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Datasheet

Gibberella fujikuroi
(bakanae disease of rice)

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Datasheet

Gibberella fujikuroi (bakanae disease of rice)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Gibberella fujikuroi
  • Preferred Common Name
  • bakanae disease of rice
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Sordariomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Bakanae caused by G. fujikuroi. Infected plants in the field (left); Conidia on infected leaf sheaths (right)
TitleSymptoms on rice leaves
CaptionBakanae caused by G. fujikuroi. Infected plants in the field (left); Conidia on infected leaf sheaths (right)
CopyrightChin Khoon Min
Bakanae caused by G. fujikuroi. Infected plants in the field (left); Conidia on infected leaf sheaths (right)
Symptoms on rice leavesBakanae caused by G. fujikuroi. Infected plants in the field (left); Conidia on infected leaf sheaths (right)Chin Khoon Min
Ear rot.
TitleSymptoms on maize
CaptionEar rot.
CopyrightISU
Ear rot.
Symptoms on maizeEar rot.ISU
White streaks on maize kernels.
TitleSymptoms on maize kernels
CaptionWhite streaks on maize kernels.
CopyrightUniversity of Mysore
White streaks on maize kernels.
Symptoms on maize kernelsWhite streaks on maize kernels.University of Mysore
Stalk rot.
TitleSymptoms on stalk
CaptionStalk rot.
CopyrightISU
Stalk rot.
Symptoms on stalkStalk rot.ISU

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Gibberella fujikuroi (Sawada) Wollenw.

Preferred Common Name

  • bakanae disease of rice

Other Scientific Names

  • Alysidium verticillioides (Sacc.) Kuntze
  • Fusarium moniliforme J. Sheld.
  • Fusarium moniliforme f. moniliforme
  • Fusarium moniliforme f. subglutinans (Luc) C. Moreau
  • Fusarium moniliforme subsp. majus (Wollenw. & Reinking) Raillo
  • Fusarium moniliforme subsp. moniliforme
  • Fusarium moniliforme var. erumpens Wollenw. & Reinking
  • Fusarium moniliforme var. fici Caldis
  • Fusarium moniliforme var. hangzhouense Gong C. Wang & Q.M. Ye
  • Fusarium moniliforme var. intermedium Neish & M. Legg
  • Fusarium moniliforme var. majus Wollenw. & Reinking
  • Fusarium moniliforme var. minus Wollenw.
  • Fusarium moniliforme var. minus Wollenw. & Reinking
  • Fusarium moniliforme var. oryzae Saccas
  • Fusarium moniliforme var. subglutinans Wollenw. & Reinking
  • Fusarium neoceras var. subglutinans (Wollenw. & Reinking) Raillo
  • Fusarium sacchari var. subglutinans (Wollenw. & Reinking)
  • Fusarium subglutinans (Wollenw. & Reinking) P.E. Nelson, Toussoun & Marasas
  • Fusarium subglutinans var. subglutinans
  • Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg
  • Gibberella fujikuroi (Sawada) S. Ito
  • Gibberella fujikuroi f. fujikuroi (Sawada) Wollenw.
  • Gibberella fujikuroi f. oryzae Saccas
  • Gibberella fujikuroi var. fujikuroi
  • Gibberella fujikuroi var. fujikuroi (Sawada) Wollenw.
  • Gibberella fujikuroi var. intermedia Kuhlman
  • Gibberella fujikuroi var. moniliformis (Wineland) Kuhlman
  • Gibberella fujikuroi var. subglutinans E.T. Edwards
  • Gibberella moniliforme
  • Gibberella moniliformis Wineland
  • Gibberella moniliformis var. bambusicola S. Yamam.
  • Gibberella moniliformis var. moniliformis
  • Gibberella moniliformis var. subglutinans Wollenw. & Reinking
  • Gibberella subglutinans (E.T. Edwards) P.E. Nelson, Toussoun & Marasas
  • Lisea fujikuroi Sawada
  • Lisea fujikuroi Sawada
  • Oospora verticillioides Sacc.

International Common Names

  • English: fig endosepsis; maize stalk rot; pokkah boeng; pseudo-stem rot of plantain; sett rot of sugarcane; stalk rot of maize; stem and ear rot of sweet corn; stem rot of rice; white stalk of rice
  • Spanish: mal del pié del arroz; podredumbre apical de la caña
  • French: déssèchement des feuilles de la canne à sucre; maladie du gigantisme du riz; pourriture de la pointe de la canne à sucre

Local Common Names

  • China: white stalk
  • Germany: Bakanä-Krankheit: Reis
  • Guyana: Mon Rice
  • Japan: Bakanae
  • Philippines: Palay lalahe

EPPO code

  • GIBBFU (Gibberella fujikuroi)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Sordariomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Hypocreomycetidae
  •                         Order: Hypocreales
  •                             Family: Nectriaceae
  •                                 Genus: Gibberella
  •                                     Species: Gibberella fujikuroi

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentUK CAB International, 1990
BangladeshWidespreadHaque et al., 1979; Mondal et al., 1988
Brunei DarussalamPresentUK CAB International, 1990
CambodiaPresentUK CAB International, 1990
ChinaPresentUK CAB International, 1990
-GansuPresent
-GuizhouPresent
-HebeiPresent
-HunanPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-LiaoningPresent
-ShaanxiPresentChen GuangQuan, 2006
-ShanghaiPresent
-ShanxiPresent
-SichuanPresentWen et al., 2002
-ZhejiangPresent
IndiaWidespreadVismanath, 1965
-Andhra PradeshPresentSankar et al., 2011
-AssamPresent
-DelhiPresentSurulirajan and Sarbhoy, 2000
-GujaratPresent
-HaryanaPresentSushil et al., 2001
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-Indian PunjabPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-ManipurPresent
-MeghalayaPresent
-OdishaPresent
-RajasthanPresentSingh and Srivastava, 1989
-Tamil NaduPresentSurulirajan and Sarbhoy, 2000; Saravanan et al., 2002
-Tamil NaduPresentSurulirajan and Sarbhoy, 2000; Saravanan et al., 2002
-Uttar PradeshWidespreadPavgi and Singh, 1964
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresentPavgi and Singh, 1964; UK CAB International, 1990
IranPresentRajagopalan, 1961; UK CAB International, 1990
IraqPresentUK CAB International, 1990
IsraelPresentJoffe and Palti, 1977
JapanPresentOkata, 1981; Sasaki, 1987
Korea, Republic ofPresentKim, 1981
LaosWidespreadUK CAB International, 1990
MalaysiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentUK CAB International, 1990
-SabahPresentUK CAB International, 1990
MyanmarPresentUK CAB International, 1990
NepalWidespreadIPPC, 2005
PakistanPresentKhokkar, 1990; Ahmed and Raza, 1992
PhilippinesPresentNuque et al., 1980
Saudi ArabiaPresent
SingaporePresentSanderson and Yong, 1972
South East AsiaPresent
Sri LankaPresentUK CAB International, 1990
SyriaPresentUK CAB International, 1990
TaiwanPresentUK CAB International, 1990
ThailandPresentKing, 1968
TurkeyPresentUK CAB International, 1990
UzbekistanPresentRakhimov and Khakimov, 2000
VietnamPresentUK CAB International, 1990
YemenPresentUK CAB International, 1990

Africa

AlgeriaPresentUK CAB International, 1990
AngolaPresentUK CAB International, 1990
BeninPresent
Burkina FasoPresentKini et al., 2002
CameroonPresentUK CAB International, 1990
Central African RepublicPresentUK CAB International, 1990
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentUK CAB International, 1990
Côte d'IvoirePresentUK CAB International, 1990
EgyptPresentAbdel-Hak and Sirry, 1973
EthiopiaPresentUK CAB International, 1990
GambiaPresentUK CAB International, 1990
GhanaPresentUK CAB International, 1990
KenyaPresentUK CAB International, 1990
LibyaPresentUK CAB International, 1990
MadagascarPresentUK CAB International, 1990
MalawiPresentUK CAB International, 1990
MaliPresentUK CAB International, 1990
MauritaniaPresentUK CAB International, 1990
MoroccoPresentUK CAB International, 1990
MozambiquePresentUK CAB International, 1990
NigerPresentUK CAB International, 1990
NigeriaPresentImolehin, 1983
RéunionPresentUK CAB International, 1990
SenegalPresentUK CAB International, 1990
Sierra LeonePresentUK CAB International, 1990
South AfricaPresentUK CAB International, 1990
SudanPresentUK CAB International, 1990
SwazilandPresentUK CAB International, 1990
TanzaniaPresentUK CAB International, 1990
TogoPresentUK CAB International, 1990
UgandaPresentUK CAB International, 1990
ZambiaPresentUK CAB International, 1990
ZimbabwePresentUK CAB International, 1990

North America

CanadaPresentUK CAB International, 1990
-OntarioPresent
MexicoPresentUK CAB International, 1990
USAPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-ConnecticutPresent
-FloridaPresentVoorhees, 1932
-GeorgiaPresentJurjevic et al., 2005
-HawaiiPresentUK CAB International, 1990
-IllinoisPresentAnderson and White, 1987
-IowaPresent
-KansasPresent
-MassachusettsPresent
-MichiganPresent
-MinnesotaPresentNyvall and Kommedahl, 1970
-MississippiPresent
-MissouriPresentCalvert et al., 1985
-NebraskaPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-North DakotaPresentMarkell and Francl, 2003
-OklahomaPresent

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentUK CAB International, 1990
BarbadosPresentUK CAB International, 1990
BelizePresentUK CAB International, 1990
Costa RicaPresentUK CAB International, 1990
CubaPresentUK CAB International, 1990
Dominican RepublicPresentUK CAB International, 1990
El SalvadorPresentUK CAB International, 1990
GrenadaPresentUK CAB International, 1990
GuadeloupePresentUK CAB International, 1990
GuatemalaPresentUK CAB International, 1990
HaitiPresentUK CAB International, 1990
HondurasPresentUK CAB International, 1990
JamaicaPresentUK CAB International, 1990
MartiniquePresentUK CAB International, 1990
NicaraguaPresentUK CAB International, 1990
PanamaPresentUK CAB International, 1990
Puerto RicoPresentUK CAB International, 1990
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentUK CAB International, 1990
Saint LuciaPresentUK CAB International, 1990
Trinidad and TobagoPresentUK CAB International, 1990

South America

ArgentinaPresentUK CAB International, 1990
BoliviaPresentUK CAB International, 1990
BrazilPresent
-GoiasPresentPrabhu and Bedendo, 1981
-Mato GrossoPresentPrabhu and Bedendo, 1981
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentPrabhu and Bedendo, 1981
-Minas GeraisPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ChilePresentUK CAB International, 1990
ColombiaPresentUK CAB International, 1990
GuyanaWidespreadUK CAB International, 1990
ParaguayPresentUK CAB International, 1990
PeruPresentUK CAB International, 1990
SurinameWidespreadUK CAB International, 1990
VenezuelaPresentUK CAB International, 1990

Europe

AustriaPresentUK CAB International, 1990
BulgariaPresent
CroatiaPresent
Czech RepublicPresentUK CAB International, 1990
Czechoslovakia (former)Present
Former USSRPresent
FrancePresentUK CAB International, 1990
GermanyPresentUK CAB International, 1990
GreecePresentUK CAB International, 1990
HungaryPresentUK CAB International, 1990
ItalyPresentBaldacci, 1946
NetherlandsPresentUK CAB International, 1990
PolandPresentUK CAB International, 1990
PortugalPresentUK CAB International, 1990
RomaniaPresentUK CAB International, 1990
Russian FederationRestricted distributionUK CAB International, 1990
-SiberiaPresent
SlovakiaPresent?robárová et al., 2000
SpainPresentMarin-Sanchez and Jimenez-Diaz, 1982
SwitzerlandPresentUK CAB International, 1990
UKPresentUK CAB International, 1990
-England and WalesPresent
UkrainePresent
Yugoslavia (former)PresentUK CAB International, 1990
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)Present

Oceania

American SamoaPresentBrooks, 2002
AustraliaWidespreadHeaton and Morschel, 1965
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentHeaton and Morschel, 1965
-New South WalesPresentUK CAB International, 1990
-QueenslandPresentUK CAB International, 1990
-South AustraliaPresentUK CAB International, 1990
-VictoriaPresentUK CAB International, 1990
-Western AustraliaPresentUK CAB International, 1990
FijiPresentUK CAB International, 1990
GuamPresentUK CAB International, 1990
New CaledoniaPresentUK CAB International, 1990
New ZealandPresentUK CAB International, 1990
Papua New GuineaPresentUK CAB International, 1990
Solomon IslandsPresentUK CAB International, 1990
VanuatuPresentUK CAB International, 1990

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / lesions: scab or pitting
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / fungal growth
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Seeds / distortion
Seeds / lesions on seeds
Seeds / rot
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / mould growth on lesion
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Whole plant / damping off
Whole plant / early senescence
Whole plant / seedling blight

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite
Olpitrichum tenellum Pathogen
Tolypocladium niveum Pathogen
Trichoderma hamatum Antagonist
Trichoderma harzianum Antagonist
Trichoderma koningii Antagonist
Trichoderma pseudokoningii Antagonist

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Growing medium accompanying plants
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

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?robárová A, Logrieco A, Nadubinská M, 2000. Maize kernels infestation by Fusarium spp. in the period 1996-1998 in Slovakia. Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica, 3(4):90-93.

Abdel-Hak, Sirry AR, 1973. Studies on root-rot diseases of rice caused by Sclerotium rolfsii and Fusarium moniliforme. Agricultural Research Review, 51(3):79-97.

Ahmed MI, Raza T, 1992. Survey of Pakistan's rice crop for bakanae. International Rice Research Newsletter, 17(1):23.

Ali MS, Deka B, 1996. Role of fungi causing grain discoloration of rice and management under storage. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 26(1):79-85.

Anderson B, White DG, 1987. Fungi associated with cornstalks in Illinois in 1982 and 1983. Plant Disease, 71(2):135-137; 12 ref.

Aurangzeb M, Ahmed J, Ilyas MB, 1998. Chemical control of Bakanae disease of rice caused by Fusarium moniliforme. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 10(1):14-17.

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore.

Babu HNR, Lokesh S, 1996. Seed mycoflora of some paddy (Oryza sativa L.) varieties in Karnataka (India). Plant Disease Research, 11(1):49-51.

Baldacci E, 1946. The presence in Italy of Fusarium moniliforme on rice and its phytopathological significance. Int. