Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Gibberella zeae
(headblight of maize)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Gibberella zeae (headblight of maize)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 28 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Gibberella zeae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • headblight of maize
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Sordariomycetes
  • There are no pictures available for this datasheet

    If you can supply pictures for this datasheet please contact:

    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Ear rot. A reddish mould, often at the ear tip, is the characteristic sign of Gibberella ear rot.
TitleSymptoms on maize ear
CaptionEar rot. A reddish mould, often at the ear tip, is the characteristic sign of Gibberella ear rot.
Copyright©ISU
Ear rot. A reddish mould, often at the ear tip, is the characteristic sign of Gibberella ear rot.
Symptoms on maize earEar rot. A reddish mould, often at the ear tip, is the characteristic sign of Gibberella ear rot.©ISU
Maize kernel symptoms.
TitleSymptoms on maize kernels
CaptionMaize kernel symptoms.
Copyright©ISU
Maize kernel symptoms.
Symptoms on maize kernelsMaize kernel symptoms.©ISU
Stalk rot.
TitleSymptoms on stalk
CaptionStalk rot.
Copyright©ISU
Stalk rot.
Symptoms on stalkStalk rot.©ISU
Scab-infected germinating wheat seeds.
TitleSymptoms on wheat seeds
CaptionScab-infected germinating wheat seeds.
Copyright©CIMMYT
Scab-infected germinating wheat seeds.
Symptoms on wheat seedsScab-infected germinating wheat seeds.©CIMMYT
A healthy wheat head (a) stands in contrast to one inoculated with Fusarium graminearum (b); note that the infected head is showing severe symptoms of Fusarium head blight disease.
TitleHealthy and infected sample
CaptionA healthy wheat head (a) stands in contrast to one inoculated with Fusarium graminearum (b); note that the infected head is showing severe symptoms of Fusarium head blight disease.
CopyrightKeith Weller - USDA-ARS - Public Domain
A healthy wheat head (a) stands in contrast to one inoculated with Fusarium graminearum (b); note that the infected head is showing severe symptoms of Fusarium head blight disease.
Healthy and infected sampleA healthy wheat head (a) stands in contrast to one inoculated with Fusarium graminearum (b); note that the infected head is showing severe symptoms of Fusarium head blight disease.Keith Weller - USDA-ARS - Public Domain
Healthy resistant barley (b) and susceptible barley showing symptoms of Fusarium head blight (a).
TitleResistant and susceptible barley
CaptionHealthy resistant barley (b) and susceptible barley showing symptoms of Fusarium head blight (a).
CopyrightBrian Steffenson/University of Minnesota - USDA-ARS - Public Domain
Healthy resistant barley (b) and susceptible barley showing symptoms of Fusarium head blight (a).
Resistant and susceptible barleyHealthy resistant barley (b) and susceptible barley showing symptoms of Fusarium head blight (a).Brian Steffenson/University of Minnesota - USDA-ARS - Public Domain
Gibberella stalk rot (Gibberella zeae); symptoms - evidence of scab (Fusarium graminearum) on a head of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum).
TitleSymptoms
CaptionGibberella stalk rot (Gibberella zeae); symptoms - evidence of scab (Fusarium graminearum) on a head of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum).
Copyright©Howard F. Schwartz/Colorado State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Gibberella stalk rot (Gibberella zeae); symptoms - evidence of scab (Fusarium graminearum) on a head of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum).
SymptomsGibberella stalk rot (Gibberella zeae); symptoms - evidence of scab (Fusarium graminearum) on a head of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum).©Howard F. Schwartz/Colorado State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Close-up through a fluorescence microscope of a thin cross-section of a barley seed infected with Fusarium graminearum. The seed’s epicarp tissue layer is infected with the Fusarium (seen as fluorescent green). The fungus stops at the testa layer (yellow-orange). It can take 2 weeks or longer before the fungus penetrates into the underlying starchy endosperm of the seed (stained blue). Finding out how to make the epicarp resistant to Fusarium could be the key to making barley resistant.
TitleFluorescence microscopy
CaptionClose-up through a fluorescence microscope of a thin cross-section of a barley seed infected with Fusarium graminearum. The seed’s epicarp tissue layer is infected with the Fusarium (seen as fluorescent green). The fungus stops at the testa layer (yellow-orange). It can take 2 weeks or longer before the fungus penetrates into the underlying starchy endosperm of the seed (stained blue). Finding out how to make the epicarp resistant to Fusarium could be the key to making barley resistant.
CopyrightRon Skadsen - USDA-ARS - Public Domain
Close-up through a fluorescence microscope of a thin cross-section of a barley seed infected with Fusarium graminearum. The seed’s epicarp tissue layer is infected with the Fusarium (seen as fluorescent green). The fungus stops at the testa layer (yellow-orange). It can take 2 weeks or longer before the fungus penetrates into the underlying starchy endosperm of the seed (stained blue). Finding out how to make the epicarp resistant to Fusarium could be the key to making barley resistant.
Fluorescence microscopyClose-up through a fluorescence microscope of a thin cross-section of a barley seed infected with Fusarium graminearum. The seed’s epicarp tissue layer is infected with the Fusarium (seen as fluorescent green). The fungus stops at the testa layer (yellow-orange). It can take 2 weeks or longer before the fungus penetrates into the underlying starchy endosperm of the seed (stained blue). Finding out how to make the epicarp resistant to Fusarium could be the key to making barley resistant.Ron Skadsen - USDA-ARS - Public Domain

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Gibberella zeae (Schwein.) Petch

Preferred Common Name

  • headblight of maize

Other Scientific Names

  • Fusarium graminearum Schwabe
  • Fusarium graminearum Schwabe Group 2
  • Fusarium roseum Link
  • Fusarium roseum f.sp. cerealis
  • Fusarium roseum var. graminearum
  • Gibbera saubinettii Mont.
  • Gibberella saubinetii (Mont.) Sacc.
  • Sphaeria zeae Schwein.

International Common Names

  • English: cobweb disease; ear rot of maize; fusarium root and stalk rot; gibberella ear rot; gibberella stalk rot; malformation disease; pink ear rot; red ear rot; root rot of maize; scab of maize; stalk rot of maize
  • Spanish: añublo blanco del maíz
  • French: flétrissement des plantules de maïs

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Ahrenfusariosen
  • USA: fusarium head blight; head blight; pink mould; scab; tombstone scab; whiteheads

EPPO code

  • GIBBZE (Gibberella zeae)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Sordariomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Hypocreomycetidae
  •                         Order: Hypocreales
  •                             Family: Nectriaceae
  •                                 Genus: Gibberella
  •                                     Species: Gibberella zeae

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentShamim and Razia, 2008
ChinaRestricted distributionGuo et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-AnhuiPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
-FujianPresentJiang et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-GansuPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
-GuangdongPresentZhang et al., 1992; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-GuangxiPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
-GuizhouPresentZhang et al., 1992; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-HebeiPresentHu, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 1998; Li et al., 2015
-HeilongjiangPresentLiu et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-HenanPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
-HubeiPresentLuo, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-HunanPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
-JiangsuPresentWang et al., 1981; Hu, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-JiangxiPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
-JilinPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
-LiaoningPresentHu, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-Nei MengguPresentAnon., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-NingxiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
-QinghaiPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
-ShaanxiPresentWang et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-ShandongPresentHu, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-ShanxiPresentGao et al., 1988; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-SichuanPresentHu, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-TibetPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
-XinjiangPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
-YunnanPresentHu et al., 1992; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-ZhejiangPresentWang et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 1998
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-BiharPresentSinha, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-GujaratPresentArun Arya, 2000
-Himachal PradeshPresentSharma and Dohroo, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-Indian PunjabPresentSaharan et al., 2003
-KarnatakaPresentKrishnamurthy Hemalatha, 2003
-KeralaPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
-ManipurPresentSingh and Devi, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-OdishaPresentAnand and Jagadiswari, 2001
-Tamil NaduPresentSaharan et al., 2003
-West BengalPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
IranPresentGolzar, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 1998
JapanPresentJin et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-HokkaidoPresentSugiura et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 1998
KazakhstanPresentBaimataeva and Kuzhantaeva, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 1998
Korea, Republic ofPresentChung et al., 1982; Lee et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 1998
LebanonPresentLogrieco et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 1998
NepalPresentCarter et al., 2000
PakistanPresentHashmi et al., 1992; CABI/EPPO, 1998
Saudi ArabiaPresentAbdel-Magid et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 1998
Sri LankaPresentAbeywickrama and Bean, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 1998
TaiwanPresentTseng et al., 1996; CABI/EPPO, 1998
TurkeyPresentKarahan and Katircioglu, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 1998
UzbekistanPresentSheraliev and Bukharov, 2001

Africa

CameroonPresentNgoko et al., 2001
EgyptPresentNaguib et al., 1989; CABI/EPPO, 1998
EthiopiaPresentWubet and Abate, 2000
GambiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
KenyaPresentKedera et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 1998
MalawiPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
NigeriaPresentOnyike and Nelson, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 1998
South AfricaPresentViljoen et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 1998
TunisiaPresentDjerbi, 1970; CABI/EPPO, 1998
ZambiaWidespreadSiame and Lovelace, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 1998; Schjøth and Sundheim, 2013
ZimbabwePresentOnyike and Nelson, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 1998

North America

CanadaPresentNass et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-ManitobaPresentWong et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-OntarioPresentNeish et al., 1983; Clear and Patrick, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-Prince Edward IslandPresentCeletti et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-QuebecPresentHudon et al., 1992; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-SaskatchewanPresentCholango-Martinez et al., 2016
MexicoPresentBekele & Saunders, 1991; Singh et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 1998
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CaliforniaPresentScardaci and Webster, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-ColoradoPresentGilbertson et al., 1985; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-ConnecticutPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
-FloridaPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
-GeorgiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
-HawaiiPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
-IdahoPresentMihuta-Grimm & Forster, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-IllinoisPresentJacobsen et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-IndianaPresentTuite et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-IowaPresentJacobsen et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-KansasPresentTrigo-Stockli et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-LouisianaPresentColyer, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-MichiganPresentJacobsen et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-MinnesotaPresentAbbas et al., 1988; Nyvall et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-MississippiPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
-MissouriPresentMcKendry et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-NebraskaPresentBaenziger et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-New YorkPresentMiller-Garvin and Viands, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-North CarolinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
-North DakotaPresentStatler and Darlington, 1972; Stack and McMullen, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-OhioPresentLipps and Deep, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-OklahomaPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
-OregonPresentRohde, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-South DakotaPresentBaenziger et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-TennesseePresentDraughon and Churchville, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-TexasPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
-WashingtonPresentStrausbaugh and Maloy, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-WisconsinPresentMostafa et al., 1988; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-WyomingPresentHanson, 2006

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
DominicaPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
GrenadaPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
HondurasPresentFernandez, 1990
Saint LuciaPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
Windward IslandsPresentWallbridge, 1981

South America

ArgentinaPresentPerez-Fernandez, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 1998; Chiotta et al., 2015
BoliviaPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
BrazilPresentFernandez and Fernandes, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 1998; Chiotta et al., 2015
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
-Minas GeraisPresentDuarte et al., 2009
-ParanaPresentFernandez et al., 1992; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-Rio Grande do SulPresentFurlong et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 1998; Machado et al., 2015
-Santa CatarinaPresentCasa et al., 2007
ColombiaPresentLinfield, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 1998
ParaguayPresentBekele & Saunders, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 1998
PeruPresentLogrieco et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 1998
UruguayPresentPerea & Diaz-de-Ackermann, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 1998

Europe

AustriaPresentZwatz, 1975; Eeuwijk et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 1998
BelgiumPresentMeulder Hde, 2003; Scauflaire et al., 2013
BulgariaPresentDimitrov et al., 1982; Kodo et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 1998
CroatiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998; Cosic and Jurkovic, 2001; Duvnjak et al., 2016Osijek and Vinkovci, Slavonia
Czech RepublicPresent?afránková et al., 2007
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentRyshava et al., 1988; CABI/EPPO, 1998
DenmarkPresentThrane, 2000
FinlandPresentYlimaki, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 1998
FrancePresentEeuwijk et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 1998
GermanyPresentEngelhardt et al., 1984; Wegener and Wolf, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 1998
GreecePresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
HungaryPresentMesterhazy and Vojtovics, 1977; Mesterhazy, 1983; Szecsi and Bartok, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 1998
IcelandPresentKommedahl et al., 1975; CABI/EPPO, 1998
IrelandPresentDownes, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 1998
ItalyPresentSaponaro, 1980; Logrieco et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 1998
LithuaniaPresentSpokauskiene, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 1998
LuxembourgPresentPasquali et al., 2009
MoldovaPresentMozgovoi et al., 1989; CABI/EPPO, 1998
NetherlandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
NorwayPresentMirocha et al., 1989; CABI/EPPO, 1998; Aamot et al., 2015
PolandPresentPronczuk et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 1998
PortugalPresentLogrieco et al., 1990; CABI/EPPO, 1998
RomaniaPresentTarcomnicu et al., 1975; Popa et al., 1988; CABI/EPPO, 1998
Russian FederationPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
-Northern RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
-Russia (Europe)PresentLenivtsev, 1994; Pavlova and Izmalkova, 1995
-SiberiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
-Southern RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
SerbiaPresentPavlovic et al., 2008
SlovakiaPresentSrobarova and Srobar, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 1998
SloveniaPresentSavor and Macek, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 1998
SpainPresentSegarra et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 1998
SwitzerlandPresentGindrat et al., 1988; CABI/EPPO, 1998
UKPresentPegg and Parry, 1983; Hutcheon and Jordan, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 1998
UkrainePresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
Yugoslavia (former)PresentDraganic, 1982
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentSkrinjar et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 1998

Oceania

AustraliaPresentBurgess et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentSangalang et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-New South WalesPresentEllison et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 1998; Manning et al., 2000
-QueenslandPresentBrennan et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-South AustraliaPresentSangalang et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-VictoriaPresentChambers, 1972; Say et al., 1992; CABI/EPPO, 1998
-Western AustraliaPresentWright et al., 2012
FijiPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
New ZealandPresentHampton, 1980; Lauren et al., 1992; CABI/EPPO, 1998
Papua New GuineaPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998
Solomon IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 1998

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Inflorescence / discoloration panicle
Inflorescence / twisting and distortion
Leaves / abnormal colours
Roots / cortex with lesions
Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions
Roots / rot of wood
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Seeds / discolorations
Seeds / lesions on seeds
Stems / dieback
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / internal discoloration
Stems / internal red necrosis
Stems / mould growth on lesion
Stems / wilt

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Gibberella fujikuroi Pathogen South Africa

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

Top of page

?afránková I; Marková J; Vejrazka K; Hübschová J; Ehrenbergerová J; Vaculová K, 2007. Mycoflora of the spring barley grains especially Fusarium spp. (Mykoflóra zrn jecmene jarního se zamerením na druhy r. Fusarium.) Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, 55(1):165-171.

1982. Abstracts of papers presented at the annual meeting of the Canadian Phytopathological Society, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, 20-23 June 1982. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 4(3):303-311

Aamot HU; Ward TJ; Brodal G; Vralstad T; Larsen GB; Klemsdal SS; Elameen A; Uhlig S; Hofgaard IS, 2015. Genetic and phenotypic diversity within the Fusarium graminearum species complex in Norway. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 142(3):501-519. http://rd.springer.com/journal/10658

Abbas HK; Mirocha CJ, 1986. Survival of Fusarium graminearum on corn stored at low temperature. Plant Disease, 70(1):78; 2 ref.

Abbas HK; Mirocha CJ; Meronuck RA; Pokorny JD; Gould SL; Kommedahl T, 1988. Mycotoxins and Fusarium spp. associated with infected ears of corn in Minnesota. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 54(8):1930-1933; 28 ref.

Abdel-Magid HM; Abdel-Aal SI; Rabie RK; Sabrah REA, 1995. Chicken manure as a biofertilizer for wheat in the sandy soils of Saudi Arabia. Journal of Arid Environments, 29(3):413-420; 6 ref.

Abeywickrama K; Bean GA, 1992. Cytotoxicity of Fusarium species mycotoxins and culture filtrates of Fusarium species isolated from the medicinal plant Tribulus terrestris to mammalian cells. Mycopathologia, 120(3):189-193; 16 ref.

Abramson D, 1998. Mycotoxin formation and environmental factors. In: Sinha KK, Bhatnagar D, eds. New York, USA: Marcel Dekker, Inc. Mycotoxins in Agriculture and Food Safety, 255-277.

Agarwal PC; Anitha K; Usha Dev; Baleshwar Singh; Ram Nath, 1993. Alternaria alternata, real cause of black point and differentiating symptoms of two other pathogens associated with wheat (Triticum aestivum) seeds. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 63(7):451-453; 4 ref.

Ahmad Y; Hameed A; Aslam M; Ghaffar A, 1997. Estimation of yield losses in corn due to stalk rot pathogens. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 29(2):229-234; 19 ref.

Anand Prakash; Jagadiswari Rao, 2001. Interactions of pentatomid bugs and certain pathogenic fungi to deteriorate paddy grain quality. Indian Phytopathology, 54(2):258-260.

Anon, 1993. Elite spring wheat cultivars. Crop Genetic Resources, No. 2. China, Tumnji Institute of Grassland Research.

Aoki T; O'Donnell K, 1999. Morphological and molecular characterization of Fusarium pseudograminearum sp. nov., formerly recognized as the Group 1 population of F. graminearum. Mycologia, 91(4):597-609; 38 ref.

Aoki T; O'Donnell K, 1999. Morphological characterization of Gibberella coronicola sp. nov., obtained through mating experiments of Fusarium pseudograminearum. Mycoscience, 40(6):443-453; 25 ref.

Arun Arya, 2000. Neem - a new host for Fusarium graminearum Schwabe. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 30(1):134.

Atlin GN; Enerson PM; McGirr LG; Hunter RB, 1983. Gibberella ear rot development and zearalenone and vomitoxin production as affected by maize genotype and Gibberella zeae strain. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 63(4):847-853

Baenziger PS; Moreno-Sevilla B; Peterson CJ; Schmidt JW; Shelton DR; Baltensperger DD; Nelson LA; McVey DV; Watkins JE; Hatchett JH, 1995. Registration of 'Alliance' wheat. Crop Science, 35(3):938.

Bai G; Shaner G, 1994. Scab of wheat: prospects for control. Plant Disease, 78(8):760-766; 70 ref.

Baimataeva BK; Kuzhantaeva Zh, 1979. Fungus diseases of rice. Vestnik Sel'skokhozyaistvennoi Nauki Kazakhstana, No.3, 86-88.

Baird RE; Mullinix BG; Peery AB; Lang ML, 1997. Diversity and longevity of the soybean debris mycobiota in a no-tillage system. Plant Disease, 81(5):530-534; 23 ref.

Ban T, 1997. Genetic analysis of Fusarium head blight resistance using wheat doubled haploids. In: Fusarium Head Scab: Global Status and Future Prospects. Proceedings of a workshop held at CIMMYT, El Batan, Mexico, 71-78.

