, 74(2):97-186.

Rai JPN; Tripathi RS, 1984. Allelopathic effects of Eupatorium riparium on population regulation of two species of Galinsoga and soil microbes. Plant and Soil, 80(1):105-117; [4 fig., 8 tab.]; 30 ref.

Rai JPN; Tripathi RS, 1984. Population dynamics of different seedling cohorts of two co-existing annual weeds, Galinsoga ciliata and G. parviflora, on two contrasting sites. Acta Oecologica, Oecologia Plantarum, 5(4):357-368

Rai JPN; Tripathi RS, 1985. Effect of herbivory by the slug, Mariaella dussumieri, and certain insects on growth and competitive success of two sympatric annual weeds. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 13(2):125-137; [4 fig.].

Rai JPN; Tripathi RS, 1986. Effects of density and soil nitrogen levels on growth of Galinsoga quadriradiata and G. parviflora in pure and mixed stands. Canadian Journal of Botany, 64(11):2708-2715

Rai JPN; Tripathi RS, 1986. Population regulation of Galinsoga ciliata (Raf.) Blake and G. parviflora Cav.: effect of 2,4-D application at different growth stages and light regimes. Weed Research, UK, 26(1):59-67

Rai JPN; Tripathi RS, 1987. Germination and plant survival and growth of Galinsoga parviflora Cav. as related to food and energy content of its ray- and disc-achenes. Acta Oecologica, Oecologia Plantarum, 8(2):155-165

Rana SS, 2002. Evaluation of promising herbicide combinations for weed management in rajmash (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under dry temperate conditions of Himachal Pradesh. Indian Journal of Weed Science, 34(3/4):227-230; 4 ref.

Russo S; GimTnez RA; Rodrfguez SM; Della Penna AB, 2001. Interactions among the cultivations of oats and wheat, weeds, aphids and predators. IDESIA, 19(1/2):7-16; 16 ref.

Safonov GE, 1992. An addition to the flora of the Astrakhan region. Botanicheskii Zhurnal, 77(5):60-61

Schmidt RR, 1986. Studies on the influence of different rotational crops and herbicidal treatments on weed flora and crop plants. Pflanzenschutz-Nachrichten Bayer, 39(3):246-344

Schwerzel PJ; Thomas PEL; Oosterman HM; Lindert HJA van, 1979. The influence of weeds on yield parameters of teff (Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter) and wheat (Triticum turgidum (L.) Thell. var. durum (Desf.) Mac.Key) with different levels of nitrogen fertilizer. Annual report 1977-78.

Shukla DD; Shanks GJ; Teakle DS; Behncken GM, 1979. Mechanical transmission of galinsoga mosaic virus in soil. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences, 32(2):267-276

Singh RV; Arya MPS, 1999. Integrated weed management in barnyard millet. Annals of Agricultural Research, 20(1):35-38; 3 ref.

Singh RV; Arya MPS, 1999. Integrated weed management in fingermillet (Eleusine coracana). Indian Journal of Agronomy, 44(3):571-575; 4 ref.

Slonovschi V, 1982. Contributions to the knowledge of grades of weediness in agricultural crops on the Moldavian Plain. Cercetari Agronomice in Moldova, No.2:148-152

Srikanth J; Mallikarjunappa S; Kumar P; Reddy GVP, 1988. Record of new hosts for lantana bug. Current Research - University of Agricultural Sciences (Bangalore), 17(5):60-61; 10 ref.

Stalder L, 1978. Report of activities 1978 Swiss Canning Industry. Trials on chemical weed control in beetroot, Swiss chard, asparagus, beans and spinach. Tatigkeitsbericht 1978 zu Handen der schweizerischen Konservenindustrie. Versuche zur chemischen Unkrautbekampfung in Randen, Mangold, Grunspargeln, Bohnen und Spinat., 20 pp.

Steden C; Schulte M, 2000. Eclat - mode of action and experiences in tank mixtures for weed control in maize. Zeitschrift fu^umlaut~r Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, Sonderh. 17:683-688; 4 ref.

