Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Acarus siro
(flour mite)

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Datasheet

Acarus siro (flour mite)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Acarus siro
  • Preferred Common Name
  • flour mite
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Chelicerata
  •         Class: Arachnida

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Acarus siro (flour mite); adult male. Dorsal view.
TitleAdult male
CaptionAcarus siro (flour mite); adult male. Dorsal view.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by Pavel Klimov, Bee Mite ID
Acarus siro (flour mite); adult male. Dorsal view.
Adult maleAcarus siro (flour mite); adult male. Dorsal view.Public Domain - Released by Pavel Klimov, Bee Mite ID
Acarus siro (flour mite); male - dorsum.
TitleMale
CaptionAcarus siro (flour mite); male - dorsum.
Copyright©MAFF, Central Science Laboratory, York, England
Acarus siro (flour mite); male - dorsum.
MaleAcarus siro (flour mite); male - dorsum.©MAFF, Central Science Laboratory, York, England
Acarus siro (flour mite); the phoretic hypopal stage: a and b - Dorsum and venter of A. siro hypopal stage: 2c and d - Dorsum and venter of A. farris hypopal stage. Specific features which separate the species are: difference in lengths of dorsal setae d1, d2 and l2 (Figs. a & c), and position of genital seta g (Figs. b & d).
TitlePhoretic hypopal stage
CaptionAcarus siro (flour mite); the phoretic hypopal stage: a and b - Dorsum and venter of A. siro hypopal stage: 2c and d - Dorsum and venter of A. farris hypopal stage. Specific features which separate the species are: difference in lengths of dorsal setae d1, d2 and l2 (Figs. a & c), and position of genital seta g (Figs. b & d).
Copyright©MAFF, Central Science Laboratory, York, England
Acarus siro (flour mite); the phoretic hypopal stage: a and b - Dorsum and venter of A. siro hypopal stage: 2c and d - Dorsum and venter of A. farris hypopal stage. Specific features which separate the species are: difference in lengths of dorsal setae d1, d2 and l2 (Figs. a & c), and position of genital seta g (Figs. b & d).
Phoretic hypopal stageAcarus siro (flour mite); the phoretic hypopal stage: a and b - Dorsum and venter of A. siro hypopal stage: 2c and d - Dorsum and venter of A. farris hypopal stage. Specific features which separate the species are: difference in lengths of dorsal setae d1, d2 and l2 (Figs. a & c), and position of genital seta g (Figs. b & d).©MAFF, Central Science Laboratory, York, England
Acarus siro (flour mite); Micro-tarsal characters (spine s and solenidion omega1 (W1) as taxonomic criteria for the separation of the three species of the A. siro complex - a, Tarsus and genu II of A. siro; b, Tarsus and genu II of A. farris; c, Tarsus and genu II of A. immobilis.
TitleMicro-tarsal characters
CaptionAcarus siro (flour mite); Micro-tarsal characters (spine s and solenidion omega1 (W1) as taxonomic criteria for the separation of the three species of the A. siro complex - a, Tarsus and genu II of A. siro; b, Tarsus and genu II of A. farris; c, Tarsus and genu II of A. immobilis.
Copyright©MAFF, Central Science Laboratory, York, England
Acarus siro (flour mite); Micro-tarsal characters (spine s and solenidion omega1 (W1) as taxonomic criteria for the separation of the three species of the A. siro complex - a, Tarsus and genu II of A. siro; b, Tarsus and genu II of A. farris; c, Tarsus and genu II of A. immobilis.
Micro-tarsal charactersAcarus siro (flour mite); Micro-tarsal characters (spine s and solenidion omega1 (W1) as taxonomic criteria for the separation of the three species of the A. siro complex - a, Tarsus and genu II of A. siro; b, Tarsus and genu II of A. farris; c, Tarsus and genu II of A. immobilis.©MAFF, Central Science Laboratory, York, England

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Acarus siro Linnaeus

Preferred Common Name

  • flour mite

Other Scientific Names

  • Acarus siro var. farinae Linnaeus, 1758
  • Aleurobius farinae Koch (ex DeGeer and Linnaeus)
  • Tyroglyphus farinae Latreille (1796)
  • Tyroglyphus siro Lat. sensu Robin 1860

International Common Names

  • English: cereal mite; forage mite; grain mite; meal mite
  • Spanish: acaro marron; aleurobio de la harina
  • French: aleurobie de la farine; ciron de la farine; tyroglyphe de la farine

Local Common Names

  • Argentina: aranuela de la harina
  • Germany: Mehlmilbe
  • Italy: acaro della farina
  • Netherlands: Meelmijt
  • Norway: melmidd
  • Turkey: un akari

