Glycaspis brimblecombei (red gum lerp psyllid)
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Vectors
- Plant Trade
- Wood Packaging
- Impact Summary
- Economic Impact
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore
Preferred Common Name
- red gum lerp psyllid
Local Common Names
- Mexico: conchuela del eucalipto
- GLYSBR (Glycaspis brimblecombei)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Uniramia
- Class: Insecta
- Order: Hemiptera
- Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
- Unknown: Psylloidea
- Family: Psyllidae
- Genus: Glycaspis
- Species: Glycaspis brimblecombei
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page The order Psylloidea, commonly called psyllids or jumping plant lice, encompasses approximately 2500 species worldwide. Red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei, was described from specimens collected in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia from "blue gum" eucalyptus in 1925 and 1936 (Moore, 1964). Glycaspis was assigned to the family Spondyliaspidae but this family has more recently been subsumed into the Psyllidae.
The genus Glycaspis contains approximately 140 species divided into three subgenera by Moore (Glycaspis, Boreioglycaspis and Synglycaspis) which are further divided into 20 groups (Moore 1970a, 1983). G. brimblecombei is included in the 20 species taylori group in the subgenus Glycaspis, which contains 88 species. The genus Glycaspis is distributed throughout Australia and as far away as Malaysia and the Philippines.
The common name red gum lerp psyllid refers to the favoured hosts of the psyllid, Eucalyptus species in the river red gum group including E. camaldulensis, and to the lerp, an Aboriginal term for the cone-shaped nymphal covering composed of excreted sugary honeydew and probably other chemical components produced by the Malpighian tubules. Not all Glycaspis species produce lerps, although numerous other species in other genera in Australia and elsewhere do produce lerps. The shapes and general appearance of the lerps can be species specific, but the cone-shaped lerp of G. brimblecombei is not distinctive enough for species identification.
DescriptionTop of page Eggs
These are laid randomly on the leaves or in clusters of 50-75 eggs, usually at an angle or perpendicular to the plant surface. They are spindle-shaped, yellow or cream coloured, and are slightly less than 1 mm in length.
There are four nymphal stages or instars. Size varies up to the end of the last instar, approximately 1.5-2.0 mm in length. The body colour is yellowish orange, with dark-brown coloration on the wing pads, legs, antennae, last abdominal segments, and in blotches on the dorsal areas of the head and thorax. The wing pads and other parts of the body have bright white spots associated with setal positions. The nymphs do not produce white flocculent wax secretions as in some other eucalyptus feeding species, but instead use the lerp covering as a source of shelter and protection from the elements. The lerps are 1-4 mm in diameter depending on the stage of the nymph, and are usually whitish in appearance, but may take on a grey or black coloration with age or if sooty mould begins to grow on the lerp. Lerps still occupied by nymphs often have curled tendrils of wax protruding from the upper surface.
These are approximately 4-5 mm in length from the head to the wing tips. The colour of the adult is yellow or light green with contrasting dark eyes, and with occasional dark-brown markings. The genal cones, a common morphological feature of most psyllids, consist of a pair of cone-shaped extensions of the frons and may extend anteriorly or downward depending on the head orientation of a given species. In G. brimblecombei, the genal cones are extremely long and well developed, being as long or longer than the head itself.
DistributionTop of page
Prior to 1998, G. brimblecombei had been restricted to Australia. Within Australia, it is restricted to the far eastern side of the continent, with collections known from near Adelaide in South Australia, numerous locations to the south and east of the Murray-Darling River in New South Wales, and as far north as Queensland at Brisbane, North Clermont and East Callide (Moore, 1970c).
In June of 1998, red gum lerp psyllid was discovered heavily infesting eucalyptus trees at El Monte, Los Angeles County, California, USA (Gill 1998; Brennan et al., 1999). A few weeks later it was discovered infesting and defoliating numerous trees in a specimen eucalyptus grove in Alameda County near San Francisco, a distance of nearly 310 km (500 miles). Within the year, the psyllid was found in nearly every locality in California where Eucalyptus camaldulensis and its relatives were being grown. Populations were discovered in Arizona in 2000 (D Mills, Arizona Department of Agriculture, USA, personal communication, 2004). In 2001 it was discovered in Florida and in 2001 in Hawaii on the islands of Maui and Oahu. It also spread (probably naturally) from southern California into Baja California, Mexico, and has expanded from there to 21 Mexican states (EPPO, 2004b). Various websites suggest that the psyllid is also in Cuba, but no published records are available.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Israel||Present||Spodek et al., 2015|
|Turkey||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2015; Karaca et al., 2015|
|Algeria||Present||Reguia and Peris-Felipo, 2013; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|Madagascar||Present||EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|Mauritius||Present||EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|Morocco||Restricted distribution||EPPO, 2014; Messoudi et al., 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|South Africa||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|-Canary Islands||Present||Malumphy, 2010; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|Tunisia||Present||Attia and Rapisarda, 2014; Dhahri et al., 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|Zambia||Present||Chungu et al., 2017|
|Mexico||Widespread||Introduced||2000||Invasive||Gobierno del Distrito Federal Mexico, 2004; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|USA||Restricted distribution||EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|-Arizona||Present||EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|-California||Present||Introduced||1998||Invasive||Gill, 1998; Brennan et al., 1999; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|-Florida||Present||Introduced||2001||Invasive||Halbert, 2001; Halbert et al., 2001; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|-Hawaii||Present||Introduced||2001||Invasive||Nagamine and Heu, 2001; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|Argentina||Restricted distribution||EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|Brazil||Present||EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|-Bahia||Restricted distribution||Masson et al., 2009; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|-Espirito Santo||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|-Goias||Present||Introduced||Lutinski et al., 2006; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|-Mato Grosso||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|-Mato Grosso do Sul||Present||Introduced||Lutinski et al., 2006; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|-Minas Gerais||Present||Introduced||Lutinski et al., 2006; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|-Parana||Present||Introduced||Lutinski et al., 2006; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|-Pernambuco||Present||Breda et al., 2010; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|-Rio Grande do Sul||Present||Introduced||Oliveira et al., 2006; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|-Santa Catarina||Present||Introduced||Lutinski et al., 2006; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|-Sao Paulo||Present||Introduced||Ferreira et al., 2008; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|Chile||Present||Introduced||2002||Marín and Parra, 2003; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|Colombia||Present||Rodas et al., 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|Ecuador||Present||EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|Peru||Present||Burckhardt et al., 2008; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|Venezuela||Present||EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|France||Restricted distribution||Cocquempot et al., 2012; EPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|-Corsica||Restricted distribution||EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|Greece||Present||Bella and Rapisarda, 2013; Reguia and Peris-Felipo, 2013; Bella, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|-Greece (mainland)||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|Italy||Restricted distribution||Laudonia and Garonna, 2010; Germinara et al., 2011; Frasconi et al., 2013; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|-Italy (mainland)||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|-Sardinia||Present||EPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|-Sicily||Widespread||EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|Montenegro||Present||Malumphy et al., 2013; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|Portugal||Present||Bella, 2013; Dhahri et al., 2014; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|Spain||Restricted distribution||Borrajo et al., 2009; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|-Balearic Islands||Present||EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|-Spain (mainland)||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|Australia||Widespread||Native||EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|-Australian Northern Territory||Present||EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|-New South Wales||Present||Native||Moore, 1970c; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|-Queensland||Present||Native||Moore, 1970c; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|-South Australia||Present||Native||Moore, 1970c; EPPO, 2014; CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|-Western Australia||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2015|
|New Zealand||Restricted distribution||CABI/EPPO, 2015; EPPO, 2018|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page G. brimblecombei is native to eastern Australia. The first record of this psyllid outside Australia was in California, USA, in June 1998 (Gill, 1998; Brennan et al., 1999), although it was obviously present for some time prior to that date as evidenced by the wide distribution and heavy populations found at the time. Its method of entry is unknown. The psyllid moved into Arizona, where it was found in multiple locations near Phoenix, and later at other locations (D Mills, Arizona Department of Agriculture, USA, personal communication, 2004). Sources of infestations in Arizona are probably due to the movement of nursery stock, or adults in vehicles. The psyllid was found in the State of Florida in April 2001 at Lake Buena Vista (Halbert 2001; Halbert et al., 2001) and later in 2001 it was detected in Hawaii on the islands of Maui and Oahu (Nagamine and Heu, 2001). Various websites suggest that it occurs in at least 21 states in Mexico (EPPO, 2004b). Undoubtedly it moved from initial infestations in southern California into the neighbouring state of Baja California Norte, and then on into mainland Mexico. It was detected in Sao Paulo, Brazil in 2003 (Lutinski et al., 2006; Santana and Burckhardt, 2007).
Habitat ListTop of page
|Coastal areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Cultivated / agricultural land||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Disturbed areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production)||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Rail / roadsides||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Urban / peri-urban areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Deserts||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Natural forests||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Natural grasslands||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Riverbanks||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Wetlands||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page The common hosts of G. brimblecombei in Australia are Eucalyptus blakelyi, E. camaldulensis, E. dealbata, E. tereticornis and possibly E. nitens (Moore 1970a, b). Red gum lerp psyllid also occurs on E. brassiana, E. bridgesiana, E. camphora and E. mannifera subsp. maculosa. The primary host of the red gum lerp psyllid outside Australia (in California, USA) is E. camaldulensis.
Additional hosts include E. diversicolor, E. globulus and E. sideroxylon (Brennan et al., 1999). Brennan et al. (2001) later conducted a study to determine the degree of resistance of California-grown eucalypt species. Numerous species proved to have greater or lesser resistance to psyllid attack, but three species, E. rudis, E. camaldulensis and E. tereticornis, showed severe susceptibility.
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Eucalyptus camaldulensis (red gum)||Myrtaceae||Main|
|Eucalyptus globulus (Tasmanian blue gum)||Myrtaceae||Main|
|Eucalyptus lehmannii (bushy yate)||Myrtaceae||Main|
|Eucalyptus nicholii (willow-leaved peppermint)||Myrtaceae||Other|
|Eucalyptus nitens (shining gum)||Myrtaceae||Other|
|Eucalyptus sideroxylon (black ironbark)||Myrtaceae||Main|
|Eucalyptus tereticornis (forest red gum)||Myrtaceae||Main|
Growth StagesTop of page Vegetative growing stage
SymptomsTop of page G. brimblecombei injury includes leaf discoloration and, in heavy infestations, severe leaf drop and twig dieback. In California, USA, tree death is often the result, arising both from the affects of severe and multiple defoliations, but also from attacks by introduced cerambycid beetles (Phoracantha spp.). In addition, the nymphs produce a large amount of honeydew, which falls to the ground where it will adhere to the feet of pedestrians and animals, or drop onto vehicles, outdoor furniture, appliances and swimming pools. The defoliated leaves are also a serious problem, since they fall into swimming pools and are tracked into buildings. Also, the honeydew is a substrate for sooty mould growth that further detracts from the appearance of the trees and whatever the honeydew falls on.
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Growing point / honeydew or sooty mould|
|Growing point / honeydew or sooty mould|
|Growing point / wilt|
|Growing point / wilt|
|Leaves / abnormal leaf fall|
|Leaves / abnormal leaf fall|
|Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould|
|Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould|
|Leaves / yellowed or dead|
|Leaves / yellowed or dead|
|Stems / dieback|
|Stems / dieback|
|Stems / honeydew or sooty mould|
|Stems / honeydew or sooty mould|
|Stems / necrosis|
|Stems / necrosis|
|Whole plant / early senescence|
|Whole plant / early senescence|
|Whole plant / plant dead; dieback|
|Whole plant / plant dead; dieback|
Biology and EcologyTop of page The native habitat of G. brimblecombei is in eastern Australia, a rather humid location. However, the psyllid is doing very well in the warmer, dryer areas of California, USA, where summer rain is generally non-existent. It does have more annual generations in the coastal areas of southern California, where the summer temperatures are cooler and the humidity is higher, but winter temperatures are warmer than in the rest of the state.
Red gum lerp psyllid has five life stages: an egg stage, four nymphal (larval) stages and the adult. The number of generations per year varies with temperature. In southern California, generations are continuous and usually overlapping, with apparently no winter diapause. In northern California, there appears to be only one annual generation and a partial second in the interior valleys. In Australia, it is multivoltine, with two to four annual generations (Morgan, 1984). Morgan also states that egg incubation times may last a week to 5 months depending on temperature and other environmental conditions.
Few studies have been conducted on the niches occupied by red gum lerp psyllid in the host trees, but Brennan et al. (1999) observed that G. brimblecombei does not prefer the immature foliage for oviposition and development of the nymphs as do other Australian psyllid species that have been introduced into California, USA. They observed that this psyllid oviposits and completes its life cycle on both sides of expanding, expanded and fully mature leaves. For this reason, damage to the trees has been extremely severe as a result of defoliation of all leaves on the tree, and new leaves are attacked almost immediately as they expand.
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page Morgan (1984) lists a number of predators that feed on eucalyptus psyllids in general, including various bird species, syrphid flies, spiders, mites, lizards and in some cases ants. Species of parasitic wasps in the genus Psyllaephagus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from south-eastern Australia have been investigated for biological control of G. brimblecombei in California, USA, and some success has been achieved with P. bliteus (Dahlsten et al., 2001, 2005). In addition, in California, Brennan et al. (1999) list brown and green lacewings (Neuroptera) and Heteroptera (Anthocoris nemoralis and Zelus renardii) and coccinellid beetles (Harmonia axyridis, Chilocorus bipustulatus, Hippodamia convergens and Coccinella californica). Dragonflies (Odonata) are observed in California hawking adults on the downwind sides of infested trees as the on-shore breezes dislodge adults from the trees (RJ Gill, California Department of Food and Agriculture, Sacramento, USA, personal observation). Birds have also been observed feeding on the psyllids in California (University of California Agricultural Extension, USA, unpublished data). However, predators are not necessarily effective natural enemies and their presence in California has had little effect in controlling high populations.
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
The adults are strong fliers. In California, USA, local spread has been rapid because the host trees are widely and commonly planted.
Movement in Trade and Transport
The method of introduction into California is not known and movement pathways across California are unclear, although it undoubtedly moved on commercial nursery plants, and as adults in vehicles, as evidenced by its establishment on trees planted in rather isolated rest areas provided along the major north-south highways. Its establishment in Arizona, Florida and the Hawaiian Islands is likely to be due to movement of nursery plants from California to those locations, or by movement of adults in conveyances such as trucks and aircraft.
Pathway VectorsTop of page
|Land vehicles||Trucks and cars.||Yes|
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Leaves||adults; eggs; larvae; nymphs; pupae||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches||adults||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|Growing medium accompanying plants|
|True seeds (inc. grain)|
Wood PackagingTop of page
|Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Loose wood packing material|
|Processed or treated wood|
|Solid wood packing material with bark|
|Solid wood packing material without bark|
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Fisheries / aquaculture||None|
|Fisheries / aquaculture||None|
ImpactTop of page
Little had been published on the status of the red gum lerp psyllid until it was established in the state of California in the USA, where it has become a very serious pest of certain Eucalyptus species especially the river red gum E. camaldulensis. In Australia, occasional outbreaks of G. brimblecombei have been known to occur, usually after a drought year followed by heavy rainfall (Morgan, 1984). Red gum lerp psyllid has been a very serious pest outside Australia in ornamental plantings and in some eucalypt plantations in California, USA, where it has been introduced without benefit of effective natural controls. Numerous authors allude to its occasional devastating effects in local newspapers, pest control newsletters and university extension publications. Most eucalypt species were planted in California from seed in the early 1800s (Doughty, 2000; Paine and Millar, 2002), and so few pests had been introduced into the State. However, in recent years, numerous Australian species have been introduced there due probably to the introduction of plant specimens in the nursery trade. When red gum lerp psyllid was introduced, heavy populations and severe damage resulted. Insecticidal sprays and systemics are ineffective and costly. In California, USA, some Eucalyptus plantations are used for firewood and paper pulp production. These agricultural uses have been affected by red gum lerp psyllid, but occur in the northern part of the State where the number of generations per year is less than in southern California. However, very serious damage has been done to trees used in ornamental plantings and in commercial operations such as golf courses. Severe, repeated defoliations by the psyllid and subsequent activity of eucalyptus longhorned borers (Cerambycidae: Phoracantha spp.) caused many of these highly susceptible trees to die, requiring removal which is extremely expensive.