Sun EJ; Huang MH, 1995. Detection of peroxyacetyl nitrate at phytotoxic levels and its effects on vegetation in Taiwan. A&WMA International.

Tao JF; Qin Y, 1987. Taxonomic studies on the genus Plasmopara of China III. New species, new combination and new record of Plasmopara on family Compositp. Acta Mycologica Sinica, 6(2):65-73

Terry PJ; Michieka RW, 1987. Common Weeds of East Africa. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Tessema T; Lemma Y; Admasu B, 1999. Qualitative and quantitative determination of weed occurrence in wheat in West Shewa Zone of Ethiopia. Proceedings of the Tenth Regional Wheat Workshop for Eastern, Central and Southern Africa, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa, 14-18 September, 1998., 160-172; 12 ref.

Thomas PEL; Schwerzel PJ, 1979. Weed competition in Rhodesian wheat. Rhodesia Agricultural Journal, 76(2):73-75

Thomas PEL; Schwerzel PJ; Lindert HJA van, 1978. Competition studies .Henderson Res. Sta., Salisbury, Rhodesia.

Toit AEJ du; Court de Billot MRle, 1991. Weed emergence patterns of some arable weeds under field conditions. South African Journal of Plant and Soil, 8(3):153-157

Toskov K; Dimitrova M, 2002. Effectiveness and selectivity of some herbicides on tomatoes from in-house propagation. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 8(2/3):223-228; 12 ref.

Ugen MA; Wien HC; Wortmann CS, 2002. Dry bean competitiveness with annual weeds as affected by soil nutrient availability. Weed Science, 50(4):530-535; 24 ref.

Urban I, 1920. Symbolae Antillanae,seu, Fundamenta florae Indiae Occidentalis, Volume 8.

Usami Y, 1976. Ecological studies on weeds in mulberry fields. 2. Auto-ecology of Galinsoga parviflora Cav. Weed Research, Japan, 21(2):76-80

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Vibrans H, 2009. Malezas de México. Listado alfabético de las especies, ordenadas por género (Weeds of Mexico. Alphabetical list of species, ordered by genera). http://www.conabio.gob.mx/malezasdemexico/2inicio/paginas/lista-plantas-generos.htm

Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press/Bishop Museum Press, 1919 pp.

Waithaka JM, 1976. The effect of 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, diuron, linuron and NATA on Bidens pilosa L. and Galinsoga parviflora Cav., two major weeds of arable land. Proceedings of the Sixth East African Weed Science Conference., 49-56

Walter H, 1981. Investigations into the nature and importance of weeds in sorghum in Yemen. Plant Protection Bulletin, Department of Plant Protection, Ministry of Agriculture, Yemen Arab Republic, 2:13-17

Wang HuaFeng; López-Pujol J; Meyerson LA; Qiu JiangXiao; Wang XiaoKe; Ouyang ZhiYun, 2011. Biological invasions in rapidly urbanizing areas: a case study of Beijing, China. Biodiversity and Conservation, 20(11):2483-2509. http://www.springerlink.com/content/vq847t82k48u28j6/

Warwick SI; Sweet RD, 1983. The biology of Canadian weeds. 58. Galinsoga parviflora and G. quadriradiata (= G. ciliata). Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 63(3):695-709

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in South-East Asia. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research.

Wegorek K; Lipa JJ, eds. , 1979. Poznan, Poland: Proceedings of the XIX Conference of The Scientific Institute of Plant Protection, 267-278.

Wiesner K; Haberland R, 1980. Population density and species spectrum of surviving weeds in sugar-beet crops. Archiv fur Phytopathologie und Pflanzenschutz, 16(3):217-226

Wu TL, 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised):384 pp.

Zagonel J; VenGncio WS; Kunz RP, 2000. Effect of methods and control time of weeds in maize crop. Planta Daninha, 18(1):143-150; 12 ref.

Zajac M; Zajac A, 2001. Success factors enabling the penetration of mountain areas by kenophytes: an example from the Northern Polish Carpathians. Plant invasions: species ecology and ecosystem management, 271-279; 17 ref.