EPPO code

  • ACARSI (Acarus siro)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Chelicerata
  •                 Class: Arachnida
  •                     Subclass: Acari
  •                         Superorder: Acariformes
  •                             Order: Astigmata
  •                                 Family: Acaridae
  •                                     Genus: Acarus
  •                                         Species: Acarus siro

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / external feeding
Seeds / external feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Amblyseius agrestis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Amblyseius arutanjani Predator Adults/Nymphs
Amblyseius barkeri Predator
Amblyseius herbarius Predator Adults/Nymphs
Androlaelaps casalis Predator
Aspergillus restrictus Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Blattisocius dentriticus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Cheyletus eruditus Predator
Cheyletus malaccensis Predator
Hypoaspis aculeifer Parasite
Hypoaspis miles Predator Adults/Nymphs
Neoseiulus cucumeris Predator
Paragamasus diversus
Wallemia sebi Pathogen Adults/Nymphs

References

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Armitage DM, Burrell NJ, Llewellin BE, 1984. The effect of cooling and drying on mites in stored produce. In: Griffiths DA, Bowman CE, eds. Proceedings of the 6th International Congress of Acarology, Edinburgh. Chichester, UK: Ellis Horwood, 1014-1016

Athanassiou CG, Kavallieratos NG, Palyvos NE, Sciarretta A, Trematerra P, 2005. Spatiotemporal distribution of insects and mites in horizontally stored wheat. Journal of Economic Entomology, 98(3):1058-1069. HTTP://www.esa.catchword.org

Barker PS, 1993. Phoretic mites found on beetles associated with stored grain in Manitoba. Canadian Entomologist, 125(4):715-719

Boczek J, 1961. [Investigation on the distribution under field conditions of mites of importance to stored products]. Prace. Nauk IOR, 3 (I):81

Buchi R, 1991. Consequences of higher moisture content: attack by psocids and mites. Muhle + Mischfuttertechnik, 128(32):406-408

Cunnington AM, 1965. Physical limits for complete development of the grain mite Acarus siro L. (Acarina, Acaridae) in relation to its world distribution. Journal of Applied Ecology, 2:295-306

Cunnington AM, 1985. Factors affecting oviposition and fecundity in the grain mite Acarus siro L. (Acarina: Acaridae), especially temperature and relative humidity. Experimental & Applied Acarology, 1(4):327-344

Cusack PD, Evans GO, Brennan PA, 1975. A survey of the mites of stored grain and grain products in the Republic of Ireland. Scientific Proceedings of the Royal Dublin Society, B, 3(20):273-329

Davis R, Brown SW, 1969. Some population parameters for the grain mite, Acarus siro. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 62:1161-1166

El-Sayed FMA, Ghallab MMA, 2007. Survey on mites associated with major insect pests infesting stored grains in Middle Delta. Acarines, 1(1):29-38. http://www.esaeg.org

Emekci M, Toros S, 2000. Investigations on the stored grain mites. Orta Anadolu'da hububat tarImInIn sorunlarI ve çözüm yollarI Sempozyumu, Konya, Turkey, 8-11 Haziran 1999., 483-490; 20 ref

Fabricus JC, 1781. Species Insectorum Exhibitiens, II:489

Griffiths DA, 1964. A revision of the genus Acarus (Acaridae, Acarina). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) (Zoology), 11:413-464

Griffiths DA, 1964. Experimental studies on the symstematics of the genus Acarus Linnaeus 1758. (Sarcoptiformes, Acarina) Proceedings First Congress Acarology, Acarologia 6 (fasc. Hors. Ser.):101-116

Griffiths DA, 1970. A further systematic study of the genus Acarus L., 1758 (Acaridae, Acarina), with a key to species. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) (Zoology), 19: 89-120

Griffiths DA, Wilkin DR, Southgate BJ, Lynch SM, 1976. A survey of mites in bulk grain stored on farms in England and Wales. In: Proceedings of the Association of Applied Biologists, Annals of Applied Biology, 82:180-185

Hallas TE, Iversen M, Korsgaard J, Dahl R, 1991. Number of mites in stored grain, straw and hay related to the age of the substrate (Acari). Entomologiske Meddelelser, 59(2):57-60

He JuTang, Nan XingYuan, An XiLan, Wu ZhiMin, Wang FeXue, Zhang Duo, He FeiPeng, 2008. Investigation on dermatitis caused by parasitic acarid in household wheat in some areas of Gansu Province. Endemic Diseases Bulletin / Di Fang Bing Tong Bao, 23(2):23-25. http://dfbtb.periodicals.net.cn/default.html