In Brazil, G. brimblecombei caused significant damage to eucalypt plantations in the first years of its introduction (Santana and Burckhardt, 2007).
Economic ImpactTop of page Little had been published on the status of the red gum lerp psyllid until it was established in the state of California in the USA, where it has become a very serious pest of certain Eucalyptus species especially the river red gum E. camaldulensis. In Australia, occasional outbreaks of G. brimblecombei have been known to occur, usually after a drought year followed by heavy rainfall (Morgan, 1984).
Red gum lerp psyllid has been a very serious pest outside Australia in ornamental plantings and in some eucalypt plantations in California, USA, where it has been introduced without benefit of effective natural controls. Numerous authors allude to its occasional devastating effects in local newspapers, pest control newsletters and university extension publications. Most eucalypt species were planted in California from seed in the early 1800s (Doughty, 2000; Paine and Millar, 2002), and so few pests had been introduced into the State. However, in recent years, numerous Australian species have been introduced there due probably to the introduction of plant specimens in the nursery trade. When red gum lerp psyllid was introduced, heavy populations and severe damage resulted. Insecticidal sprays and systemics are ineffective and costly.
In California, USA, some Eucalyptus plantations are used for firewood and paper pulp production. These agricultural uses have been affected by red gum lerp psyllid, but occur in the northern part of the State where the number of generations per year is less than in southern California. However, very serious damage has been done to trees used in ornamental plantings and in commercial operations such as golf courses. Severe, repeated defoliations by the psyllid and subsequent activity of eucalyptus longhorned borers (Cerambycidae: Phoracantha spp.) caused many of these highly susceptible trees to die, requiring removal which is extremely expensive.
Detection and InspectionTop of page Good detection protocols recommend examination of all the leaves of the preferred hosts for the presence of the whitish conical lerps and for honeydew and sooty mould.
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page There are approximately 140 species in the genus Glycaspis, mostly in Australia, along with four species in the subgenus Boreioglycaspis occurring in Malaysia (including Sabah) and the Philippines (Hodkinson 1983). Keys to the subgenera of Glycaspis are provided by Moore (1970a). Keys to species are not available. Taxonomically, separation of species relies almost entirely on the shape and setation of the male claspers (parameres). Minor diagnostic characteristics can involve wing venation, the form of any lerps produced by the nymphs, and host restrictions (Moore 1970a, b, 1983). The identification of G. brimblecombei requires the use of Moore (1970a, b) in order to compare the paramere shapes with that of other species in the genus.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Cultural Control and Sanitary Methods
General advice includes non-fertilization and limited watering, which makes the trees less attractive to the psyllids and may save the trees until parasitoids can reduce pest numbers.
Chemical control is under investigation in California, USA, although little has been published in scientific journals. Most information is distributed to interested clientele through various newsletters and extension bulletins, such as Dreistadt et al. (1999). Spraying of small trees may be useful to reduce high populations, but the effects are usually not long lasting. Controlling the psyllids with sprays in large trees is difficult and costly, requiring very thorough coverage of all leaf surfaces. It is also difficult to contain the sprays on the properties where they are being applied. Few chemicals are registered for use on Eucalyptus, although some mention has been made of spray oils and insecticidal soaps. Some measure of lasting control has been observed using systemic insecticides such as imidacloprid and abamectin, and this is sometimes recommended if valuable or specimens trees are to be saved. These chemicals should be applied as a soil drench rather than injection, because the injection method is costly and may harm the trees further.