Zawirska I, 1979. Studies on the tobacco thrip (Thrips tabaci Lind.) and its role in the transmission of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) on tobacco. In: Wegorek W, Lipa JJ, ed. Proceedings of the XIX Conference of the Scientific Institute of Plant Protection.: Materialy XIX Sesji Naukowej Instytutu Ochrony Roslin. Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Rolnicze i Lesne Oddzial w Poznaniu. Poznan Poland, 267-278

Zinikeviciute D; Baleliunas P, 1998. Efficiency of Butisan S for white head cabbage and cauliflower. Z^hacek~emdirbyste^dot over~, Mokslo Darbai, 62:53-62; 10 ref.

Zorilla RA; Davide RG, 1983. Host range, development and survival of the potato cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, Woll., on potato in the Philippines. Philippine Agriculturalist, 66(4):439-447.

Zweep AT; Ast Avan, 1990. The influence of red/far red ratios of light and of a plant cover on the germination of some weed species. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 55(36):1029-1217

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Amador-Ramírez M D, 2002. Critical period of weed control in transplanted chilli pepper. Weed Research (Oxford). 42 (3), 203-209. DOI:10.1046/j.0043-1737.2002.00278.x

Anon, 1994. Flora of Australia. Vol. 49, Oceanic islands 1. [ed. by Orchard A E]. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Batra S W T, 1979. Insects associated with weeds of the northeastern United States: Quickweeds, Galinsoga ciliata and G. parviflora (Compositae). Environmental Entomology. 8 (6), 1078-1082. DOI:10.1093/ee/8.6.1078

Bosque J L, Izquierdo J, 1997. Relationship between edaphic properties and weed distribution in horticultural crops along the Catalan coast. (Relación entre caracteres edáficos y distribución de la flora arvense de los cultivos hortícolas del litoral Catalán.). In: Proceedings of the 1997 congress of the Spanish Weed Science Society, Valencia, Spain, 24-26 November 1997. [Proceedings of the 1997 congress of the Spanish Weed Science Society, Valencia, Spain, 24-26 November 1997.], Madrid, Spain: Sociedad Española de Malherbología. 255-260.

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean., Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Canne J M, 1977. A revision of the genus Galinsoga (Compositae: Heliantheae). Rhodora. 79 (819), 319-389.

Cantele A, Zanin G, Zuin M C, 1984. Evolution of the weed flora of maize in Friuli (northeast Italy) and the part played by monoculture. (Évolution de la flore adventice du maïs en Frioul (Italie nord-orientale) et rôle de la monoculture.). In: Comptes rendus du 7ème colloque international sur l'écologie, la biologie et la systématique des mauvaises herbes. [Comptes rendus du 7ème colloque international sur l'écologie, la biologie et la systématique des mauvaises herbes.], Paris, France: COLUMA/EWRS. 437-447.

Chandra SK, 2012. Invasive Alien Plants of Indian Himalayan Region- Diversity and Implication. In: American Journal of Plant Sciences, 3 177-184.

Chiriță N, Chiriță D, Popa F, Beraru C, 1998. Effectiveness of some new herbicides for controlling dicotyledonous weeds of soyabeans. (Eficacitatea unor noi erbicide în combaterea buruienilor dicotiledonate din cultura de soia.). Cercetări Agronomice în Moldova. 31 (3/4), 89-94.

Choroszewski P, 1994. Infestation of potato cultures with weeds in Poland. (Stan zachwaszczenia ziemniaka w Polsce.). Ochrona Roślin. 38 (7), 9-11.

DAISIE, 2014. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. http://www.europe-aliens.org/

Davidse G, Sousa-Peña M, Knapp S, Chiang Cabrera F, 2014. Asteraceae. In: Flora Mesoamericana, 5 (2) [ed. by Davidse G, Sousa Sánchez M, Knapp S, Chiang Cabrera F]. Mexico: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

EPPO, 2014. EPPO Global database (available online). Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

Finot S V L, Urbina P A, Minoletti O M L, Wilckens E R, Figueroa R M, Riquelme C M, 1996. Achene and seedling morphology of Asteraceae weed species from south-central Chile. I. (Morfología de los aquenios y plántulas de malezas de la familia Asteraceae del centro-sur de Chile. I.). Agro-Ciencia. 12 (1), 15-29.

