Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Gibberella intricans
(damping-off of safflower)

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Datasheet

Gibberella intricans (damping-off of safflower)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 September 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Gibberella intricans
  • Preferred Common Name
  • damping-off of safflower
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Sordariomycetes
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Gibberella intricans Wollenw.

Preferred Common Name

  • damping-off of safflower

Other Scientific Names

  • Fusarium equiseti (Corda) Sacc.
  • Fusarium falcatum Appel & Wollenw.
  • Fusarium gibbosum Appel & Wollenw.
  • Fusarium roseum 'Gibbosum'
  • Fusarium roseum var. equiseti

International Common Names

  • English: fusarium stalk rot; post-harvest decay of vegetables; stalk rot of maize
  • Spanish: fuego de la espiga de los cereales; fuego de las panículas de los cereales; fusariosis de los cereales; marchitez fusariana del pepino; marchitez fusariana del tomate; necrosis fusariana de la patata; podredumbre basal de la judía; podredumbre fusariana del pepino; podredumbre fusariana del tomate
  • French: flétrissement bactérien; nécrose du collet

EPPO code

  • GIBBIN (Gibberella intricans)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Sordariomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Hypocreomycetidae
  •                         Order: Hypocreales
  •                             Family: Nectriaceae
  •                                 Genus: Gibberella
  •                                     Species: Gibberella intricans

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent
EgyptPresent
GhanaPresent
KenyaPresent
MalawiPresent
MoroccoPresentAgadir region.
NigeriaPresent
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent
ZambiaPresent

Asia

AzerbaijanPresent
ChinaPresent
-FujianPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-HeilongjiangPresent
-JilinPresent
-LiaoningPresent
-ShandongPresent
-ShanxiPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
IndiaPresent
-AssamPresent
-BiharPresent
-DelhiPresent
-GujaratPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-KeralaPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-OdishaPresent
-PunjabPresent
-RajasthanPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IranPresent
IraqPresent
MalaysiaPresent
NepalPresent
OmanPresent
PakistanPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresent
SyriaPresent
TurkeyPresent

Europe

BulgariaPresent
CzechiaPresent
FinlandPresent
GermanyPresent
HungaryPresent
ItalyPresent
PolandPresent
RomaniaPresent
SerbiaPresent
SpainPresent

North America

CanadaPresent
-QuebecPresent
-SaskatchewanPresent
HondurasPresent
MexicoPresent
United StatesPresent
-ArkansasPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-IdahoPresent
-MississippiPresent
-MontanaPresent
-North CarolinaPresent

Oceania

American SamoaPresent
AustraliaPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
New ZealandPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-Santa CatarinaPresent
ChilePresent
VenezuelaPresent

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite
Trichoderma harzianum Antagonist

References

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Brooks F, 2002. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2002. Land Grant Technical Report No. 44. Pago Pago, American Samoa: American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program

Garibaldi A, Gilardi G, Bertoldo C, Gullino ML, 2011. First report of leaf spot of rocket (Eruca sativa) caused by Fusarium equiseti in Italy. Plant Disease, 95(10):1315. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Gilardi G, Bertoldo C, Gullino ML, Garibaldi A, 2012. Leaf spot caused by Fusarium equiseti on rocket in Piedmont (Northern Italy). (Una nuova alterazione fogliare causata da Fusarium equiseti su rucola in Piemonte.) Protezione delle Colture, No.1:29-31. http://www.agrinnova.org/comunicazione.php

Gilardi G, Ortu G, Gullino ML, Garibaldi A, 2016. Lettuce and wild rocket: new hosts of Fusarium equiseti in Italy. (Lattuga e rucola selvatica: nuovi ospiti di Fusarium equiseti in Italia.) Protezione delle Colture [Atti Degli Incontri Fitoiatrici 2016, Torino, 16 Marzo 2016.], No.2:45-46

Gilardi, G., Matic, S., Gullino, M. L., Garibaldi, A., 2017. A new leaf spot caused by Fusarium equiseti on radish in Piedmont. Protezione delle Colture, (No.5), 22-24.