In California, introduction of the natural enemy Psyllaephagus bliteus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) has resulted in some biological control of red gum lerp psyllid. According to Paine et al. (2000), there had been trouble rearing enough of the parasites to allow adequate numbers to be released to ensure establishment. Releases began in June 2000 and the parasite had established in at least one location in 2001 (Dahlsten et al., 2001). Preliminary data (unpublished) produced by the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) in conjunction with D Dahlsten (University of California) suggests a 22% overall parasitism for all sites monitored, with up to 80% parasitism at certain locations.
ReferencesTop of page
Attia SB, Rapisarda C, 2014. First record of the red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera Psyllidae), in Tunisia. Phytoparasitica, 42(4):535-539. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12600-014-0391-8
Bella S, 2013. New alien insect pests to Portugal on urban ornamental plants and additional data on recently introduced species. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 49(4):374-382. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tase20
Bella S, 2014. Invasive insect pests and their associated parasitoids on ornamental urban plants on Corfu island - Phytoliriomyza jacarandae Steyskal and Spencer 1978 (Diptera, Agromyzidae) a new record in Greece. Hellenic Plant Protection Journal, 7(2):53-59. http://en.bpi.gr/files/journal/2014/July/VOLUME%207%20-%20ISSUE%202%20(July%202014).pdf
Bella S, Rapisarda C, 2013. First record from Greece of the invasive red gum lerp psyllid Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera Psyllidae) and its associated parasitoid Psyllaephagus bliteus Riek (Hymenoptera Encyrtidae). Redia, 96:33-35. http://www.redia.it
Borrajo P, López G, Ruiz F, 2009. First report of the occurrence of Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Homoptera, Psyllidae) in SW of Spain. (Primera cita de la presencia de Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Homoptera, Psyllidae) en SO de España.) Boletín de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 35(3):355-361
Breda MO, Oliveira JVde, Moreira AN, Queiroz DLde, 2010. Record of Glycaspis brimblecombei on Eucalyptus spp., in Petrolina, Pernambuco State, Brazil. (Registro de Glycaspis brimblecombei em Eucalyptus spp., em Petrolina, Pernambuco.) Pesquisa Florestal Brasileira, 30(63):253-255. http://www.cnpf.embrapa.br/pfb/index.php/pfb/article/view/160/134
Brennan EB, Gill RJ, Hrusa GF, Weinbaum SA, 1999. First record of Glycaspis brimblecombei (Moore) (Homoptera: Psyllidae) in North America: initial observations and predator associations of a potentially serious new pest of eucalyptus in California. Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 75(1):55-57
Brennan EB, Hrusa GF, Weinbaum SA, Levison WJr, 2001. Resistance of Eucalyptus species to Glycaspis brimblecombei (Homoptera: Psyllidae) in the San Francisco Bay area. Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 77(4):249-253; 19 ref
Burckhardt D, Lozada PW, Diaz B W, 2008. First record of the red gum lerp psyllid Glycaspis brimblecombei (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) from Peru. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 81(1/2):83-85
Chungu, D., Shakacite, O., Chama, H., Chungu, B. C., Mbindo, K., Mulongwe, L., 2017. First record of the red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), in Zambia. African Journal of Ecology, 55(3), 380-382. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2028 doi: 10.1111/aje.12353
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Dahlsten DL, Daane KM, Paine TD, Sime KR, Lawson AB, Rowney DL, Roltsch WJ, Andrews JW Jr, Kabashima JN, Shaw DA, Robb KL, Geisel PM, Chaney WE, Ingels CA, Varela LG, Bianchi ML, Taylor G, 2005. Imported parasitic wasp helps control red gum lerp psyllid. California Agriculture, 59(4):229-234. http://CaliforniaAgriculture.ucop.edu
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Gill RJ, 1998. New state records: Redgum lerp psyllid. California Department of Food and Agriculture Plant Pest and Disease Report, 17:7-8
Gobierno del Distrito Federal Mexico, 2004. Control de la plaga que afecta a el eucalipto. Secretaria del Medio Ambiente. http://www.sma.df.gob.mx/varios/plaga.htm http://www.sma.df.gob.mx
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Halbert SE, Gill RJ, Nisson JN, 2001. Two Eucalyptus psyllids new to florida (Homoptera: Psyllidae). Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Entomology Circular No. 407