Bechtel DB; Kaleiku LA; Gaine RL; Seitz LM, 1985. The effects of Fusarium graminearum infection on wheat kernels. Cereal Chemistry, 62:191-197.

Bekele G, 1991. Development of wheat germplasm resistant to fusarium head blight (Fusarium graminearum). Wheat for the nontraditional warm areas. Proceedings of an international conference, July 29-August 3, 1990, Foz do Iguacu, Brazil., 477-479.

Blaney BJ; Moore CJ; Tyler AL, 1987. The mycotoxins - 4-deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and aflatoxin - in weather-damaged wheat harvested 1983-1985 in south-eastern Queensland. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 38(6):993-1000.

Boosalis MG; Doupnik BL; Wysong DS; Watkins JE, 1983. The wheat scab epidemic of 1982. University of Nebraska Farm, Ranch Home Quarterly, 29:7-9.

Booth C, 1973. Gibberella zeae. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, No. 384. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Brennan PS; Martin DJ; Thompson JP; Mason LR; Sheppard JA; Keys PJ; Uebergang RW; ThT D; Agius PJ; Fiske ML; Ross J; Clewett TG, 1994. Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare (bread wheat) cv. Pelsart. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 34(6):864-865.

Brodnik T, 1975. Influence of toxic products of Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium moniliforme on maize seed germination and embryo growth. Seed Science and Technology, 3(3/4):691-696

Burgess LW; Summerell BA; Beddis AL; Backhouse D; Nelson KE, 1993. Environmental and management factors affecting the crown rot fungus, Fusarium graminearum Group 1, in Australia. Hodowla Roslin Aklimatyzacja i Nasiennictwo. 1993, 37: 3, 25-33, in Proceedings of the third European seminar: Fusarium - mycotoxins, taxonomy, pathogenicity and host resistance, Radzikow, September 22-24, 1992. Part II.

Burlakoti RR; Estrada R Jr; Rivera VV; Boddeda A; Secor GA; Adhikari TB, 2007. Real-time PCR quantification and mycotoxin production of Fusarium graminearum in wheat inoculated with isolates collected from potato, sugar beet, and wheat. Phytopathology, 97(7):835-841.

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Gibberella zeae. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, October (Edition 1). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 763.

Carter JP; Rezanoor HN; Desjardins AE; Nicholson P, 2000. Variation in Fusarium graminearum isolates from Nepal associated with their host of origin. Plant Pathology, 49(4):452-460.

Casa RT; Moreira EN; Bogo A; Sangoi L, 2007. Incidence of stalk rot, rot grains and grain yield of maize hybrids submitted to the increase in plant density. (Incidência de podridões do colmo, grãos ardidos e rendimento de grãos em híbridos de milho submetidos ao aumento na densidade de plantas.) Summa Phytopathologica, 33(4):353-357. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/sp/v33n4/a06v33n4.pdf

Celetti MJ; Johnston HW; Kimpinski J; Platt HW; Martin RA, 1990. Incidence of soil-borne plant pathogens isolated from barley and winter wheat, and other crops in the rotation, on Prince Edward Island. Plant Pathology, 39(4):606-611; 19 ref.

Chambers SC, 1972. Fusarium species associated with wheat in Victoria. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 12(57):433-436.

Charmley LL; Rosenberg A; Trenholm HL, 1994. Factors responsible for economic losses due to Fusarium mycotoxin contamination of grains, foods and feedstuffs. Mycotoxins in grain: compounds other than aflatoxin., 471-486; 56 ref.

Chen P; Liu D; Sun W, 1997. New countermeasures of breeding wheat for scab resistance. In: Fusarium Head Scab: Global Status and Future Prospects. Proceedings of a workshop held at CIMMYT, El Batan, Mexico, 59-65.

Chen WP; Chen PD; Liu DJ; Kynast R; Friebe B; Velazhahan R; Muthukrishnan S; Gill BS, 1999. Development of wheat scab symptoms is delayed in transgenic wheat plants that constitutively express a rice thaumatin-like protein gene. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 99(5):755-760; 40 ref.

Chiotta ML; Alaniz Zanon MS; Giaj-Merlera G; Tessmann D; Barros GG; Chulze S, 2015. Phylogenetic analyses of the Fusarium graminearum species complex isolated from soybean in Argentina and Brazil. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 10(1):32. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-015-0182-1/fulltext.html

Cholango-Martinez LP; Zhang XM; Hucl PJ; Kutcher HR, 2016. First report of fusarium head blight, caused by Fusarium graminearum, on annual canarygrass (Phalaris canariensis) in Saskatchewan, Canada. Plant Disease, 100(8):1780-1781. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Christensen JJ; Wilcoxson RD, 1966. Stalk Rot of Corn. Monogr. 3. St. Paul, MN, USA: American Phytopathological Society.

Chung BK; Shim JS; Sung J-M; Heo NY; Park IS, 1982. An investigation on ascospore flight of the wheat scab fungus (Gibberella zeae) as a primary inoculum. Korean Journal of Mycology, 10(2):85-88

Clear RM; Patrick SK, 1990. Fusarium species isolated from wheat samples containing tombstone (scab) kernels from Ontario, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 70(4):1057-1069; 38 ref.

Clear RM; Patrick SK, 1993. Prevalence of some seedborne fungi on soft white winter wheat seed from Ontario, Canada. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 73(2):143-149; 19 ref.

Clear RM; Patrick SK; Platford RG; Desjardins M, 1996. Occurrence and distribution of Fusarium species in barley and oat seed from Manitoba in 1993 and 1994. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 18(4):409-414; 17 ref.

Colyer PD, 1988. Frequency and pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. associated with seedling diseases of cotton in Louisiana. Plant Disease, 72(5):400-402; 15 ref.

cosic J; Jurkovic D, 2001. Fusarium species from various hosts and their pathogenicity to wheat seedlings. Agriculture Scientific and Professional Review, 7(1):5-9; 26 ref.

Craiciu D, 1980. Preliminary investigations into the virulence of some isolates of Fusarium graminearum Schw. f.c. Gibberella zeae, which causes maize stem breakage. Probleme de Genetica Teoretica si Aplicata, 12(4):325-343.

de Galich MTV, 1997. Fusarium head blight in Argentina. In: Fusarium Head Scab: Global Status and Future Prospects. Proceedings of a workshop held at CIMMYT, El Batan, Mexico, 19-28.

Devi RKT; Singh NI, 1995. Survival of fusarial sheath rot fungi of rice. Plant Disease Research, 10(1):91-95; 10 ref.

Dexter JE; Marchylo BA; Clear RM; Clarke JM, 1997. Effect of Fusarium head blight on semolina milling and pasta-making quality of durum wheat. Cereal Chemistry, 74(5):519-525; 44 ref.

Diaz de Ackermann M; Kohli MM, 1997. Research on fusarium head blight on wheat in Uruguay. In: Fusarium Head Scab: Global Status and Future Prospects. Proceedings of a workshop held at CIMMYT, El Batan, Mexico, 13-18.

Dickson JG, 1947. Diseases of Field Crops. New York, USA: McGraw Hill Book Company, Inc.

Diehl JA; Reis EM, 1983. Effect of wheat seed treatment with fungicides on the control of Fusarium graminearum.. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 8(2):363-366; [1 tab.]; 15 ref.

Dill-Macky R, 1997. Fusarium Head Blight: Recent epidemics and research efforts in the upper midwest of the United States. In: Fusarium Head Scab: Global Status and Future Prospects. Proceedings of a workshop held at CIMMYT, El Batan, Mexico, 1-6.

Dill-Macky R; Jones RK, 2000. The effect of previous crop residues and tillage on Fusarium head blight of wheat. Plant Disease, 84(1):71-76.

Dimitrov M; Doncheva I; Nikolcheva M, 1982. Species of zearalenone-producing Fusarium Lk. ex Fr. isolated from wheat, maize and kidney bean. Mikrobiologicheskii Zhurnal, 44(6):33-37

Djerbi M, 1970. Ecological study of the parasitic activity of Fusarium spp. on wheat. Bulletin de la Faculte d'Agronomie, Tunis, No. 26/27:5-58

Doohan FM; Parry DW; Jenkinson P; Nicholson P, 1998. The use of species-specific PCR-based assays to analyse Fusarium ear blight of wheat. Plant Pathology, 47(2):197-205; 20 ref.

Dormann M; Oettler G, 1993. Genetic variation of resistance to Fusarium graminearum (head blight) in primary hexaploid triticale. Hodowla RoSlin, Aklimatyzacja i Nasiennictwo, 37(3):121-127; [in Proceedings of the third European seminar: Fusarium - mycotoxins, taxonomy, pathogenicity and host resistance, Radzików, September 22-24, 1992. Part II.]; 14 ref.

Dowell FE; Ram MS; Zhang N; Herrman TJ; Seitz LM, 1998. Detection of scab in single wheat kernels using NIR spectroscopy. ASAE Annual International Meeting, Orlando, Florida, USA, 12-16 July, 1998., 11 pp.; [ASAE Paper no. 983062]; 26 ref.

Downes MJ, 1972. Observations on some Fusarium populations in Co. Donegal oat soils. Scientific Proceedings of the Royal Dublin Society, B, 3(10):127-135

Draganic M, 1982. The dependence of grain yield on the degree of resistance of maize to stem rot (Gibberella zeae, Schw. Petch). Zastita Bilja, 33(2):177-181

Draganic M; Pencic V; Levic J, 1984. Possibilities of the protection of maize seed against Fusarium graminearum Schw. Petch by using fungicides. Zastita Bilja, 35(2):101-106; [1 tab.]; 10 ref.

Draughon FA; Churchville DC, 1985. Effect of pesticides on zearalenone production in culture and in corn plants. Phytopathology, 75(5):553-556; [3 tab.]; 18 ref.