Guo MengMeng, Li BenJin, Wang RongBo, Liu PeiQing, Chen QingHe, 2020. Occurrence of dieback disease caused by Fusarium equiseti on Dendrobium officinale in China. Crop Protection, 137 doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2020.105209

Gupta V, Razdan VK, John D, Sharma BC, 2013. First report of leaf blight of Cyperus iria caused by Fusarium equiseti in India. Plant Disease, 97(6):838. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

IPPC, 2005. Disease of Crops. IPPC Official Pest Report. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/IPP/En/default.jsp

Lazarotto M, Muniz MFB, Santos RFdos, Blume E, Harakawa R, Hamann FA, 2014. First report of Fusarium equiseti associated on pecan (Carya illinoinensis) seeds in Brazil. Plant Disease, 98(6):847-848. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Lu NH, Huang QZ, He H, Li KW, Zhang YB, 2014. First report of black stem of Avicennia marina caused by Fusarium equiseti in China. Plant Disease, 98(6):843. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Madania A, Altawil M, Naffaa W, Volker PH, Hawat M, 2013. Morphological and molecular characterization of Fusarium isolated from maize in Syria. Journal of Phytopathology, 161(7/8):452-458. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0434

Nur Ain Izzati MZ, Azmi AR, Siti Nordahliawate MS, Johari Norazlina, 2011. Contribution to the knowledge of diversity of Fusarium associated with maize in Malaysia. Plant Protection Science, 47(1):20-24. http://www.cazv.cz

Pavlovic S, Stojsin V, Stojanovic S, Starovic M, 2008. Mycopopulation in five important cultivated medicinal plants in Serbia. In: Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Southeast European Countries, (5th CMAPSEEC), Brno, Czech Republic, 2-5 September, 2008. Brno, Czech Republic: Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry in Brno, 101

Prasad, L., Kamil, D., Singh, N., Singh, O. W., Yadava, D. K., Devi, T. P., 2017. First report of Fusarium equiseti causing stem and root rot on Brassica juncea in India. Journal of Plant Pathology, 99(3), 799. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3924/2568

Ramchandra SS, Bhatt PN, 2011. Morphological and molecular identification of Fusarium isolated from cumin wilt. International Journal of Plant Protection, 4(2):359-362. http://www.researchjournal.co.in/online/IJPP.htm

Schjøth JE, Sundheim L, 2013. Epidemic significance of planting time and hybrid on Fusarium infection of maize in two agroecological zones of Zambia. Acta Agriculturæ Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science, 63(2):153-161. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/sagb20

Sharifi K, Zare R, Zamani-Zadeh HR, Arjmandian A, 2009. Fusarium species causing dry rot of potatoes in Ardabil, Tehran and Hamedan Provinces. Applied Entomology and Phytopathology, 76(2):Pe93-Pe113

Distribution References

Al-Sadi A M, Al-Ghaithi A G, Al-Fahdi N, Al-Yahyai R, 2014. Characterization and pathogenicity of fungal pathogens associated with root diseases of citrus in Oman. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 16 (2), 371-376. http://www.fspublishers.org/published_papers/94276_..pdf

Al-Sadi A M, Al-Said F A, Al-Kaabi S M, Al-Quraini S M, Al-Mazroui S S, Al-Mahmooli I H, Deadman M L, 2011. Occurrence, characterization and management of fruit rot of immature cucumbers under greenhouse conditions in Oman. Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 50 (3), 421-429. http://www.fupress.com/pm/

Ashfaq M, Anjum M A, Hafeez R, Ali A, Haider M S, Ali M, Chattha M B, Ahmad S R, Ahmad F, Khan F, Sajjad M, 2017. First report of Fusarium equiseti causing brown leaf spot of fishtail palm (Caryota mitis) in Pakistan. Plant Disease. 101 (5), 840. DOI:10.1094/pdis-11-16-1585-pdn