Hughes AM, 1948. Mites Associated with Food Products. London, UK:HMSO, 16

Hughes AM, 1961. The Mites of Stored Food. Technical Bulletin of the Ministry of Agriculture, London, UK: MAFF, 287 pp

Hughes AM, 1976. The mites of stored food and houses. Technical Bulletin, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, No. 9, Ed. 2:[4 +] 400 pp

Kim KC, Kim SG, Choi HS, 1988. An investigation of insect pests and the period of maximum occurrence of key insect pests in stored rice grain. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology, 27(2):117-124

Kucerová Z, Horák P, 2004. Arthropod infestation in samples of stored seeds in the Czech Republic. Czech Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding, 40(1):11-16

Lehtinen PT, Oksala I, 1991. Astigmatic and prostigmatic mites of grain stores, mills and sawmills in Finland. The Acari. Reproduction, development and life-history strategies., 519-520

Li LS, Fan QH, 1997. A survey of food mites from four provisions in China. Systematic and Applied Acarology, 2:247-250

Mahla JC, 2001. Population dynamics of storage pests and their incidence in wheat grain under different climatic zones of Haryana. Annals of Agri Bio Research, 6(2):151-154

Michael AD, 1901-1903. British Tyroglyphidae, Volumes I and II. London, UK: Ray Society

Nesbitt HHJ, 1945. A revision of the family Acaridae (Tyroglyphidae) order Acari, based on comparative morphological studies. Canadian Journal of Research and Development, 23:139-188

Norris JD, 1958. Observations on the control of mite infestations in stored wheat by Cheyletus sp. (Acarina). Annals of Applied Biology, 46:411-422

Ottoboni F, Mazzuccato S, Rigamonti IE, Lozzia GC, 1993. Mites infesting flour and malt. Tecnica Molitoria, 44(8):673-676

Pulpan J, Verner PH, 1965. Control of tyroglyphid mites in stored grain by the predatory mite Cheyletus eruditus (Schrank). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 43:417-432

Putatunda BN, 2002. Mites (Acarina) in post harvest storage of some food grains in Himachal Pradesh, India. Plant Protection Bulletin Faridabad, 54(1/2): 25-27

Putatunda BN, 2005. Mites (Acarina) associated with stored food products in Himachal Pradesh, India: a taxonomic study. Journal of Entomological Research, 29(1):79-82

Robertson PL, 1946. Tyroglyphid mites in stored products in New Zealand. Transaction Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 76:185-207

Rozman V, Kalinovic I, 2001. Pests in livestock factories and their control. (Stetnici u tvornicama stocne hrane i njihovo suzbijanje.) Krmiva, 43(2):69-73

Seiedy M, Saboori A, Kamali K, Pakdel AK, 2009. Mites (Acari) found in flour mills in the Karaj region of Iran. Systematic and Applied Acarology, 14(3):191-196. http://www.acarology.org

Sinha RN, 1984. Acarine community in the stored rapeseed ecosystem, In: Griffiths DA, Bowman CE, eds. Proceedings of the 6th International Congress of Acarology, 2:1017-1025

Smith KG, 1967. Infestation by mites as a factor in the long term storage of flour. In: Evans GO, ed. Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress of Acarology. Budapest, Hungary: Academia Kiado, 249-253

Solomon ME, 1946. Tyroglyphid mites in stored products, ecological studies. Annals of Applied Biology, 50:178-184

Solomon ME, 1962. Ecology of the flour mite, Acarus siro L. (=Tyroglyphus farinae De G.). Annals of Applied Biology, 50:178-184

Stables LM, 1980. The effectiveness of some recently developed pesticides against stored-product mites. Journal of Stored Products Research, 16(3/4):143-146

Stables LM, Wilkin DR, 1981. Resistance to pirmiphos methyl in cheese mites. Proceedings of the British Crop Protection Conference, (Pests and Diseases), 617-624

Thind BB, Griffiths DA, 1979. Flotation technique for quantitative determination of mite populations in powdered and compacted foodstuffs. Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 62(2):278-282

Wilkin DR, 1975. The effects of mechanical handling and the admixture of acaricides on mites in farm-stored barley. Journal of Stored Products Research, 11(2):87-95

Wilkin DR, 1976. The control of stored product mites by contact acaricides. Proceedings of the Eighth British Insecticide and Fungicide Conference, 17th to 20th November 1975, Hotel Metropole, Brighton, England. Volumes 1, 2 & 3. London, UK: British Crop Protection Council, 355-363

Zatchvatkin AA, 1941. Arachnoidea, Acariens, Tyroglyphoides. Fauna de I'URSS Institute of Zoological Sciences Moscou NS, 6(28): 475 pp

Zdarkova E, 1967. Stored food mites in Czechoslovakia. Journal of Stored Products Research, 3: 155-171