Duarte RP; Juliatti FC; Lucas BV; Freitas PTde, 2009. Performance of different maize genotypes with leaf application of fungicides for the incidence of fungi causing sour kernel. (Comportamento de diferentes genótipos de milho com aplicação foliar de fungicida quanto à incidência de fungos causadores de grãos ardidos.) Bioscience Journal, 25(4):112-122. http://www.biosciencejournal.ufu.br/include/getdoc.php?id=3779&article=686&mode=pdf

Duthie JA; Hall R, 1987. Transmission of Fusarium graminearum from seed to stems of winter wheat. Plant Pathology, 36(1):33-37; 25 ref.

Duvnjak T; Sudaric A; Kocar MM; Cosic J; Vrandecic K, 2016. First report of soybean fusarium Wilt caused by Fusarium graminearum in Croatia. Plant Disease, 100(3):648-649. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Eeuwijk FAvan; Mesterhazy A; Kling CI; Ruckenbauer P; Saur L; Bürstmayr H; Lemmens M; Keizer LCP; Maurin N; Snijders CHA, 1995. Assessing non-specificity of resistance in wheat to head blight caused by inoculation with European strains of Fusarium culmorum, F. graminearum and F. nivale using a multiplicative model for interaction. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 90(2):221-228; 33 ref.

Elekes P, 1983. Methods for detecting hyphal and living fungal infection in wheat seed samples. Seed Science and Technology, 11(2):421-433; [15 fig.]; 12 ref.

Ellison FW; Brown GN; Mares DJ; Moore SG; O'Brien L, 1995. Register of Australian winter cereal cultivars. Triticum aestivum ssp. vulgare (bread wheat) cv. Sunvale. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 35(3):416.

Engelhardt G; Rintelen J; Wallnofer PR, 1984. Occurrence of toxin-producing mould fungi of the genus Fusarium on cereals from the 1982 harvest in Bavaria. Bayerisches Landwirtschaftliches Jahrbuch, 61(1/2):338-347.

Fernández HR, 1990. Identification of the causal organisms of maize (Zea mays L.) ear rot in Honduras. Ceiba, 31(1):15-20; 4 ref.

Fernandez MR, 1992. The effect of Trichoderma harzianum on fungal pathogens infesting wheat and black oat straw. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 24(10):1031-1034.

Fernandez MR; Fernandes JMC, 1990. Survival of wheat pathogens in wheat and soybean residues under conservation tillage systems in southern and central Brazil. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 12(3):289-294

Fernandez MR; Santos HPdos, 1992. Contribution of Avena spp., used in crop rotation systems under conservation tillage, to the inoculum levels of some cereal pathogens. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 14(4):271-277; 30 ref.

Fernando WGD, 2001. Is there potential for biological control of fusarium? [ed. by Fedak, G. \Choo, A.]. Ottawa, Canada. http://res2.ca/ecorc/fusarium01/cont_e

Fernando WGD; Chen Y; Parks P, 2002. Effect of three Bacillus sp. from wheat on FHB reduction. In: Effect of three Bacillus sp. from wheat on FHB reduction [ed. by Canty, S. M. \Lewis, J. \Sile, L. \Ward, R.]. Michigan, USA: Kinko's, 73-75. http://www.scabusa.org/pdfs/forum_02_proc

Fernando WGD; Miller JD; Seaman WL; Seifert K; Paulitz TC, 2000. Daily and seasonal dynamics of airborne spores of Fusarium graminearum and other Fusarium species sampled over wheat plots. Canadian Journal of Botany, 78(4):497-505; 33 ref.

Fernando WGD; Paulitz TC; Seaman WL; Dutilleul P; Miller JD, 1997. Head blight gradients caused by Gibberella zeae from area sources of inoculum in wheat field plots. Phytopathology, 87(4):414-421; 34 ref.

Flett BC; Wehner FC, 1991. Incidence of Stenocarpella and Fusarium cob rots in monoculture maize under different tillage systems. Journal of Phytopathology, 133(4):327-333; 20 ref.

Foley DC, 1983. Effect of symptomless fungal infection of maize seed on germination in the presence and absence of Pythium debaryanum.. Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science, 90(4):147-149; [1 tab.]; 8 ref.

Forcelini CA; Reis EM, 1988. Control of Helminthosporium sativum, Septoria nodorum, Fusarium graminearum and Erysiphe graminis f.sp. tritici by fungicide treatment of wheat seeds. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 13(1):28-31; 12 ref.

Francis RG; Burgess LW, 1977. Characteristics of two populations of Fusarium roseum 'Graminearum' in eastern Australia. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 68(3):421-427

Fulgueira CL; Borghi AL; Gattuso MA; Sapio Odi, 1996. Effects of the infection of toxigenic fungi and an antagonistic Streptomyces strain on wheat spikes. Mycopathologia, 134(3):137-142; 31 ref.

Furlong EB; Soares LMV; Lasca CC; Kohara EY, 1995. Mycotoxins and fungi in wheat harvested during 1990 in test plots in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Mycopathologia, 131(3):185-190; 34 ref.

Furlong EB; Soares LMV; Lasca CC; Kohara EY, 1995. Mycotoxins and fungi in wheat stored in elevators in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Food Additives and Contaminants, 12(5):683-688.

Gao WD; Bao JZ; Zhao JR, 1988. Etiological study of maize stem rot in Shanxi Province. Shanxi Agricultural Science, NO.1:17-18.

Gilbert J; Tekauz A, 1995. Effects of fusarium head blight and seed treatment on germination, emergence, and seedling vigour of spring wheat. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 17:252-259.

Gilbert J; Tekauz A, 2000. Review: Recent developments in research on fusarium head blight in Canada. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 22:1-8.

Gilbert J; Tekauz A; Mueller E; Kromer U, 1994. Occurrence of fusarium head blight in Manitoba in 1993. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 74:77-78.

Gilbert J; Tekauz A; Woods SM, 1997. Effect of storage on viability of Fusarium head blight-affected spring wheat seed. Plant Disease, 81:159-162.

Gilbertson RL; Brown WMJr; Ruppel EG, 1985. Prevalence and virulence of Fusarium spp. associated with stalk rot of corn in Colorado. Plant Disease, 69(12):1065-1068; [3 tab.]; 30 ref.

Gindrat D; Frei P; Mohl D, 1988. The diagnostic and information service on diseases of major cultivated plants at the Changins Station in 1987. Revue Suisse d'Agriculture, 20(5):247-248; 1 ref.

Golzar H, 1989. Head blight of wheat, study on causal organism and its transmission through seed. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 25(1-4):7-8(en), 17-22(Pe); 13 ref.

Grausgruber H; Lemmens M; Bürstmayr H; Ruckenbauer P, 1998. Chromosomal location of Fusarium head blight resistance and in vitro toxin tolerance in wheat using the Hobbit 'sib' (Triticum macha) chromosome substitution lines. Journal of Genetics & Breeding, 52(2):173-180; 47 ref.

Griffee PJ, 1976. Pathogenicity of some fungi isolated from diseased crowns of banana hands. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 85(3):206-216

Guo DC; Wang QF; Yan SZ; Dai KS, 1993. A study on a new kind fungicide - zhiweiling. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 26(3):63-68; 13 ref.

Gutormson TJ; Curr DG; Misra MK; Kephart KD; Mehuys JF, 1993. Reducing Fusarium spp. levels soft red winter wheat through gravity separator conditioning. Iowa Seed Science, 15:2-3.

Halfon-Meiri A; Kulik MM; Schoen JF, 1979. Studies on Gibberella zeae carried by wheat seeds produced in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Seed Science and Technology, 7(3):439-448

Hampton JG, 1980. Fungal pathogens in New Zealand certified wheat seed. New Zealand Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 8(3/4):301-304

Hanson LE, 2006. Fusarium yellowing of sugar beet caused by Fusarium graminearum from Minnesota and Wyoming. Plant Disease, 90(5):686.

Hart LP; Gendloff E; Rossman EC, 1984. Effect of corn genotypes on ear rot infection by Gibberella zeae. Plant Disease, 68(4):296-298

Hashmi RY; Saleem Shahzad; Khanzada AK; Aslam M; Kazmi SAR, 1992. Studies on the seed mycoflora of lentil and its control. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 35(9):345-347; 13 ref.

Hesseltine CW; Rogers RF; Shotwell O, 1978. Fungi, especially Gibberella zeae, and zearalenone occurrence in wheat. Mycologia, 70(1):14-18

Hofman TW; Kuipers J; Koster DL, 1990. Thiocyofen: a new broad-spectrum fungicide for seed and soil treatment. Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests and Diseases - 1990. Vol. 2., 431-438; 1 ref.

Horst RK, 1983. Compendium of Rose Diseases. St Paul, Minnesota, USA: American Phytopathological Society, 50 pp.

Hu XA, 1993. High-yielding maize variety Ya Yu 2. Crop Genetic Resources, No. 4:26.

Hu Z; Wu QA; Adams RP, ed. , Adams JE, 1992. Studies of the rare and endangered plant species in the Yunnan region of China. Conservation of plant genes: DNA banking and in vitro biotechnology. DNA Bank Net, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK, 16-18 April 1991, 267-271.

Hudon M; Boivin G; Bioly R, 1990. Grain corn responses to five tillage methods under different European corn borer infestations. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 30(1-2):27-35

Hudon M; Bourgeois G; Boivin G; Chez D, 1992. Yield reductions in grain maize associated with the presence of European corn borer and Gibberella stalk rot in Quebec. Phytoprotection, 73(3):101-110

Hutcheon JA; Jordan VWL, 1992. Fungicide timing and performance for Fusarium control in wheat. Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests and Diseases - 1992. Volume 2., 633-638; 1 ref.