Astudillo-Calderón S, Tello M L, Alonso de Robador J M, Pintos B, Gómez-Garay A, 2019. First report of Fusarium equiseti causing vascular wilt disease on Vitis vinifera in Spain. Plant Disease. 103 (9), 2471-2471. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-01-19-0067-PDN

Battilani P, Racca P, Rossi V, 2000. Rational arrangement of a network for disease survey on a regional scale. Bulletin OEPP. 30 (1), 51-57. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2338.2000.tb00851.x

Bayraktar H, Dolar F S, 2011. Molecular identification and genetic diversity of Fusarium species associated with onion fields in Turkey. Journal of Phytopathology. 159 (1), 28-34. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0434.2010.01715.x

Beev G, Denev S, Pavlov D, 2011. Occurrence and distribution of Fusarium species in wheat grain. Agricultural Science and Technology. 3 (2), 165-168. http://tru.uni-sz.bg/ascitech/2_2011/PQS_02.pdf

Bentley A R, Cromey M G, Farrokhi-Nejad R, Leslie J F, Summerell B A, Burgess L W, 2006. Fusarium crown and root rot pathogens associated with wheat and grass stem bases on the South Island of New Zealand. Australasian Plant Pathology. 35 (5), 495-502. DOI:10.1071/AP06053

Bourdages J V, Marchand S, Rioux S, Belzile F J, 2006. Diversity and prevalence of Fusarium species from Quebec barley fields. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 28 (3), 419-425. http://pubs.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/tcjpp/plant.html

Boutigny A L, Beukes I, Viljoen A, 2011. Head blight of barley in South Africa is caused by Fusarium graminearum with a 15-ADON chemotype. Journal of Plant Pathology. 93 (2), 321-329. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/1186

Bozac P, Botău D, Popescu S, Boldura O, Alexa E, 2014. Distribution of Fusarium species in Timis County (Western Romania) in relation with environmental conditions. Journal of Horticulture, Forestry and Biotechnology. 18 (2), 137-140. http://journal-hfb.usab-tm.ro/2014/Lista%20lucrari%20PDF/Vol%2018(2)%20PDF/24Bozac%20Petru_BUN.docx.pdf

Brooks F, 2002. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2002. In: Land Grant Technical Report No. 44, Pago Pago, American Samoa: American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program.

CABI Data Mining, Undated. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Camacho López M D, Valenzuela Solano C, Hernández Martínez R, 2014. Fusarium spp. associated with carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) in Baja California, Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Agrícolas. 5 (Especial 8), 1409-1415. http://revistaagricola.inifap.gob.mx/index.php/Agricolas/article/view/3116/2565

Erol F Y, Tunalı B, 2009. Determination of root and crown rot diseases in tomato growing area of Samsun Province. Acta Horticulturae. 65-69. http://www.actahort.org

Ezrari S, Lahlali R, Radouane N, Tahiri A, Lazraq A, 2020. First report of Fusarium equiseti causing pre- and postharvest fruit rot on zucchini in Morocco. Journal of Plant Pathology. 102 (1), 251-251. DOI:10.1007/s42161-019-00389-1

Fard M B, Mohammadi A, Darvishnia M, 2014. Fusarium species associated with foxtail millet (Setaria Italica) in Iran. International Journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research. 2 (9), 2549-2552. http://ijabbr.com/article_9119_1344.html

Fernandez M R, 2007. Fusarium populations in roots of oilseed and pulse crops grown in eastern Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 87 (4), 945-952.

Fernandez M R, Basnyat P, Zentner R P, 2007. Response of wheat root pathogens to crop management in eastern Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 87 (4), 953-963.

Fernandez M R, Holzgang G, 2009. Fungal populations in subcrown internodes and crowns of oat crops in Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 89 (3), 549-557. http://article.pubs.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/RPAS/rpv?hm=HInit&calyLang=eng&journal=cjps&volume=89&afpf=CJPS08091.pdf

Fernandez M R, Jefferson P G, 2004. Fungal populations in roots and crowns of common and durum wheat in Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 26 (3), 325-334. http://pubs.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/tcjpp/plant.html

Garibaldi A, Gilardi G, Bertoldo C, Gullino M L, 2011. First report of leaf spot of rocket (Eruca sativa) caused by Fusarium equiseti in Italy. Plant Disease. 95 (10), 1315. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-03-11-0220

Garibaldi A, Gilardi G, Ortu G, Gullino M L, 2016. First report of leaf spot of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) caused by Fusarium equiseti in Italy. Plant Disease. 100 (2), 531. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-06-15-0686-PDN

Ghanbarzadeh B, Goltapeh E M, Safaie N, 2014. Identification of Fusarium species causing basal rot of onion in East Azarbaijan province, Iran and evaluation of their virulence on onion bulbs and seedlings. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 47 (9), 1050-1062. DOI:10.1080/03235408.2013.829628

Gilardi G, Bertoldo C, Gullino M L, Garibaldi A, 2012. Leaf spot caused by Fusarium equiseti on rocket in Piedmont (Northern Italy). (Una nuova alterazione fogliare causata da Fusarium equiseti su rucola in Piemonte.). Protezione delle Colture. 29-31. http://www.agrinnova.org/comunicazione.php

Gilardi G, Ortu G, Gullino M L, Garibaldi A, 2016. Lettuce and wild rocket: new hosts of Fusarium equiseti in Italy. (Lattuga e rucola selvatica: nuovi ospiti di Fusarium equiseti in Italia.). Protezione delle Colture. 45-46.

Guo MengMeng, Li BenJin, Wang RongBo, Liu PeiQing, Chen QingHe, 2020. Occurrence of dieback disease caused by Fusarium equiseti on Dendrobium officinale in China. Crop Protection. DOI:10.1016/j.cropro.2020.105209

Gupta V, Razdan V K, John D, Sharma B C, 2013. First report of leaf blight of Cyperus iria caused by Fusarium equiseti in India. Plant Disease. 97 (6), 838. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-12-0690-PDN

Hilal A A, 2004. New diseases of ornamentals in Egypt: IV: Cut flower plant: Aster. Egyptian Journal of Phytopathology. 32 (1/2), 143-144. http://www.ejp.eg.net/pdf_2004/current_2004_note2.pdf

IPPC, 2005. Disease of Crops. In: IPPC Official Pest Report, Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/IPP/En/default.jsp

Kotgire Ganesh, Mehta B P, 2014. Detection of fungal pathogens on groundnut seeds in different tribal localities of Dangs district under South Gujarat. Journal of Mycopathological Research. 52 (1), 129-132. http://www.imskolkata.org/

Lazarotto M, Muniz M F B, Santos R F dos, Blume E, Harakawa R, Hamann F A, 2014. First report of Fusarium equiseti associated on pecan (Carya illinoinensis) seeds in Brazil. Plant Disease. 98 (6), 847-848. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-13-0976-PDN

Lazreg F, Belabid L, Sanchez J, Gallego E, Garrido-Cardenas J A, Elhaitoum A, 2014. First report of Fusarium equiseti causing damping-off disease on aleppo pine in Algeria. Plant Disease. 98 (9), 1268-1269. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-02-13-0194-PDN

Li M J, Pan X, Liu Z, Wu L J, Zhang Y, Wang Q, 2020. First report of root rot caused by Fusarium equiseti on ginseng (Panax ginseng) in China. Plant Disease. 104 (8), 2294-2294. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-12-19-2640-PDN

Li P P, Cao Z Y, Wang K, Zhai H, Jia H, Liu N, Li S H, Hao Z M, Gu S Q, Dong J G, 2014. First report of Fusarium equiseti causing a sheath rot of corn in China. Plant Disease. 98 (7), 998. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-13-1088-PDN

Li Y G, Song X L, Wang X Q, Zhang H, Tian S, Ji P, 2018. First report of fruit rot of watermelon caused by Fusarium equiseti in China. Plant Disease. 102 (9), 1852-1853. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-01-18-0199-PDN

Li Y G, Zhang S Q, Sun L P, Li S, Ji P, 2017. First report of root rot of cowpea caused by Fusarium equiseti in Georgia in the United States. Plant Disease. 101 (9), 1674. DOI:10.1094/pdis-03-17-0358-pdn

Li Y, Ji P, 2015. First report of fruit rot of watermelon caused by Fusarium equiseti in Gerogia in the United States. Plant Disease. 99 (9), 1272-1273. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-14-1074-PDN

Lu N H, Huang Q Z, He H, Li K W, Zhang Y B, 2014. First report of black stem of Avicennia marina caused by Fusarium equiseti in China. Plant Disease. 98 (6), 843. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-13-0873-PDN

Madania A, Altawil M, Naffaa W, Volker P H, Hawat M, 2013. Morphological and molecular characterization of Fusarium isolated from maize in Syria. Journal of Phytopathology. 161 (7/8), 452-458. DOI:10.1111/jph.12085

Mazurkiewicz-Zapałowicz K, Ładczuk D, Wolska M, 2011. Organisms affecting the health of Typha spp. in the littoral zone of lakes in Drawa National Park (NW Poland). Phytopathologia. 17-27. http://www.up.poznan.pl/ptfit/pdf/P61/P61_03.pdf

Meena P D, Riteka Gupta, Pankaj Sharma, Rai P K, Meena H S, Singh S K, 2019. Isolation and characterization of a new fungal species, Fusarium equiseti (Corda) Sacc., from Brassica juncea in Bharatpur. Journal of Oilseed Brassica. 10 (2), 130-133. http://srmr.org.in/ojs/index.php/job/article/view/352

Moya-Elizondo E A, Rew L J, Jacobsen B J, Hogg A C, Dyer A T, 2011. Distribution and prevalence of fusarium crown rot and common root rot pathogens of wheat in Montana. Plant Disease. 95 (9), 1099-1108. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-10-0795

Moya-Elizondo E, Arismendi N, Castro M P, Doussoulin H, 2015. Distribution and prevalence of crown rot pathogens affecting wheat crops in southern Chile. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research. 75 (1), 78-84. DOI:10.4067/S0718-58392015000100011

Muthomi J W, Riungu G M, Ndung'u J K, Narla R D, 2007. Occurrence of wheat head blight and Fusarium species infecting wheat. In: 8th African Crop Science Society Conference, El-Minia, Egypt, 27-31 October 2007 [8th African Crop Science Society Conference, El-Minia, Egypt, 27-31 October 2007.], [ed. by Ahmed K Z]. El-Minia, Egypt: African Crop Science Society. 863-867.

Nur Ain Izzati M Z, Azmi A R, Siti Nordahliawate M S, Johari Norazlina, 2011. Contribution to the knowledge of diversity of Fusarium associated with maize in Malaysia. Plant Protection Science. 47 (1), 20-24. http://www.cazv.cz

Orlikowski L B, Oszako T, Szkuta G, 2006. First record on Phytophthora spp. associated with the decline of European beech stand in south-west Poland. Phytopathologia Polonica. 37-46. http://www.au.poznan.pl/ptfit

Orlikowski L B, Szkuta G, 2006. Phytophthora rot of some orchids - new disease in Poland. Phytopathologia Polonica. 57-61. http://www.au.poznan.pl/ptfit

Özer G, Bayraktar H, 2015. Determination of fungal pathogens associated with Cuminum cyminum in Turkey. Plant Protection Science. 51 (2), 74-79. http://www.cazv.cz DOI:10.17221/51/2014-PPS

Özer G, Paulitz T C, Imren M, Alkan M, Muminjanov H, Dababat A A, 2020. Identity and pathogenicity of fungi associated with crown and root rot of dryland winter wheat in Azerbaijan. Plant Disease. 104 (8), 2149-2157. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-19-1799-RE

Patel Harikrushana, Suthar Ramchandra, Shah K R, 2014. Study of wilt producing Fusarium sp. from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 3 (8), 854-858. http://www.ijcmas.com/vol-3-8/Patel%20Harikrushana,%20et%20al.pdf