Gamor F D, Komendar V I, Abramova L M, Mirkin B M, 1983. Dependence of distribution of trans-Carpathian weeds on altitude. Ukraïns'kiĭ Botani¯chniĭ Zhurnal. 40 (4), 54-57, 95.

Gao G Y, Boggs J F, Bennett P J, Martin J C, Chatfield J A, Rose M A, Rimelspach J W, Zondag R H, Street J R, Pound W E, 1999. Weed problems in Ohio turf, landscapes, and nurseries: 1998. Special Circular - Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center. 55-58.

Gofflot A, Verhoyen M, 1990. Speedy development of tomato spotted wilt virus infection transmitted by Frankliniella occidentalis in ornamental greenhouse cultivars in Belgium. (Foudroyante progression des infections de tomato spotted wilt virus transmis par le thrips Frankliniella occidentalis dans les cultures ornementales de serres en Belgique.). Parasitica. 46 (2-3), 85-88.

Greve L, 2001. Dioxyna bidentis (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830) (Diptera, Tephritidae) new to Norway. Norwegian Journal of Entomology. 48 (2), 250.

Grosse A, 1996. Flora and Fauna Catalog of Introduced Paraguay species. In: I3N - IABIN Invasive Information Network,

Hilbig W, Mahn E-G, 1971. The mapping of arable weeds as a basis for the objective use of herbicides. SYS-Reporter. 2-23.

Holm LG, Pancho JV, Herbenger JP, Plucknett DL, 1979. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds., New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons.

Hsu C-C, 1973. Some noteworthy plants found in Taiwan. Taiwania. 62-72.

Hulina N, 1978. The weed association Panico-Galinsogetum Tx ex Becker 1942 in Turopolje Region. (Korovska zajednica Panico-Galinsogetum Tx et Becker 1942 u podrucju Turopolja.). Fragmenta Herbologica Jugoslavica. 6 (106-115), 73-79.

I3N-Chile, 2014. [English title not available]. (Red de Información sobre especies invasoras)., Santiago, Chile: Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Facultad de Química y Biología. http://i3n.usach.cl/index.asp

Kang B H, Kwon Y W, Lee H K, 1996. Current status and problem of exotic weeds in Korea. In: Import and export of agricultural products and plant quarantine. '96 International Symposium, Seoul, Korea Republic, 19 May 1996. [Import and export of agricultural products and plant quarantine. '96 International Symposium, Seoul, Korea Republic, 19 May 1996.], Suwon, Korea: Seoul National University, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. 101-128.

Klikocka H, Wesolowski M, 2002. Studies on introduction of weed-control and soil tillage in Solanum tuberosum L. cultivation in Poland. Landbauforschung Völkenrode. 52 (1), 53-58.

Konstantinov K A, Nikolova V, 1983. Changes in the weed associations of the main vegetable crops. Gradinarska i Lozarska Nauka. 20 (5), 82-89.

Laca-Buendia J P, Brandão M, 1994. Survey and quantitative analysis of weeds occurring in coffee plantations in areas formerly occupied by cerrado in Triangulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaiba. (Cadastramento e análise quantitativa das plantas daninhas ocorrentes em cafezais localizados em áreas anteriormente ocupadas pela formação cerrado no Triângulo Mineiro e Alto Paranaíba.). Daphne, Revista do Herbário PAMG da EPAMIG. 4 (4), 71-76.