International Seed Testing Association, 1999. International rules for seed testing. Rules 1999. Seed Science and Technology, Suppl. 333 + vii pp.

Ittu M; Saulescu NN; Hagima I; Ittu G; Mustatea P, 2000. Association of Fusarium head blight resistance with gliadin loci in a winter wheat cross. Crop Science, 40(1):62-67; 28 ref.

Jacobsen BJ; Harlin KS; Swanson SP; Lambert RJ; Beasley VR; Sinclair JB; Wei LS, 1995. Occurrence of fungi and mycotoxins associated with field mold damaged soybeans in the midwest. Plant Disease, 79(1):86-89; 18 ref.

Jiang GL; Wu ZS; Huang DC, 1994. Effects of recurrent selection for resistance to scab (Gibberella zeae) in wheat. Euphytica, 72(1/2):107-113; 27 ref.

Jin YinZhe; Yoshizawa T, 1994. Relationship between the incidence of mycotoxigenic Gibberella zeae (Fusarium graminearum) in crop fields and the occurrence of trichothecenes in wheat. Mycotoxins, No. 40:39-42; 17 ref.

Jochum CC; Yuen G, 2002. Report on induced resistance and field biological control of Fusarium head blight by Lysobacter enzymogenes strain C3 [ed. by Erlanger, K. Y. \Canty, S. M. \Lewis, J. \Siler, L. \Ward, R.]. 127. http://www.scabusa.org/pdfs/forum_02_proc

Jochum CC; Yuen G, 2002. Report on induced resistance and field biological control of Fusarium head blight by Lysobacter enzymogenes strain C3.

Jonas DA; Knudsen I, 1991. Report of a workshop on the role of novel foods in nutrition. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 45: Suppl. 2, 161-164.

Jones RK, 1999. Seedling blight development and control in spring wheat damaged by Fusarium graminearum group 2. Plant Disease, 83(11):1013-1018; 35 ref.

Jones RK; Mirocha CJ, 1999. Quality parameters in small grains from Minnesota affected by Fusarium head blight. Plant Disease, 83(6):506-511; 43 ref.

Kabeere F; Hampton JG; Hill MJ, 1997. Transmission of Fusarium graminearum (Schwabe) from maize seeds to seedlings. Seed Science and Technology, 25(2):245-252; 15 ref.

Kabeere F; Hill MJ; Hampton JG, 1997. Effect of maize seed storage conditions on the survival of Fusarium spp. Seed Science and Technology, 25(2):329-332; 9 ref.

Kanatani R; Takeda K, 1991. A method for mass sporulation in a scab disease pathogen (Fusarium graminearum Schwabe). Nogaku Kenkyu, 62(3):177-189; 13 ref.

Karahan A; Katircioglu YZ, 1993. Occurrence and distribution of fungal diseases on lentil in Ankara Province. Journal of Turkish Phytopathology, 22(1):27-33; 19 ref.

Kedera CJ; Ochor TE; Ochieng JAW; Kamidi RE, 1994. Incidence of maize ear rot in western Kenya. International Journal of Pest Management, 40(2):117-120; 23 ref.

Khan NI; Schisler DA; Boehm MJ; Slininger PJ; Bothast RJ, 2001. Selection and evaluation of microorganisms for biocontrol of Fusarium head blight of wheat incited by Gibberella zeae. Plant Disease, 85(12):1253-1258.

Khonga EB; Sutton JC, 1988. Inoculum production and survival of Gibberella zeae in maize and wheat residues, 10:232-239.

Khonga EB; Sutton JC, 1991. Effects of acetic acid, propionic acid and urea on inoculum production by Gibberella zeae in maize and wheat residues. Mycological Research, 95(4):409-412

Kodo N; Nakamura C; Kato H; Yoshizawa T; Mori N; Kaneda C, 1995. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms of mitochondrial DNAs from seven Fusarium species causing Fusarium head blight. Japanese Journal of Genetics, 70(3):435-451; 36 ref.

Koehler B, 1959. Corn ear rots in Illinois. Ill. Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull 639.

Koehler B, 1960. Cornstalk rots in Illinois. Ill. Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. 658.

Kommedahl T; Windels CE; Lang DS, 1975. Comparison of Fusarium populations on grasslands of Minnesota and Iceland. Mycologia, 67(1):38-44

Komnenic M, 1991. Parasitic mycoflora of soyabean seed in Serbia. Review of Research Work at the Faculty of Agriculture, Belgrade, 36(598):341-356; 30 ref.

Konietzny U; Greiner R, 2003. The application of PCR in the detection of mycotoxigenic fungi in foods. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 34(4):283-300.

Krebs H; Dubois D; Kulling C; Forrer HR, 2000. Effects of preceding crop and tillage on the incidence of Fusarium spp. and mycotoxin deoxynivalenol content in winter wheat grain. Effets du travail du sol et du precedent cultural sur la contamination du grain de ble par les Fusarium et la mycotoxine deoxynivalenol. Agrarforschung, 7(6):264-268.

Krishnamurthy YL; Hemalatha TV, 2003. Isolation of endophytic fungi from some grasses. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 33(2):305-306.

Lamper C; TTren J; Bart=k T; Komor=czy R; Mesterhßzy ß; Sßgi F, 2000. Predicting DON contamination in Fusarium-infected wheat grains via determination of the ergosterol content. Cereal Research Communications, 28(3):337-344; 9 ref.

Lauren DR; Sayer ST; Menna MEdi, 1992. Trichothecene production by Fusarium species isolated from grain and pasture throughout New Zealand. Mycopathologia, 120(3):167-176; 27 ref.

Lee YW; Kim JC; Lee DH; Kang HJ; Yoshizawa T, 1995. Natural occurrence of trichothecenes and zearalenone in the 1993 barley crop in Korea. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi = Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan, 36(1):85-88

Lenivtsev IP, 1994. Differentiation of the gene resources for resistance to fusariose of the ear. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), No. 8:41.

Leonov AN; Kononenko GP; Soboleva NA; Malinovskaya LS, 1994. Study of Fusarium graminearum Schwabe toxinogenesis during low temperature cultivation. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 28(1):60-63; 11 ref.

Levitin MM; Ivashchenko VG; Gagkaeva TY, 1995. Fusarium head blight of wheat in Russia and aspects of resistance to disease. In: Proceedings of the International Seminar on Fusarium Mycotoxins, Taxonomy and Pathogenicity, Martina Franca, Italy, 87.

Li J; Nishio N; Takata K; Kuwabara T, 2000. Artificial inoculation tests for assessing scab resistance of winter wheat to Fusarium graminearum Schwabe. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Wheat Improvement for Scab Resistance, Suzhou and Nanjing, China, 184-186.

Li ZY; Wang N; Dong ZP; Dong L; Bai H; Quan JZ; Liu L, 2015. First report of Fusarium graminearum causing ear rot of foxtail millet in China. Plant Disease, 99(12):1856. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Linfield CA, 1987. Cobweb disease of carnations - a new disease of imported flowers. Plant Pathology, 36(2):222-223; 6 ref.

Lipps PE; Deep IW, 1991. Influence of tillage and crop rotation on yield, stalk rot, and recovery of Fusarium and Trichoderma spp. from corn. Plant Disease, 75(8):828-833; 30 ref.

Liu XW; Wang Y; Ma YQ, 1990. A new spring wheat variety, Kefeng 5. Crop Genetic Resources, No. 1, 46.

Logrieco A; Bottalico A; Ricci V, 1990. Occurrence of Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in cereal grains from some Mediterranean countries. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 29(2):81-89; 23 ref.

Logrieco A; Moretti A; Altomare C; Bottalico A; Torres EC, 1993. Occurrence and toxicity of Fusarium subglutinans from Peruvian maize. Mycopathologia, 122(3):185-190; 37 ref.

Logrieco A; Moretti A; Ritieni A; Bottalico A; Corda P, 1995. Occurrence and toxigenicity of Fusarium proliferatum from preharvest maize ear rot, and associated mycotoxins, in Italy. Plant Disease, 79(7):727-731; 40 ref.

Loper JE; Stockwell VO, 2000. Current status of biological control of plant disease. In: Emerging technologies for integrated pest management: concepts, research, and implementation. Proceedings of a Conference, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA, 8-10 March, 1999 [ed. by Kennedy, G. G.\Sutton, T. B.]. St. Paul, USA: American Phytopathological Society (APS Press), 240-256.

Lorenzini M; Zapparoli G, 2015. Occurrence and infection of Cladosporium, Fusarium, Epicoccum and Aureobasidium in withered rotten grapes during post-harvest dehydration. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 108(5):1171-1180. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10482-015-0570-8

Lori GA; Sisterna MN, 2001. Occurrence and distribution of Fusarium spp. associated with durum wheat seed from Argentina. Journal of Plant Pathology, 83(1):63-67; 11 ref.

Luo JG, 1995. Studies on pathogenic Fusarium species of rice bakanae disease and strains. Chinese Journal of Rice Science, 9(2):119-122; 12 ref.

Luz WC, 2000. Biocontrol of fusarium head blight in Brazil:77-81.

Luz WCda; Minella E, 1982. Micro-organisms from barley seeds in different Brazilian localities. Fitopatologia Brasiliera, 7(3):387-391; [1 tab.]; 10 ref.

Ma ZhengQiang; Steffenson BJ; Prom LK; Lapitan NLV, 2000. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for fusarium head blight resistance in barley. Phytopathology, 90(10):1079-1088; 35 ref.