Pavlović S, Ristić D, Vučurović I, Stevanović M, Stojanović S, Kuzmanović S, Starović M, 2016. Morphology, pathogenicity and molecular identification of Fusarium spp. associated with anise seeds in Serbia. Notulae Botanicae, Horti Agrobotanici, Cluj-Napoca. 44 (2), 411-417. http://www.notulaebotanicae.ro/index.php/nbha/article/view/10488/7929

Pavlović S, Stojšin V, Stojanović S, Starović M, 2008. Mycopopulation in five important cultivated medicinal plants in Serbia. In: Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Southeast European Countries, (5th CMAPSEEC), Brno, Czech Republic, 2-5 September, 2008. Brno, Czech Republic: Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry in Brno. 101.

Prasad L, Kamil D, Singh N, Singh O W, Yadava D K, Devi T P, 2017. First report of Fusarium equiseti causing stem and root rot on Brassica juncea in India. Journal of Plant Pathology. 99 (3), 799. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3924/2568

Ramchandra S S, Bhatt P N, 2011. Morphological and molecular identification of Fusarium isolated from cumin wilt. International Journal of Plant Protection. 4 (2), 359-362. http://www.researchjournal.co.in/online/IJPP.htm

Schjøth J E, Sundheim L, 2013. Epidemic significance of planting time and hybrid on Fusarium infection of maize in two agroecological zones of Zambia. Acta Agriculturæ Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science. 63 (2), 153-161. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/sagb20 DOI:10.1080/09064710.2012.733727

Shahnaz Dawar, Farzana Syed, Ghaffar A, 2007. Seed borne fungi associated with chickpea in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 39 (2), 637-643. http://www.pjbot.org

Sharifi K, Zare R, Zamani-Zadeh H R, Arjmandian A, 2009. Fusarium species causing dry rot of potatoes in Ardabil, Tehran and Hamedan Provinces. Applied Entomology and Phytopathology. 76 (2), Pe93-Pe113.

Sharifi K, Zare R, Zamanizadeh H R, Mirabolfathy M, Rezaee S, 2016. Identification of Fusarium species associated with Fusarium head blight of wheat in the North of Iran and phylogenetic analysis of the dominant species. Rostaniha. 17 (2), 173-187. http://rostaniha.areo.ir/article_109430_3d820363a1e18f7750e80eeebfaffefe.pdf

Strausbaugh C A, Bradley C A, Koehn A C, Forster R L, 2004. Survey of root diseases of wheat and barley in southeastern Idaho. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 26 (2), 167-176. http://pubs.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/tcjpp/plant.html

Tunali B, Nicol J M, Hodson D, Uçkun Z, Büyük O, Erdurmuș D, Hekİmhan H, Aktaș H, Akbudak M A, Bağcı S A, 2008. Root and crown rot fungi associated with spring, facultative, and winter wheat in Turkey. Plant Disease. 92 (9), 1299-1306. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-92-9-1299

Ünal F, Tülek S, Bingöl M Ü, Öztürk Ö, Eğerci Y, Kurbetli İ, Canpolat S, Sarpkaya K, Ünlü A, Dolar F S, 2020. Identification and pathogenicity studies of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) fungi on turfgrass areas in Turkey. Bitki Koruma Bülteni. 60 (1), 63-69. DOI:10.16955/bitkorb.574000

Wagacha J M, Steiner U, Dehne H W, Zuehlke S, Spiteller M, Muthomi J, Oerke E C, 2010. Diversity in mycotoxins and fungal species infecting wheat in Nakuru District, Kenya. Journal of Phytopathology. 158 (7/8), 527-535. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0434.2009.01653.x

Wang C W, Wang Y, 2017. First report of postharvest fruit rot caused by Fusarium equiseti on stored Cerasus pseudocerasus in China. Plant Disease. 101 (6), 1041. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-16-1451-PDN

Zimowska B, 2015. Fungi threatening the cultivation of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) in south-eastern Poland. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum - Hortorum Cultus. 14 (4), 65-78. http://www.acta.media.pl/pl/full/7/2015/000070201500014000040006500078.pdf

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