Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Gibberella zeae
(headblight of maize)

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Datasheet

Gibberella zeae (headblight of maize)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Gibberella zeae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • headblight of maize
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Sordariomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Gibberella stalk rot (Gibberella zeae); symptoms - evidence of scab (Fusarium graminearum) on a head of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum).
TitleSymptoms
CaptionGibberella stalk rot (Gibberella zeae); symptoms - evidence of scab (Fusarium graminearum) on a head of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum).
Copyright©Howard F. Schwartz/Colorado State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Gibberella stalk rot (Gibberella zeae); symptoms - evidence of scab (Fusarium graminearum) on a head of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum).
SymptomsGibberella stalk rot (Gibberella zeae); symptoms - evidence of scab (Fusarium graminearum) on a head of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum).©Howard F. Schwartz/Colorado State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
A healthy wheat head (a) stands in contrast to one inoculated with Fusarium graminearum (b); note that the infected head is showing severe symptoms of Fusarium head blight disease.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionA healthy wheat head (a) stands in contrast to one inoculated with Fusarium graminearum (b); note that the infected head is showing severe symptoms of Fusarium head blight disease.
CopyrightKeith Weller - USDA-ARS - Public Domain
A healthy wheat head (a) stands in contrast to one inoculated with Fusarium graminearum (b); note that the infected head is showing severe symptoms of Fusarium head blight disease.
SymptomsA healthy wheat head (a) stands in contrast to one inoculated with Fusarium graminearum (b); note that the infected head is showing severe symptoms of Fusarium head blight disease.Keith Weller - USDA-ARS - Public Domain
Ear rot. A reddish mould, often at the ear tip, is the characteristic sign of Gibberella ear rot.
TitleSymptoms on maize ear
CaptionEar rot. A reddish mould, often at the ear tip, is the characteristic sign of Gibberella ear rot.
Copyright©ISU
Ear rot. A reddish mould, often at the ear tip, is the characteristic sign of Gibberella ear rot.
Symptoms on maize earEar rot. A reddish mould, often at the ear tip, is the characteristic sign of Gibberella ear rot.©ISU
Maize kernel symptoms.
TitleSymptomss
CaptionMaize kernel symptoms.
Copyright©ISU
Maize kernel symptoms.
SymptomssMaize kernel symptoms.©ISU
Stalk rot.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionStalk rot.
Copyright©ISU
Stalk rot.
SymptomsStalk rot.©ISU
Scab-infected germinating wheat seeds.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionScab-infected germinating wheat seeds.
Copyright©CIMMYT
Scab-infected germinating wheat seeds.
SymptomsScab-infected germinating wheat seeds.©CIMMYT
Close-up view through a fluorescence microscope of a thin cross-section of a barley seed infected with Fusarium graminearum. The seed’s epicarp tissue layer is infected with the Fusarium (seen as fluorescent green). The fungus stops at the testa layer (yellow-orange). It can take 2 weeks or longer before the fungus penetrates into the underlying starchy endosperm of the seed (stained blue). Finding out how to make the epicarp resistant to Fusarium could be the key to making barley resistant.
TitleMicrograph of infected seed
CaptionClose-up view through a fluorescence microscope of a thin cross-section of a barley seed infected with Fusarium graminearum. The seed’s epicarp tissue layer is infected with the Fusarium (seen as fluorescent green). The fungus stops at the testa layer (yellow-orange). It can take 2 weeks or longer before the fungus penetrates into the underlying starchy endosperm of the seed (stained blue). Finding out how to make the epicarp resistant to Fusarium could be the key to making barley resistant.
CopyrightRon Skadsen - USDA-ARS - Public Domain
Close-up view through a fluorescence microscope of a thin cross-section of a barley seed infected with Fusarium graminearum. The seed’s epicarp tissue layer is infected with the Fusarium (seen as fluorescent green). The fungus stops at the testa layer (yellow-orange). It can take 2 weeks or longer before the fungus penetrates into the underlying starchy endosperm of the seed (stained blue). Finding out how to make the epicarp resistant to Fusarium could be the key to making barley resistant.
Micrograph of infected seedClose-up view through a fluorescence microscope of a thin cross-section of a barley seed infected with Fusarium graminearum. The seed’s epicarp tissue layer is infected with the Fusarium (seen as fluorescent green). The fungus stops at the testa layer (yellow-orange). It can take 2 weeks or longer before the fungus penetrates into the underlying starchy endosperm of the seed (stained blue). Finding out how to make the epicarp resistant to Fusarium could be the key to making barley resistant.Ron Skadsen - USDA-ARS - Public Domain
Healthy resistant barley (b) and susceptible barley showing symptoms of Fusarium head blight (a).
TitleResistant and susceptible barley
CaptionHealthy resistant barley (b) and susceptible barley showing symptoms of Fusarium head blight (a).
CopyrightBrian Steffenson/University of Minnesota - USDA-ARS - Public Domain
Healthy resistant barley (b) and susceptible barley showing symptoms of Fusarium head blight (a).
Resistant and susceptible barleyHealthy resistant barley (b) and susceptible barley showing symptoms of Fusarium head blight (a).Brian Steffenson/University of Minnesota - USDA-ARS - Public Domain