Karaca I, Kayahan A, Simsek B, Çelikpençe Y, 2015. First record of Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae), in Turkey. Phytoparasitica, 43(2):171-175. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12600-015-0457-2
Laudonia S, Garonna AP, 2010. The red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei, a new exotic pest of Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Italy. Bulletin of Insectology, 63(2):233-236. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/
Lutinski JA, Lutinski CJ, Garcia FRM, 2006. First record of Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore 1964, (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in eucalyptus in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. (Primeiro registro de Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore 1964, (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) em eucalipto no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil.) Ciência Rural, 36(2):653-655. http://www.ufsm.br/ccr/revista
Malumphy C, 2010. First record of the red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), in the Canary Islands. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 146(1754-59):148. http://www.pemberleybooks.com
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Marín S, Parra SN, 2003. The attack of Glycaspis brimblecombei. Chile Forestal, No. 297:10
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Messoudi L, Rohi L, Ouguas Y, 2014. Preliminary results on the Eucalyptus psyllid Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) in the region of Marrakech (Morocco). (Résultats préliminaires sur le psylle de l'EucalyptusGlycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) dans la région de Marrakech (Maroc).) Bulletin de l'Institut Scientifique: Section Sciences de la Vie, 36:49-56. http://www.israbat.ac.ma/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/7-%20Messoudi%20et%20al.%20(49-56).pdf
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Moore KM, 1964. Four new species of Glycaspis (Homoptera: Psyllidae) from Queensland. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 89(1):163-166
Moore KM, 1970. A revision of the genus Glycaspis (Homoptera: Psyllidae) with descriptions of seventy-three new species. Australian Zoologist, 15(3)248-342
Moore KM, 1970. Results from a study of the genus Glycaspis (Homoptera: Psyllidae) with descriptions of seventy-three new species. Australian Zoologist, 15(3)343-376
Moore KM, 1970. The Glycaspis spp. (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) – Eucalyptus camaldulensis associations. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 7:3-7
Nagamine WT, Heu RA, 2001. Red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Homoptera: Psyllidae). New Pest Advisory No. 01-02, July 2001. http://www.hawaiiag.org/hdoa/npa/npa01-02_rpsyllid.pdf
Oliveira Lda S, Costa EC, Grellmann M, Cantarelli EB, Perrando ER, 2006. Occurrence of Glycaspis brimblecombei (Moore, 1964) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Eucalyptus spp. in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. (Ocorrência de Glycaspis brimblecombei (Moore, 1964) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) em Eucalyptus spp. no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.) Ciência Florestal, 16(3/4):353-355
Reguia K, Peris-Felipo FJ, 2013. Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964 (Hemiptera Psyllidae) invasion and new records in the Mediterranean area. Biodiversity Journal, 4(4):501-506. http://www.biodiversityjournal.com/pdf/4(4)_501-506.pdf
Rodas CA, Serna R, Hurley BP, Bolaños MD, Granados GM, Wingfield MJ, 2014. Three new and important insect pests recorded for the first time in Colombian plantations. Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science, 76(4):245-252. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tsfs20
Santana DLde Q, Burckhardt D, 2007. Introduced Eucalyptus psyllids in Brazil. Journal of Forest Research, 12(5):337-344. http://www.springerlink.com/content/x06808512u8v6115/?p=568bb025ec1d48748afe6445a73c573c&pi=2
Spodek M, Burckhardt D, Protasov A, Mendel Z, 2015. First record of two invasive eucalypt psyllids (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) in Israel. Phytoparasitica, 43(3):401-406. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12600-015-0465-2
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