Zdarkova E, 1996. Control of stored food mites by non-chemical methods. In: Council of Europe ed. Proceedings of the International Forum on Stored Product Protection and Post-harvest Treatment of Plant Products, Strasbourg, France, 165-169

Distribution References

Athanassiou C G, Kavallieratos N G, Palyvos N E, Sciarretta A, Trematerra P, 2005. Spatiotemporal distribution of insects and mites in horizontally stored wheat. Journal of Economic Entomology. 98 (3), 1058-1069. HTTP://www.esa.catchword.org DOI:10.1603/0022-0493-98.3.1058

Barker P S, 1993. Phoretic mites found on beetles associated with stored grain in Manitoba. Canadian Entomologist. 125 (4), 715-719.

BOCZEK J, 1961. Investigations on the distribution of mites of importance to stored products under field conditions. Praoe nauk. Inst. Ochr. Rosl. 3 (pt. 1), 81-99 pp.

Büchi R, 1991. Consequences of higher moisture content: attack by psocids and mites. (Folgen zu hoher Feuchtigkeit: Befall durch Staubläse und Milben). Mühle + Mischfuttertechnik. 128 (32), 406-408.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Cusack P D, Evans G O, Brennan P A, 1975. A survey of the mites of stored grain and grain products in the Republic of Ireland. In: Scientific Proceedings of the Royal Dublin Society, B, 3 (20) 273-329.

El-Sayed F M A, Ghallab M M A, 2007. Survey on mites associated with major insect pests infesting stored grains in Middle Delta. Acarines. 1 (1), 29-38. http://www.esaeg.org

Griffiths DA, 1964. A revision of the genus Acarus (Acaridae, Acarina). In: Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) (Zoology), 11 413-464.

Hallas T E, Iversen M, Korsgaard J, Dahl R, 1991. Number of mites in stored grain, straw and hay related to the age of the substrate (Acari). Entomologiske Meddelelser. 59 (2), 57-60.

He JuTang, Nan XingYuan, An XiLan, Wu ZhiMin, Wang FeXue, Zhang Duo, He FeiPeng, 2008. Investigation on dermatitis caused by parasitic acarid in household wheat in some areas of Gansu Province. Endemic Diseases Bulletin / Di Fang Bing Tong Bao. 23 (2), 23-25. http://dfbtb.periodicals.net.cn/default.html

Hughes A M, 1976. Technical Bulletin, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. [4 +] 400 pp.

Kim K C, Kim S G, Choi H S, 1988. An investigation of insect pests and the period of maximum occurrence of key insect pests in stored rice grain. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology. 27 (2), 117-124.

Kučerová Z, Horák P, 2004. Arthropod infestation in samples of stored seeds in the Czech Republic. Czech Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding. 40 (1), 11-16.

Li LongShu, Fan QingHai, 1997. A survey of food mites from four provinces of China. Systematic and Applied Acarology. 247-250.

Mahla J C, 2001. Population dynamics of storage pests and their incidence in wheat grain under different climatic zones of Haryana. Annals of Agri Bio Research. 6 (2), 151-154.

NESBITT H H J, 1945. A Revision of the Family Acaridae (Tyroglyphidae), Order Acari, based on Comparative Morphological Studies. Part I. Historical, Morphological, and General Taxonomic Studies. Canadian Journal of Research. 23 (6), 139-88.

Ottoboni F, Mazzuccato S, Rigamonti I E, Lozzia G C, 1993. Mites infesting flour and malt. (Acari infestanti farine e malto.). Tecnica Molitoria. 44 (8), 673-676.

Putatunda B N, 2002. Mites (Acarina) in post harvest storage of some food grains in Himachal Pradesh, India. Plant Protection Bulletin (Faridabad). 54 (1/2), 25-27.

Robertson P L, 1946. Tyroglyphid mites in stored products in New Zealand. Transaction Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand. 76 (2), 185-207.

Rozman V, Kalinović I, 2001. Pests in livestock factories and their control. (Štetnici u tvornicama stočne hrane i njihovo suzbijanje.). Krmiva. 43 (2), 69-73.

Seiedy M, Saboori A, Kamali K, Pakdel A K, 2009. Mites (Acari) found in flour mills in the Karaj region of Iran. Systematic and Applied Acarology. 14 (3), 191-196. http://www.acarology.org

Zatchvatkin A A, 1941. Fauna de l'URSS, NS. 6 (28) Moscow, USSR: Institute of Zoological Sciences. 475 pp.

ZDÁRKOVÁ E, 1967. Stored food mites in Czechoslovakia. Journal of Stored Products Research. 3 (2), 155-175 pp. DOI:10.1016/0022-474X(67)90024-0

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