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Gibberella zeae (Schwein.) Petch

Preferred Common Name

  • headblight of maize

Other Scientific Names

  • Fusarium graminearum Schwabe
  • Fusarium graminearum Schwabe Group 2
  • Fusarium roseum Link
  • Fusarium roseum f.sp. cerealis
  • Fusarium roseum var. graminearum
  • Gibbera saubinettii Mont.
  • Gibberella saubinetii (Mont.) Sacc.
  • Sphaeria zeae Schwein.

International Common Names

  • English: cobweb disease; ear rot of maize; fusarium root and stalk rot; gibberella ear rot; gibberella stalk rot; malformation disease; pink ear rot; red ear rot; root rot of maize; scab of maize; stalk rot of maize
  • Spanish: añublo blanco del maíz
  • French: flétrissement des plantules de maïs

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Ahrenfusariosen
  • USA: fusarium head blight; head blight; pink mould; scab; tombstone scab; whiteheads

EPPO code

  • GIBBZE (Gibberella zeae)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Sordariomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Hypocreomycetidae
  •                         Order: Hypocreales
  •                             Family: Nectriaceae
  •                                 Genus: Gibberella
  •                                     Species: Gibberella zeae

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

CameroonPresent
EgyptPresent
EthiopiaPresent
GambiaPresent
KenyaPresent
MalawiPresent
NigeriaPresent
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent
TunisiaPresent
ZambiaPresent, Widespread
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

AzerbaijanPresent
BangladeshPresent
ChinaPresent, Localized
-AnhuiPresent
-FujianPresent
-GansuPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-GuangxiPresent
-GuizhouPresent
-HebeiPresent
-HeilongjiangPresent
-HenanPresent
-HubeiPresent
-HunanPresent
-Inner MongoliaPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-JiangxiPresent
-JilinPresent
-LiaoningPresent
-NingxiaPresent
-QinghaiPresent
-ShaanxiPresent
-ShandongPresent
-ShanxiPresent
-SichuanPresent
-TibetPresent
-XinjiangPresent
-YunnanPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-BiharPresent
-GujaratPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-KarnatakaPresentOriginal citation: Krishnamurthy Hemalatha (2003)
-KeralaPresent
-ManipurPresent
-OdishaPresent
-PunjabPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-West BengalPresent
IranPresent
JapanPresent
-HokkaidoPresent
KazakhstanPresent
LebanonPresent
NepalPresent
PakistanPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresent
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
TaiwanPresent
TurkeyPresent
UzbekistanPresent

Europe

AustriaPresent
BelgiumPresent
BulgariaPresent
CroatiaPresentOsijek and Vinkovci, Slavonia
CzechiaPresent
CzechoslovakiaPresent
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent
DenmarkPresent
FinlandPresent
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent
GreecePresent
HungaryPresent
IcelandPresent
IrelandPresent
ItalyPresent
LithuaniaPresent
LuxembourgPresent
MoldovaPresent
NetherlandsPresent
NorwayPresent
PolandPresent
PortugalPresent
RomaniaPresent
RussiaPresent
-Northern RussiaPresent
-Russia (Europe)Present
-SiberiaPresent
-Southern RussiaPresent
SerbiaPresent
Serbia and MontenegroPresent
SlovakiaPresent
SloveniaPresent
SpainPresent
SwitzerlandPresent
UkrainePresent
United KingdomPresent