Liu Jian, Dong Ming, Miao S L, Li ZhenYu, Song MingHua, Wang RenQing, 2006. Invasive alien plants in China: role of clonality and geographical origin. Biological Invasions. 8 (7), 1461-1470. http://www.springerlink.com/content/f602vq201p78722m/fulltext.pdf DOI:10.1007/s10530-005-5838-x

Lorenzi H, 1982. Plantas daninhas de Brasil, terrestres, aquaticas, parasitas, toxicas e medicinais. Nova Odessa, Brazil: H. Lorenzi. 425 pp.

Macleod I L, Frost P R, 2002. Dimethenamid-P - a new selective herbicide for Australian horticulture. In: 13th Australian Weeds Conference: weeds "threats now and forever?", Sheraton Perth Hotel, Perth, Western Australia, 8-13 September 2002: papers and proceedings. [ed. by Jacob H S, Dodd J, Moore J H]. Victoria Park, Australia: Plant Protection Society of Western Australia Inc. 204-205.

Maina J M, Thuranira E G, Kibata G N, Musembi F J, Nyanyu G, Muthamia J G N, Okuro J O, Mutura I, Amboga S, Micheni A N, Mureithi F, Overfield D, Terry P J, 2001. Participatory development of weed management strategies in maize based cropping systems in Kenya. In: The BCPC Conference: Weeds, 2001, Volume 1 and Volume 2. Proceedings of an international conference held at the Brighton Hilton Metropole Hotel, Brighton, UK, 12-15 November 2001. Farnham, UK: British Crop Protection Council. 199-204.

Martínez D G, Medina P J, Tasistro S A, Fischer C A, 1983. Methods of controlling weeds in maize, Zea mays; effect of control methods, density and distribution of the crop. (Sistemas de control de malezas en maiz, Zea mays; efecto de métodos de control, densidad y distribución del cultivo.). Revista Chapingo. 8 (40), 83-89.

Mitidieri A, Bianchini P R, 1973. Herbicide evaluation for weed control in spinach, spinach beet and red beet. Informe Tecnico, Estacion Experimental Agropecuaria San Pedro, Argentina. 14 pp.

Mito T, Uesugi T, 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and new regulations for prevention of their adverse effects. In: Global Environmental Research, 8 (2) 171-191.

Mondin CA, 2014. Galinosoga in the list of species of the flora of Brazil. (Galinsoga in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil)., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB104151

Moyer J R, Owenya Z J, Kibuwa S P, 1989. Weed populations and agronomic practice at wheat farms on the Hanang plains in Tanzania. Tropical Pest Management. 35 (1), 26-29.

Muminović Š, 1990. Competitive effects between weeds and crops in the field. (Kompeticijski efekti između korova i usjeva u poljskim uslovima.). Fragmenta Herbologica Jugoslavica. 19 (2), 103-116.

Murray L, 1992. Galinsoga parviflora Cav., New South Wales Flora Online. http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/NSWfl.pl?page=nswfl&lvl=sp&name=Galinsogãparviflora

Nankar JT, Singh M, Mukhtar Singh, 1981. Weed flora in relation to season and location and economics of weed control in potato in the hills and plains of north-western India. [Proceedings of the Eighth Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society Conference, 1981], Parbhani, India: Dep Agron, Marathwada Agric Univ. 79-83.

Neogi B, Rao R R, 1980. Floristic composition of the weed flora, seasonal variation and phenology of some weeds of agriculture lands in Khasi Hills, Meghalaya. Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy, B. 46 (4), 579-586.

Ngongo M, Lunze L, 2000. Dominant plant species as indices of soil productivity and the response of common bean and application of compost. (Espèce d'herbe dominante comme indice de la productivité du sol et de la réponse du haricot commun a l'application du compost.). African Crop Science Journal. 8 (3), 251-261.

Nobile R A, Edreira G E, Rienzo J di, 2002. Phenological development of Galinsoga parviflora Cav. "smallflower galinsoga" in Córdoba city's green belt (Argentine). (Comportamiento fenológico de Galinsoga parviflora Cav. "albahaca silvestre" en el cinturón verde de Córdoba (Argentina).). AgriScientia. 67-72.