Macek J; Milevoj L; Celar F, 1998. The influence of nico-, primi-, rim- and thifensulfuron-methyl herbicides on the mycelial growth of Fusarium graminearum. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 33(1/2):97-100; 14 ref.

Machado FJ; Möller PA; Nicolli CP; Ponte EMdel; Ward TJ, 2015. First report of Fusarium graminearum, F. asiaticum, and F. cortaderiae as head blight pathogens of annual ryegrass in Brazil. Plant Disease, 99(12):1859. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Manning B; Southwell R; Hayman P; Moore K, 2000. Fusarium head blight in northern NSW. ^italic~Fusarium^roman~ head blight in northern NSW., 4 pp.

Mao W; Lewis JA; Hebbar PK; Lumsden RD, 1997. Seed treatment with a fungal or a bacterial antagonist for reducing corn damping-off caused by species of Pythium and Fusarium. Plant Disease, 81(5):450-454.

Martin RA; Johnston HW, 1982. Effects and control of Fusarium diseases of cereal grains in the Atlantic Provinces. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 4(2):210-216

McCallum BD; Tekauz A; Gilbert J, 2001. Vegetative compatibility among Fusarium graminearum (Gibberella zeae) isolates from barley spikes in southern Manitoba. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 23(1):83-87; 30 ref.

McGee DC, 1994. Seed assays for Stewart's wilt and other seed-borne diseases of corn. In: Proc. Annu. Corn Sorghum Res. Conf. 48. Washington D.C. USA: American Seed Trade Association, 161-168.

McKendry AL; Berg JE; Tague DN; Kephart KD, 1995. Registration of 'Ernie' wheat. Crop Science, 35(5):1513.

McMullen M, 1996. Recent epidemics of wheat scab: theor causes and impacts. In: Cortes JE, ed. Proceedings of the 18th Annual Seed Technology Conference. Ames, IA, USA: Iowa State Univesity, 29-39.

McMullen M; Jones R; Gallenberg D, 1997. Scab of wheat and barley: a re-emerging disease of devastating impact. Plant Disease, 81(12):1340-1348; 60 ref.

Mesterhazy A, 1983. Breeding of wheat and corn for resistance against Fusarium diseases. Tagungsbericht Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik, No. 216, II, 517-522.

Mesterházy A, 1995. Types and components of resistance to Fusarium head blight of wheat. Plant Breeding, 114(5):377-386; 44 ref.

Mesterházy á; Bartók T, 1996. Control of Fusarium head blight of wheat by fungicides and its effect on the toxin contamination of the grains. Pflanzenschutz-Nachrichten Bayer (English ed.), 49(2):181-198; 24 ref.

Mesterhazy A; Vojtovics M, 1977. Survey of Fusarium spp. diseases of maize in 1972-1975. Novenytermeles, 26(5):367-378

Meulder Hde, 2003. Investigation of fungi on Reed mace (Typha) (Part 2). (Onderzoek naar het voorkomen van paddestoelen op lisdodde (Typha) (Deel 2).) AMK Mededelingen, No.3:59-65.

Michaelson ME; Christensen JJ, 1953. Reduction of yield of corn due to stalk rot. Phytopathology, 43:479

Miedaner T; Borchardt DC; Geiger HH, 1993. Genetic analysis of inbred lines and their crosses for resistance to head blight (Fusarium culmorum, F. graminearum) in winter rye. Euphytica, 65(2):123-133; 36 ref.

Mihuta-Grimm L; Forster RL, 1989. Scab of wheat and barley in southern Idaho and evaluation of seed treatments for eradication of Fusarium spp. Plant Disease, 73(9):769-771; 29 ref.

Miller JD; Culley J; Fraser K; Hubbard S; Meloche F; Ouellet T; Seaman WL; Seifert KA; Turkington K; Voldeng H, 1998. Effect of tillage practice on Fusarium head blight of wheat. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 20(1):95-103.

Miller-Garvin JE; Viands DR, 1994. Selection for resistance to Fusarium root rot, and associations among resistances to six diseases in alfalfa. Crop Science, 34(6):1461-1465.

Milus EA; Parsons CE, 1994. Evaluation of foliar fungicides for controlling Fusarium head blight of wheat. Plant Disease, 78(7):697-699; 15 ref.

Mirocha CJ; Abbas HK; Windels CE; Xie W, 1989. Variation in deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and zearalenone production by Fusarium graminearum isolates. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 55(5):1315-1316; 12 ref.

Moldovan M; Moldovan V, 2000. Sources of resistance to Fusarium head blight of wheat. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Wheat Improvement for Scab Resistance, Suzhou and Nanjing, China, 25-28.

Mongrain D; Couture L; Comeau A, 2000. Natural occurrence of Fusarium graminearum on adult wheat midge and transmission to wheat spikes. Cereal Research Communications, 28(1/2):173-180; 17 ref.

Mostafa MAN; Coors JG; Drolsom PN, 1988. Selection for resistance to stalk rot in maize caused by Gibberella zeae (Schw.) Petch. Maydica, 33(1):15-26

Mozgovoi AF; Chenkin AF; D'yachenko VF, 1989. How to decrease ear fusariose infection. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), No. 8:21-22.

Munitz MS; Garrido CE; Gonzalez HHL; Resnik SL; Salas PM; Montti MIT, 2013. Mycoflora and potential mycotoxin production of freshly harvested blueberry in Concordia, Entre Ríos Province, Argentina. International Journal of Fruit Science, 13(3):312-325. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/wsfr20

Naguib K; Sahab AF; Metwally M; El-Sayed AA, 1989. Fungal flora associated with corn grains with special references to vomitoxin production. African Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 16(1-2):31-41; 27 ref.

Nakamura K, 1984. Multiple regression analysis of scab occurrence of barley and wheat and scab forecasting in Hiroshima Prefecture. Bulletin of the Hiroshima Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Station, No.48:49-66

Nass HG; Johnston HW; Blatt CR; Atlin G; Walton RB, 1995. AC Winsloe winter wheat. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 75(4):905-907.

Neish GA; Farnworth ER; Greenhalgh R; Young JC, 1983. Observations on the occurrence of Fusarium species and their toxins in corn in eastern Ontario. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 5(1):11-16

Ngoko Z; Marasas WFO; Rheeder JP; Shephard GS; Wingfield MJ; Cardwell KF, 2001. Fungal infection and mycotoxin contamination of maize in the humid forest and the Western Highlands of Cameroon. Phytoparasitica, 29(4):352-360.

Nicholson P; Simpson DR; Weston G; Rezanoor HN; Lees AK; Parry DW; Joyce D, 1998. Detection and quantification of Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium graminearum in cereals using PCR assays. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 53(1):17-37; 33 ref.

Nightingale MJ; Marchylo BA; Clear RM; Dexter JE; Preston KR, 1999. Fusarium head blight: effect of fungal proteases on wheat storage proteins. Cereal Chemistry, 76(1):150-158; 24 ref.

NSHS, 2003. National Seed Health System. USDA, USA. World Wide Web page at http://www.seedhealth.org.

Nyvall RF; Porter RA; Percich JA, 1995. First report of scab on cultivated wild rice in Minnesota. Plant Disease, 79(1):82.

O'Donnell K; Kistler HC; Tacke BK; Casper HH, 2000. Gene genealogies reveal global phylogeographic structure and reproductive isolation among lineages of Fusarium graminearum, the fungus causing wheat scab. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97(14):7905-7910; 35 ref.

Onyike NBN; Nelson PE, 1991. Fusarium species associated with millet grain from Nigeria, Lesotho, and Zimbabwe. Mycologia, 83(6):708-712; 22 ref.

Padwick GW, 1950. Manual of Rice Diseases. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Palaversic B; Brekalo J; Sever J; Stilinovic I; Bancic T, 1995. Testing the resistance of maize inbred lines to diseases significant in seed production. Sjemenarstvo, 12(4/5):263-271; 20 ref.

Parry DW; Jenkinson P; McLeod L, 1995. Fusarium ear blight (scab) in small grain cereals-a review. Plant Pathology, 44(2):207-238; 212 ref.

Pasquali M; Giraud F; Brochot C; Hoffmann L; Bohn T, 2009. First report of the nivalenol chemotype of Fusarium graminearum causing head blight of wheat in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Plant Disease, 93(11):1217. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Pavlova TV; Izmalkova AG, 1995. Fusariose of the wheat ear in the Krasnodar region. Zashchita Rastenii Moskva, No. 11, 28-29.

Pavlovic S; Stojsin V; Stojanovic S; Starovic M, 2008. Mycopopulation in five important cultivated medicinal plants in Serbia. In: Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Southeast European Countries, (5th CMAPSEEC), Brno, Czech Republic, 2-5 September, 2008. Brno, Czech Republic: Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry in Brno, 101.

Pè ME; Gianfranceschi L; Taramino G; Tarchini R; Angelini P; Dani M; Binelli G, 1993. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for resistance to Gibberella zeae infection in maize. Molecular and General Genetics, 241(1/2):11-16; 24 ref.

Pegg GF; Parry DW, 1983. Infection of lucerne (Medicago sativa) by Fusarium species. Annals of Applied Biology, 103(1):45-55

Perea CF; Diaz de Ackermann M, 1981. Survey of wheat diseases in Uruguay, 1968/79. Investigaciones Agronomicas, 2(1):42-51

Pérez Fernández J, 1994. Fungi and mycotoxins in the semiarid and subhumid Pampean region. Boletín de Divulgación Técnica, INTA, No. 52:23 pp.; 22 ref.

Perkowski J; Chelkowski J; Plattner RD; Golinski P, 1991. Cumulation of mycotoxins in maize cobs infected with Fusarium graminearum.. Mycotoxin Research, 7(A (Suppl.) Part II):115-120; 21 ref.