North America

CanadaPresent
-ManitobaPresent
-OntarioPresent
-Prince Edward IslandPresent
-QuebecPresent
-SaskatchewanPresent
Costa RicaPresent
DominicaPresent
GrenadaPresent
HondurasPresentOriginal citation: Fernandez (1990)
MexicoPresent
Saint LuciaPresent
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CaliforniaPresent
-ColoradoPresent
-ConnecticutPresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-HawaiiPresent
-IdahoPresent
-IllinoisPresent
-IndianaPresent
-IowaPresent
-KansasPresent
-LouisianaPresent
-MichiganPresent
-MinnesotaPresent
-MississippiPresent
-MissouriPresent
-NebraskaPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-North DakotaPresent
-OhioPresent
-OklahomaPresent
-OregonPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-South DakotaPresent
-TennesseePresent
-TexasPresent
-VirginiaPresent2006
-WashingtonPresent
-WisconsinPresent
-WyomingPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
-New South WalesPresent
-Northern TerritoryPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-VictoriaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
FijiPresent
New CaledoniaPresent
New ZealandPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent
Solomon IslandsPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BoliviaPresent
BrazilPresent
-Mato Grosso do SulPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-ParanaPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-Santa CatarinaPresent
ColombiaPresent
ParaguayPresent
PeruPresent
UruguayPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Inflorescence / discoloration panicle
Inflorescence / twisting and distortion
Leaves / abnormal colours
Roots / cortex with lesions
Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions
Roots / rot of wood
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Seeds / discolorations
Seeds / lesions on seeds
Stems / dieback
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / internal discoloration
Stems / internal red necrosis
Stems / mould growth on lesion
Stems / wilt

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Gibberella fujikuroi Pathogen South Africa

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

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1982. Abstracts of papers presented at the annual meeting of the Canadian Phytopathological Society, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, 20-23 June 1982. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 4(3):303-311

Aamot HU; Ward TJ; Brodal G; Vralstad T; Larsen GB; Klemsdal SS; Elameen A; Uhlig S; Hofgaard IS, 2015. Genetic and phenotypic diversity within the Fusarium graminearum species complex in Norway. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 142(3):501-519. http://rd.springer.com/journal/10658

Abbas HK; Mirocha CJ, 1986. Survival of Fusarium graminearum on corn stored at low temperature. Plant Disease, 70(1):78; 2 ref.

Abbas HK; Mirocha CJ; Meronuck RA; Pokorny JD; Gould SL; Kommedahl T, 1988. Mycotoxins and Fusarium spp. associated with infected ears of corn in Minnesota. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 54(8):1930-1933; 28 ref.

Abdel-Magid HM; Abdel-Aal SI; Rabie RK; Sabrah REA, 1995. Chicken manure as a biofertilizer for wheat in the sandy soils of Saudi Arabia. Journal of Arid Environments, 29(3):413-420; 6 ref.

Abeywickrama K; Bean GA, 1992. Cytotoxicity of Fusarium species mycotoxins and culture filtrates of Fusarium species isolated from the medicinal plant Tribulus terrestris to mammalian cells. Mycopathologia, 120(3):189-193; 16 ref.

Abramson D, 1998. Mycotoxin formation and environmental factors. In: Sinha KK, Bhatnagar D, eds. New York, USA: Marcel Dekker, Inc. Mycotoxins in Agriculture and Food Safety, 255-277.

Agarwal PC; Anitha K; Usha Dev; Baleshwar Singh; Ram Nath, 1993. Alternaria alternata, real cause of black point and differentiating symptoms of two other pathogens associated with wheat (Triticum aestivum) seeds. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 63(7):451-453; 4 ref.