Owenya Z J, Makoko B R, Moyer J R, 1987. Weed populations and cultural practices on wheat farms of the Hanang complex in Tanzania. In: Fifth Regional Wheat Workshop for Eastern, Central and Southern Africa and the Indian Ocean. [Fifth Regional Wheat Workshop for Eastern, Central and Southern Africa and the Indian Ocean.], Mexico City, Mexico: CIMMYT. 209-214.

Pandey A K, Prakash V, Singh R D, Mani V P, 2002. Studies on crop-weed competition and weed dynamics in maize under mid-hill conditions of N-W Himalayas. Indian Journal of Weed Science. 34 (1/2), 63-67.

Pandža M, Franjić J, Trinajstić I, Škvorc Z, Stančić Z, 2001. The most recent state of affairs in the distribution of some neophytes in Croatia. Natura Croatica. 10 (4), 259-275.

Paradkar V, Tiwari JP, Yadav SK, 2002. Survey of weeds in semi irrigated and irrigated wheat of satpurazone of Madhya Pradesh. In: Bharatiya Krishio Anusandhan Patrika, 17 (2-3) 99-105.

Parker C, 1992. Weeds of Bhutan. Thimphu, Bhutan: National Plant Protection Centre. vi + 236 pp.

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Rana S S, 2002. Evaluation of promising herbicide combinations for weed management in rajmash (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under dry temperate conditions of Himachal Pradesh. Indian Journal of Weed Science. 34 (3/4), 227-230.

Russo S, Giménez R A, Rodríguez S M, Della Penna A B, 2001. Interactions among the cultivations of oats and wheat, weeds, aphids and predators. (Interacciones entre los cultivos de avena y trigo, malezas, afidos y predadores.). IDESIA. 19 (1/2), 7-16.

Safonov G E, 1992. An addition to the flora of the Astrakhan region. Botanicheskiĭ Zhurnal. 77 (5), 60-61.

Schmidt R R, 1986. Studies on the influence of different rotational crops and herbicidal treatments on weed flora and crop plants. Pflanzenschutz-Nachrichten Bayer. 39 (3), 246-344.

Schwerzel PJ, Thomas PEL, Oosterman HM, Lindert HJA van, 1979. The influence of weeds on yield parameters of teff (Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter) and wheat (Triticum turgidum (L.) Thell. var. durum (Desf.) Mac.Key) with different levels of nitrogen fertilizer. In: Annual report 1977-78, 1977-78.

Shukla D D, Shanks G J, Teakle D S, Behncken G M, 1979. Mechanical transmission of galinsoga mosaic virus in soil. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences. 32 (2), 267-276.

Slonovschi V, 1982. Contributions to the knowledge of grades of weediness in agricultural crops on the Moldavian Plain. (Contributii la cunoasterea gradului de imburuienare a culturilor agricole din Cimpia Moldovei.). Cercetari Agronomice in Moldova. 148-152.

Stalder L, 1978. Report of activities 1978 Swiss Canning Industry. Trials on chemical weed control in beetroot, Swiss chard, asparagus, beans and spinach. (Tatigkeitsbericht 1978 zu Handen der schweizerischen Konservenindustrie. Versuche zur chemischen Unkrautbekampfung in Randen, Mangold, Grunspargeln, Bohnen und Spinat.). In: Tatigkeitsbericht 1978 zu Handen der schweizerischen Konservenindustrie. Versuche zur chemischen Unkrautbekampfung in Randen, Mangold, Grunspargeln, Bohnen und Spinat. 20 pp.

Steden C, Schulte M, 2000. Eclat® - mode of action and experiences in tank mixtures for weed control in maize. (Eclat® - Wirkungsprofil und Erfahrungen in Tankmischungen zur Unkrautbekämpfung in Mais.). In: Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz [Proceedings 20th German conference on weed biology and weed control, Stuttgart-Hohenheim, Germany, 14-16 March, 2000.], [ed. by Haas H U, Hurle K]. 683-688.