Perondi NL; Luz WC da; Thomas R; Da Luz WC, 1996. Microbiological control of Gibberella in wheat. Controle microbiologico da giberela do trigo. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 21(2):243-249.

Popa M; Cristea M; Dutu H, 1988. Experimental results concerning the inheritance of response to attack by Fusarium graminearum in maize. Analele Institutului de Cercetari pentru Cereale si Plante Tehnice, Fundulea, 56:45-55; 13 ref.

Proctor RH; Hohn TM; McCormick SP, 1995. Reduced virulence of Gibberella zeae caused by disruption of a trichothecene toxin biosynthetic gene. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 8(4):593-601; 33 ref.

Prom LK; Horsley RD; Steffenson BJ; Schwarz PB, 1999. Development of Fusarium head blight and accumulation of deoxynivalenol in barley sampled at different growth stages. Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists, 57(2):60-63; 12 ref.

Pronczuk M; Pronczuk S; Messyasz M, 1991. Pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. contributing to the stalk rot of maize in Poland. Mycotoxin Research, 7(A (Suppl.) Part II):97-101; 5 ref.

Rasmusson DC; Wilcoxson RD; Dill-Macky R; Schiefelbein EL; Wiersma JV, 1999. Registration of `MNBrite' barley. Crop Science, 39(1):290; 4 ref.

Reddy MVB; Arul J; Angers P; Couture L, 1999. Chitosan treatment of wheat seeds induces resistance to Fusarium graminearum and improves seed quality. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 47(3):1208-1216.

Reid LM; Hamilton RI, 1996. Release of inbreds with high Gibberella ear rot resistance. Maize Genetics Cooperation Newsletter, No. 70:47-48.

Reid LM; Sinha RC, 1998. Maize maturity and the development of Gibberella ear rot symptoms and deoxynivalenol after inoculation. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 104(2):147-154; 22 ref.

Reis EM, 1988. Quantification of propagules of Gibberella zeae in the air by means of spore traps. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 13(4):324-327

Rodemann B; Mielke H; Bartels G, 2001. Influence of cultivar choice on infestation with ear fusariosis. Getreide Magazin, No.3:152-155.

Rohde CR, 1972. Registration of Adams wheat. Crop Science, 12(3):398.

Ryshava B; Zvolenski I; Neshtitski M, 1988. Study of hybrids with modified endosperm. Informatsionnyi Byulleten' po Kukuruze, No. 7:199-207.

Saharan MS; Kumar J; Sharma AK; Tiwari R; Nagarajan S, 2003. Pathogenic variation among Fusarium species or isolates associated with head scab of wheat (Triticum aestivum) in India. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 73(6):322-326.

Sangalang AE; Burgess LW; Backhouse D; Duff J; Wurst M, 1995. Mycogeography of Fusarium species in soils from tropical, arid and mediterranean regions of Australia. Mycological Research, 99(5):523-528; 23 ref.

Saponaro A, 1980. Observations on some cases of maize stalk and root rot due to Fusarium. Annali dell'Istituto Sperimentale per la Patologia Vegetale, 6:5-14

Savard ME; Sinha RC; Seaman WL; Fedak G, 2000. Sequential distribution of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in wheat spikes after inoculation with Fusarium graminearum. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 22(3):280-285; 17 ref.

Savor J; Macek J, 1994. Studies on the causal agents (Fusarium spp.) of dry rot of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) in Slovenia. Mededelingen - Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 59(3a):885-894; 24 ref.

Say M; Wright GK; Wimalajeewa S, 1992. Epidemiology and control of Fusarium disease of carnations in Victoria. Acta Horticulturae, No. 307:89-94; 6 ref.

Scardaci SC; Webster RK, 1982. Common root rot of cereals in California. Plant Disease, 66(1):31-34

Scauflaire J; Gourgue M; Foucart G; Renard F; Vandeputte F; Munaut F, 2013. Fusarium miscanthi and other Fusarium species as causal agents of Miscanthus × giganteus rhizome rot. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 137(1):1-3. http://rd.springer.com/journal/10658

Schaafsma AW; Hooker D; Tamburic L; Winter J, 2000. Predicting Fusarium head scab (Fusarium graminearum Schwabe) in winter wheat using near real-time weather. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Wheat Improvement for Scab Resistance, Suzhou and Nanjing, China, 281-282.

Schisler DA; Khan NI; Boehm MJ, 2002. Biological control of Fusarium head blight of wheat and deoxynivalenol levels in grain via use of microbial antagonists. In: Mycotoxins and food safety: Proceedings of an American Chemical Society symposium held in Washington, DC, USA, on 21-23 August 2000 [ed. by DeVries, J. W.\Trucksess, M. W.\Jackson, L. S.]. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 53-69.

Schjøth JE; Sundheim L, 2013. Epidemic significance of planting time and hybrid on Fusarium infection of maize in two agroecological zones of Zambia. Acta Agriculturæ Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science, 63(2):153-161. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/sagb20

Segarra J; Marin JP; Almacellas J, 1993. Fungal diseases of barley in Catalonia during the 1988-90 period. Investigación Agraria, Producción y Protección Vegetales, 8(3):457-467; 36 ref.

Seweta Srivastava; Asha Sinha; Srivastava CP, 2011. Screening of seed-borne mycoflora of Jatropha curcas L. Research Journal of Seed Science, 4(2):94-105. http://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=rjss.2011.94.105&org=10

Shamim Shamsi; Razia Sultana, 2008. Gibberella zeae (Schw.) Petch - a new record of ascomycetous fungus for Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy, 15(2):163-165. http://www.banglajol.info/index.php/BJPT

Shang HS; Wang SQ; Jing JX, 1987. Factors contributing to Fusarium head blight epidemics of wheat in the irrigated area of central Shaanxi Province. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 20(5):71-75; 3 ref.

Sharma SK; Dohroo NP, 1990. Occurrence and distribution of fungi causing ginger yellows in Himachal Pradesh. Plant Disease Research, 5(2):200-202; 3 ref.

Sheraliev ASh; Bukharov KV, 2001. Fusarium species infecting agricultural and weed plants in Uzbekistan. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 35(2):44-47.

Shurtleff MC, ed. , 1980. Compendium of Corn Diseases. 2nd ed. St. Paul, MN, USA: American Phytopathology Society.

Siame BA; Lovelace CEA, 1994. Effects of temperature on the simultaneous production of zearalenone and deoxynivalenol by Fusarium graminearum on maize. African Crop Science Journal, 2(2):189-195; 19 ref.

Simay EI, 1994. Seed-borne fungi of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.). Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter, No. 97, 45-46.

Singh DV; Mathur SB; Neergaard P, 1974a. Seed health testing of maize. Evaluation of testing techniques, with particular reference to Drechslera maydis. Seed Sci. Technol., 2:349-365.

Singh NI; Devi RKT, 1991. New host records of fungi from India. Indian Phytopathology, 43(4):594-595.

Singh RP; Ma H; Rajaram S, 1995. Genetic analysis of resistance to scab in spring wheat cultivar Frontana. Plant Disease, 79(3):238-240; 15 ref.

Sinha KK, 1991. Contamination of freshly harvested maize kernels with Fusarium mycotoxins in Bihar State, India. Mycotoxin Research, 7(A (Suppl.) Part II):178-183; 14 ref.

Skrinjar M; Stubblefield RD; Stojanovic E; Dimic G, 1995. Occurrence of Fusarium species and zearalenone in dairy cattle feeds in Vojvodina. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica, 43(2-3):259-267.

Southwell RJ; Moore KJ; Manning W; Hayman PT, 2003. An outbreak of Fusarium head blight of durum wheat on the Liverpool Plains in northern New South Wales in 1999. Australasian Plant Pathology (in press).

Spokauskiene O, 1978. Root rots of cereals in Lithuania (2. Effect of seed treatment on pathogens of root rots of winter wheat seedlings). Lietuvos TSR Mokslu Akademijos Darbai, C, 1(81):77-81

Srobarova A; Srobar S, 1982. Characteristics of Fusarium species on wheat and their presence in different crop growing regions of Slovakia. Sbornik UVTIZ, Ochrana Rostlin, 18(1):27-34

Stack RW, 1989. A comparison of the inoculum potential of ascospores and conidia of Gibberella zeae. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 11(2):137-142

Stack RW; McMullen MP, 1985. Head blighting potential of Fusarium species associated with spring wheat heads. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 7(1):79-82; [1 tab.]; 15 ref.

Statler GD; Darlington LC, 1972. Resistance of hard red spring wheat and durum wheat to seedling blight and crown rot. Plant Disease Reporter, 56(9):788-791.

Strausbaugh CA; Maloy OC, 1986. Fusarium scab of irrigated wheat in central Washington. Plant Disease, 70(12):1104-1106; 8 ref.

Sugiura Y; Saito H; Tanaka T; Ichinoe M; Ueno Y, 1994. Fusarium crookwellense, a newly isolated fungus from wheat in Japan: its mycotoxin production and pathogenicity to wheat and barley. Mycoscience, 35(1):77-82; 18 ref.

Sutton JC, 1982. Epidemiology of wheat head blight and maize ear rot caused by Fusarium graminearum. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 4(2):195-209

Sutton JC; Baliko W, 1981. Methods for quantifying partial resistance to Gibberella zeae in maize ears. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 3(1):26-32

Szécsi á; Bartók T, 1995. Trichothecene chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum isolated from corn in Hungary. Mycotoxin Research, 11(2):85-92; 36 ref.

Szécsi á; Mesterházy á, 1998. A medium for selective isolation and identification of Fusarium spp. from cereal grains and maize kernels. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 33(1/2):79-87; 26 ref.