Ahmad Y; Hameed A; Aslam M; Ghaffar A, 1997. Estimation of yield losses in corn due to stalk rot pathogens. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 29(2):229-234; 19 ref.

Ali, S., Rivera, V. V., Secor, G. A., 2005. First report of Fusarium graminearum causing dry rot of potato in North Dakota. Plant Disease, 89(1), 105. doi: 10.1094/PD-89-0105B

Anand Prakash; Jagadiswari Rao, 2001. Interactions of pentatomid bugs and certain pathogenic fungi to deteriorate paddy grain quality. Indian Phytopathology, 54(2):258-260.

Anon, 1993. Elite spring wheat cultivars. Crop Genetic Resources, No. 2. China, Tumnji Institute of Grassland Research.

Aoki T; O'Donnell K, 1999. Morphological and molecular characterization of Fusarium pseudograminearum sp. nov., formerly recognized as the Group 1 population of F. graminearum. Mycologia, 91(4):597-609; 38 ref.

Aoki T; O'Donnell K, 1999. Morphological characterization of Gibberella coronicola sp. nov., obtained through mating experiments of Fusarium pseudograminearum. Mycoscience, 40(6):443-453; 25 ref.

Arun Arya, 2000. Neem - a new host for Fusarium graminearum Schwabe. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 30(1):134.

Atlin GN; Enerson PM; McGirr LG; Hunter RB, 1983. Gibberella ear rot development and zearalenone and vomitoxin production as affected by maize genotype and Gibberella zeae strain. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 63(4):847-853

Baenziger PS; Moreno-Sevilla B; Peterson CJ; Schmidt JW; Shelton DR; Baltensperger DD; Nelson LA; McVey DV; Watkins JE; Hatchett JH, 1995. Registration of 'Alliance' wheat. Crop Science, 35(3):938.

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Baird RE; Mullinix BG; Peery AB; Lang ML, 1997. Diversity and longevity of the soybean debris mycobiota in a no-tillage system. Plant Disease, 81(5):530-534; 23 ref.

Ban T, 1997. Genetic analysis of Fusarium head blight resistance using wheat doubled haploids. In: Fusarium Head Scab: Global Status and Future Prospects. Proceedings of a workshop held at CIMMYT, El Batan, Mexico, 71-78.

Bechtel DB; Kaleiku LA; Gaine RL; Seitz LM, 1985. The effects of Fusarium graminearum infection on wheat kernels. Cereal Chemistry, 62:191-197.

Bekele G, 1991. Development of wheat germplasm resistant to fusarium head blight (Fusarium graminearum). Wheat for the nontraditional warm areas. Proceedings of an international conference, July 29-August 3, 1990, Foz do Iguacu, Brazil., 477-479.

Blaney BJ; Moore CJ; Tyler AL, 1987. The mycotoxins - 4-deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and aflatoxin - in weather-damaged wheat harvested 1983-1985 in south-eastern Queensland. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 38(6):993-1000.

Boosalis MG; Doupnik BL; Wysong DS; Watkins JE, 1983. The wheat scab epidemic of 1982. University of Nebraska Farm, Ranch Home Quarterly, 29:7-9.

Booth C, 1973. Gibberella zeae. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, No. 384. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Brennan PS; Martin DJ; Thompson JP; Mason LR; Sheppard JA; Keys PJ; Uebergang RW; ThT D; Agius PJ; Fiske ML; Ross J; Clewett TG, 1994. Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare (bread wheat) cv. Pelsart. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 34(6):864-865.

Brodnik T, 1975. Influence of toxic products of Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium moniliforme on maize seed germination and embryo growth. Seed Science and Technology, 3(3/4):691-696

Burgess LW; Summerell BA; Beddis AL; Backhouse D; Nelson KE, 1993. Environmental and management factors affecting the crown rot fungus, Fusarium graminearum Group 1, in Australia. Hodowla Roslin Aklimatyzacja i Nasiennictwo. 1993, 37: 3, 25-33, in Proceedings of the third European seminar: Fusarium - mycotoxins, taxonomy, pathogenicity and host resistance, Radzikow, September 22-24, 1992. Part II.