Sun EnJang, Huang MingHuei, 1995. Detection of peroxyacetyl nitrate at phytotoxic level and its effects on vegetation in Taiwan. In: Atmospheric Environment [A&WMA International speciality conference on regional photochemical measurements and modeling, San Diego, California, USA, 8-12 Nov. 1993.], 29 (21) 2899-2904. DOI:10.1016/1352-2310(94)00329-J

Terry P J, Michieka R W, 1987. Magugu ya Afrika Mashariki. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. xiii + 194 pp.

Tessema T, Lemma Y, Admasu B, 1999. Qualitative and quantitative determination of weed occurrence in wheat in West Shewa Zone of Ethiopia. In: Proceedings of the Tenth Regional Wheat Workshop for Eastern, Central and Southern Africa, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa, 14-18 September, 1998. [Proceedings of the Tenth Regional Wheat Workshop for Eastern, Central and Southern Africa, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa, 14-18 September, 1998.], Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT). 160-172.

Toit A E J du, Court de Billot M R le, 1991. Weed emergence patterns of some arable weeds under field conditions. (Patrone van opkoms van sekere onkruide in veldtoestande.). South African Journal of Plant and Soil. 8 (3), 153-157.

Toskov K, Dimitrova M, 2002. Effectiveness and selectivity of some herbicides on tomatoes from in-house propagation. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science. 8 (2/3), 223-228.

Ugen M A, Wien H C, Wortmann C S, 2002. Dry bean competitiveness with annual weeds as affected by soil nutrient availability. Weed Science. 50 (4), 530-535. DOI:10.1614/0043-1745(2002)050[0530:DBCWAW]2.0.CO;2

Usami Y, 1976. Ecological studies on weeds in mulberry fields. 2. Auto-ecology of Galinsoga parviflora Cav. Weed Research, Japan. 21 (2), 76-80.

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Wagner W L, Herbst D R, Sohmer S H, 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai'i, Vols. 1 & 2. Honolulu, USA: University of Hawai'i Press/Bishop Museum Press. 1918 + [1] pp.

Waithaka J M, 1976. The effect of 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, diuron, linuron and NATA on Bidens pilosa L. and Galinsoga parviflora Cav., two major weeds of arable land. In: Proceedings of the Sixth East African Weed Science Conference. [Proceedings of the Sixth East African Weed Science Conference.], 49-56.

Walter H, 1981. Investigations into the nature and importance of weeds in sorghum in Yemen. Plant Protection Bulletin, Department of Plant Protection, Ministry of Agriculture, Yemen Arab Republic. 13-17.

Wang HuaFeng, López-Pujol J, Meyerson L A, Qiu JiangXiao, Wang XiaoKe, Ouyang ZhiYun, 2011. Biological invasions in rapidly urbanizing areas: a case study of Beijing, China. Biodiversity and Conservation. 20 (11), 2483-2509. http://www.springerlink.com/content/vq847t82k48u28j6/ DOI:10.1007/s10531-011-9999-x

Warwick S I, Sweet R D, 1983. The biology of Canadian weeds. 58. Galinsoga parviflora and G. quadriradiata (= G. ciliata). Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 63 (3), 695-709.

Wu TL, 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. In: Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin, 1 384.

Zagonel J, Venâncio W S, Kunz R P, 2000. Effect of methods and control time of weeds in maize crop. (Efeitos de métodos e épocas de controle das plantas daninhas na cultura do milho.). Planta Daninha. 18 (1), 143-150. DOI:10.1590/S0100-83582000000100014

Zając M, Zając A, 2001. Success factors enabling the penetration of mountain areas by kenophytes: an example from the Northern Polish Carpathians. In: Plant invasions: species ecology and ecosystem management. [ed. by Brundu G, Brock J, Camarda I, Child L, Wade M]. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers. 271-279.

Zinikevičiu¯tė D, Baleliu¯nas P, 1998. Efficiency of Butisan S for white head cabbage and cauliflower. (Butizano S efektyvumas auginant gu¯žinius ir žiedinius kopu¯stus.). Žemdirbystė, Mokslo Darbai. 53-62.

Contributors

Top of page

22/04/14 Updated by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map