Tarcomnicu M; Beratlief Z; Diaconu V; Rotaru V, 1975. Quantitative relations between Fusarium graminearum Schw. and some fungi isolated from the soil and from wheat seeds. Analele Institutului de Cercetari pentru Protectia Plantelor, 13:55-59

TARR SAJ, 1962. Diseases of sorghum, Sudan grass and broom corn. Kew, Commonwealth Mycological Inst., xi + 380 pp.

Tekauz A; McCallum B; Gilbert J, 2000. Review: Fusarium head blight of barley in western Canada. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 22:9-16.

Terekhov VI; Bessel'tsev VI; Fissyura NI; Polievets NG; Isaeva MN; Dobryanskaya MV; Monastyrnaya EI, 1993. Forecasting model of Gibberella zeae sporulation. Soviet Agricultural Sciences, No. 3:18-21

Thrane U, 2000. Mycotoxin producing Fusarium species occurring in Danish cereals. (Mykotoksinproducerende Fusarium arter i dansk korn.) In: DJF Rapport, Markbrug, No. 24. Tjele, Denmark: Danmarks JordbrugsForskning, 165-169.

Tomasovic S; Matijasevic M; Sesar B, 1993. Fusarium spp. on wheat with special reference to fusarium head blight (F. graminearum Schw.). Rachis, 12(1/2):41-43; 9 ref.

Trigo-Stockli DM; Curran SP; Pedersen JR, 1995. Distribution and occurrence of mycotoxins in 1993 Kansas wheat. Cereal Chemistry, 72(5):470-474; 29 ref.

Tseng TC; Tu JC; Soo LC, 1996. Natural occurrence of mycotoxins in Fusarium-infected beans. Microbios, 84(338):21-28; 16 ref.

Tsuru M, 1977. Wheat. Presenting new varieties of winter crops and horticultural crops. Japanese Journal of Breeding Ikushugaku Zasshi, 27:78-82.

Tuite J; Shaner G; Everson RJ, 1990. Wheat scab in soft red winter wheat in Indiana in 1986 and its relation to some quality measurements. Plant Disease, 74(12):959-962

Ueda S; Yoshizawa T, 1992. Studies on wheat and barley scab. VIII. Assessment of the scab damage and estimation of the economic injury level on the basis of the number of trapped ascospores of Gibberella zeae. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 58(3):461-463

US Wheat and Barley Scab Initiative, 2000. World wide web page at http://www.scabusa.org/fhb_1exec.html.

Veisz O; Szunics L; Szunics LU, 1995. Fusarium infection in wheat varieties. In: Proceedings of the International Seminar on Fusarium Mycotoxins, Taxonomy and Pathogenicity, Martina Franca, Italy, 129.

Ventura M; Picard C; Gallet A; Benizri E; Guckert A, Duffy B (ed. ), Rosenberger U (ed.), Defago G, 1998. Production of 2, 4-diacetylphloroglucinol by a Pseudomonas strain in the rhizosphere of maize: implication of this compound in the biological control of Fusarium graminearum. Molecular approaches in biological control. Delemont, Switzerland, 15-18 September, 1997. Bulletin OILB-SROP. 21(9):27-31.

Vigier B; Reid LM; Seifert KA; Stewart DW; Hamilton RI, 1997. Distribution and prediction of Fusarium species associated with maize ear rot in Ontario. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 19(1):60-65; 17 ref.

Viljoen JH; Marasas WFO; Thiel PG; Plessis JG du, ed. , Rensburg JBJ van, ed., Mcharen NW, ed., Flett BC, 1994. Fungal infection and mycotoxic contamination of commercial maize. Tenth South African maize breeding symposium, Potchefstroom, South Africa, 17-19 March 1992. Technical Communication Department of Agricultural Development South Africa, No. 238, 26-37.

Walker SL; Leath S; Hagler WMJr; Murphy JP, 2001. Variation among isolates of Fusarium graminearum associated with Fusarium head blight in North Carolina. Plant Disease, 85(4):404-410; 19 ref.

Wallbridge A, 1981. Fungi associated with crown-rot disease of boxed bananas from the Windward Islands during a two-year survey. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 77(3):567-577.

Wan YongFang; Yen Chi; Yang JunLiang, 1997. The diversity of head-scab resistance in Triticeae and their relation to ecological conditions. Euphytica, 97(3):277-281; 13 ref.

Wang GC; Chen HK; Xu PS; Bao JY, 1990. Studies on the pathogens of the rice bakanae disease in Zhejiang. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica, 20(2):93-97; 9 ref.

Wang SL; Qi LL; Chen PD; Liu DJ; Friebe B; Gill BS, 1999. Molecular cytogenetic identification of wheat-Elymus tsukushiense introgression lines. Euphytica, 107(3):217-224; 21 ref.

Wang SQ; Shang HS; Jing JX, 1991. Study on the inoculum population of Fusarium graminearum in soil of arid wheat fields. Acta Universitatis Agriculturalis Boreali-Occidentalis, 19(2):32-37; 6 ref.

Wang YP; Wu ZS; Liu YQ, 1994. Studies on biochemical assay and mechanism of resistance to scab in wheat. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 20(3):327-333

Wang YQ; Zhang WL; Kong B; Kong HM; Wu JL, 1981. Studies on the toxins of Gibberella zeae (Schw.) Petch I. The investigation of Gibberella zeae pathogenic on wheat and barley crops in Shanghai district. Microbiology, 8(5):201-203

Wang YZ, 1996. Epidemiology and management of wheat scab in China. In: Fusarium Head Scab: Global Status and Future Prospects. Proceedings of a workshop held at CIMMYT, El Batan, Mexico, 97-105.

Wearing AH; Burgess LW, 1978. Distribution and mode of survival of Fusarium roseum 'Graminearum' group 2 in maize soils of Eastern Australia. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 70(3):480-486

Wegener M; Wolf GA, 1995. Stem base disease also caused by fusaria. PSP Pflanzenschutz Praxis, No. 1:27-29.

Wetter MT; Trucksess MW; Roach JA; Bean GA, 1999. Occurrence and distribution of Fusarium graminearum and deoxynivalenol in sweet corn ears. Food Additives and Contaminants, 16(3):119-124; 13 ref.

Wicklow DT; Caldwell RW, 1990. Non-infection of maize ears inoculated with Gibberella zeae ascospores or macroconidia in a controlled environment. Transactions of the Mycological Society of Japan, 31(1):29-34

Wiersma JJ; Kandel HJ, 2004. The response of Fusarium graminearum-infected seed of hard red spring wheat to Vitavax Extra RTU and Dividend XL seed treatments. Plant Health Progress, April:1-5. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/pub/php/research/2004/seed/

Wiese MV, 1987. Compendium of wheat diseases. Second edition. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: American Phytopathological Society, 112 pp.

Wilcoxson RD, 1962. Stalk rot in relation to yield of corn. Phytopathology, 52:416-418.

Windels CE; Kommedahl T, 1984. Late-season colonization and survival of Fusarium graminearum group II in cornstalks in Minnesota. Plant Disease, 68(9):791-793; [3 fig.]; 25 ref.

Wong LSL; Abramson D; Tekauz A; Leisle D; McKenzie RIH, 1995. Pathogenicity and mycotoxin production of Fusarium species causing head blight in wheat cultivars varying in resistance. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 75(1):261-267; 24 ref.

Wright DG; Khangura R; Loughman R; Bentley A; Fosu-Nyako J, 2012. First record of Gibberella zeae and Gibberella coronicola on millet in Western Australia. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 7(1):19-21. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-011-0037-3/fulltext.html

Wubet T; Abate D, 2000. Common toxigenic Fusarium species in maize grain in Ethiopia. Sinet, an Ethiopian Journal of Science, 23(1):73-86.

Xie MaoChang; Wang MingZu, 2000. Decontamination of deoxynivalenol (DON) by chemical methods for wheat infected by scab. Acta Agriculturae Shanghai, 16(1):58-61; 9 ref.

Xu R; Wolters PJCC; Snijders CHA, 2000. RAPD fingerprinting of the six Fusarium species causing fusarium blight in cereals and grasses. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Wheat Improvement for Scab Resistance, Suzhou and Nanjing, China, 200-210.

Xu SZ; Lu JT, 1984. A study on the pathogenic specialization of Fusarium graminearum Schw. Shanghai Agricultural Science and Technology, No.6:27-28.

Ye HZ, 1980. On the biology of the perfect stage of Fusarium graminearum Schw. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 7(1):35-42

Yi CuiLin; Kaul HP; Knbler E; Schwadorf K; Aufhammer W, 2001. Head blight (Fusarium graminearum) and deoxynivalenol concentration in winter wheat as affected by pre-crop, soil tillage and nitrogen fertilization. Zeitschrift fu^umlaut~r Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 108(3):217-230; 56 ref.

Ylimaki A, 1981. The mycoflora of cereal seeds and some feedstuffs. Annales Agriculturae Fenniae, 20(2):74-88

Yli-Mattila T; Paavanen S; Hannukkala A; Parikka P; Tahvonen R; Karjalainen R, 1996. Isozyme and RAPD-PCR analyses of Fusarium avenaceum strains from Finland. Plant Pathology, 45(1):126-134; 31 ref.

Zhang KQ; Li JJ; Zhou W, 1992. Pleurotus wilt - a new disease of cultivated Pleurotus. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica, 22(3):223-228; 6 ref.

Zhang L; Zhang LQ; Chen HY; Pan XP, 1992. Path analysis of the expansion resistance components to scab in wheat varieties. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 25(2):47-52; 8 ref.

Zwatz B, 1975. Fusarium ear infection of wheat - yield and quality reduction. Pflanzenarzt, 28(4):48, 50

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map