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CABI/EPPO, 1998. Gibberella zeae. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, October (Edition 1). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 763.

Carter JP; Rezanoor HN; Desjardins AE; Nicholson P, 2000. Variation in Fusarium graminearum isolates from Nepal associated with their host of origin. Plant Pathology, 49(4):452-460.

Casa RT; Moreira EN; Bogo A; Sangoi L, 2007. Incidence of stalk rot, rot grains and grain yield of maize hybrids submitted to the increase in plant density. (Incidência de podridões do colmo, grãos ardidos e rendimento de grãos em híbridos de milho submetidos ao aumento na densidade de plantas.) Summa Phytopathologica, 33(4):353-357. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/sp/v33n4/a06v33n4.pdf

Celetti MJ; Johnston HW; Kimpinski J; Platt HW; Martin RA, 1990. Incidence of soil-borne plant pathogens isolated from barley and winter wheat, and other crops in the rotation, on Prince Edward Island. Plant Pathology, 39(4):606-611; 19 ref.

Chambers SC, 1972. Fusarium species associated with wheat in Victoria. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 12(57):433-436.

Charmley LL; Rosenberg A; Trenholm HL, 1994. Factors responsible for economic losses due to Fusarium mycotoxin contamination of grains, foods and feedstuffs. Mycotoxins in grain: compounds other than aflatoxin., 471-486; 56 ref.

Chen P; Liu D; Sun W, 1997. New countermeasures of breeding wheat for scab resistance. In: Fusarium Head Scab: Global Status and Future Prospects. Proceedings of a workshop held at CIMMYT, El Batan, Mexico, 59-65.

Chen WP; Chen PD; Liu DJ; Kynast R; Friebe B; Velazhahan R; Muthukrishnan S; Gill BS, 1999. Development of wheat scab symptoms is delayed in transgenic wheat plants that constitutively express a rice thaumatin-like protein gene. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 99(5):755-760; 40 ref.

Chiotta ML; Alaniz Zanon MS; Giaj-Merlera G; Tessmann D; Barros GG; Chulze S, 2015. Phylogenetic analyses of the Fusarium graminearum species complex isolated from soybean in Argentina and Brazil. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 10(1):32. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-015-0182-1/fulltext.html

Cholango-Martinez LP; Zhang XM; Hucl PJ; Kutcher HR, 2016. First report of fusarium head blight, caused by Fusarium graminearum, on annual canarygrass (Phalaris canariensis) in Saskatchewan, Canada. Plant Disease, 100(8):1780-1781. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Christensen JJ; Wilcoxson RD, 1966. Stalk Rot of Corn. Monogr. 3. St. Paul, MN, USA: American Phytopathological Society.

Chung BK; Shim JS; Sung J-M; Heo NY; Park IS, 1982. An investigation on ascospore flight of the wheat scab fungus (Gibberella zeae) as a primary inoculum. Korean Journal of Mycology, 10(2):85-88

Clear RM; Patrick SK, 1990. Fusarium species isolated from wheat samples containing tombstone (scab) kernels from Ontario, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 70(4):1057-1069; 38 ref.

Clear RM; Patrick SK, 1993. Prevalence of some seedborne fungi on soft white winter wheat seed from Ontario, Canada. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 73(2):143-149; 19 ref.

Clear RM; Patrick SK; Platford RG; Desjardins M, 1996. Occurrence and distribution of Fusarium species in barley and oat seed from Manitoba in 1993 and 1994. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 18(4):409-414; 17 ref.

Colyer PD, 1988. Frequency and pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. associated with seedling diseases of cotton in Louisiana. Plant Disease, 72(5):400-402; 15 ref.

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Craiciu D, 1980. Preliminary investigations into the virulence of some isolates of Fusarium graminearum Schw. f.c. Gibberella zeae, which causes maize stem breakage. Probleme de Genetica Teoretica si Aplicata, 12(4):325-343.

de Galich MTV, 1997. Fusarium head blight in Argentina. In: Fusarium Head Scab: Global Status and Future Prospects. Proceedings of a workshop held at CIMMYT, El Batan, Mexico, 19-28.

Devi RKT; Singh NI, 1995. Survival of fusarial sheath rot fungi of rice. Plant Disease Research, 10(1):91-95; 10 ref.

Dexter JE; Marchylo BA; Clear RM; Clarke JM, 1997. Effect of Fusarium head blight on semolina milling and pasta-making quality of durum wheat. Cereal Chemistry, 74(5):519-525; 44 ref.

Diaz de Ackermann M; Kohli MM, 1997. Research on fusarium head blight on wheat in Uruguay. In: Fusarium Head Scab: Global Status and Future Prospects. Proceedings of a workshop held at CIMMYT, El Batan, Mexico, 13-18.

Dickson JG, 1947. Diseases of Field Crops. New York, USA: McGraw Hill Book Company, Inc.

Diehl JA; Reis EM, 1983. Effect of wheat seed treatment with fungicides on the control of Fusarium graminearum.. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 8(2):363-366; [1 tab.]; 15 ref.

Dill-Macky R, 1997. Fusarium Head Blight: Recent epidemics and research efforts in the upper midwest of the United States. In: Fusarium Head Scab: Global Status and Future Prospects. Proceedings of a workshop held at CIMMYT, El Batan, Mexico, 1-6.

Dill-Macky R; Jones RK, 2000. The effect of previous crop residues and tillage on Fusarium head blight of wheat. Plant Disease, 84(1):71-76.

Dimitrov M; Doncheva I; Nikolcheva M, 1982. Species of zearalenone-producing Fusarium Lk. ex Fr. isolated from wheat, maize and kidney bean. Mikrobiologicheskii Zhurnal, 44(6):33-37

Djerbi M, 1970. Ecological study of the parasitic activity of Fusarium spp. on wheat. Bulletin de la Faculte d'Agronomie, Tunis, No. 26/27:5-58

Doohan FM; Parry DW; Jenkinson P; Nicholson P, 1998. The use of species-specific PCR-based assays to analyse Fusarium ear blight of wheat. Plant Pathology, 47(2):197-205; 20 ref.

Dormann M; Oettler G, 1993. Genetic variation of resistance to Fusarium graminearum (head blight) in primary hexaploid triticale. Hodowla RoSlin, Aklimatyzacja i Nasiennictwo, 37(3):121-127; [in Proceedings of the third European seminar: Fusarium - mycotoxins, taxonomy, pathogenicity and host resistance, Radzików, September 22-24, 1992. Part II.]; 14 ref.

Dowell FE; Ram MS; Zhang N; Herrman TJ; Seitz LM, 1998. Detection of scab in single wheat kernels using NIR spectroscopy. ASAE Annual International Meeting, Orlando, Florida, USA, 12-16 July, 1998., 11 pp.; [ASAE Paper no. 983062]; 26 ref.

Downes MJ, 1972. Observations on some Fusarium populations in Co. Donegal oat soils. Scientific Proceedings of the Royal Dublin Society, B, 3(10):127-135

Draganic M, 1982. The dependence of grain yield on the degree of resistance of maize to stem rot (Gibberella zeae, Schw. Petch). Zastita Bilja, 33(2):177-181

Draganic M; Pencic V; Levic J, 1984. Possibilities of the protection of maize seed against Fusarium graminearum Schw. Petch by using fungicides. Zastita Bilja, 35(2):101-106; [1 tab.]; 10 ref.

Draughon FA; Churchville DC, 1985. Effect of pesticides on zearalenone production in culture and in corn plants. Phytopathology, 75(5):553-556; [3 tab.]; 18 ref.

Duarte RP; Juliatti FC; Lucas BV; Freitas PTde, 2009. Performance of different maize genotypes with leaf application of fungicides for the incidence of fungi causing sour kernel. (Comportamento de diferentes genótipos de milho com aplicação foliar de fungicida quanto à incidência de fungos causadores de grãos ardidos.) Bioscience Journal, 25(4):112-122. http://www.biosciencejournal.ufu.br/include/getdoc.php?id=3779&article=686&mode=pdf

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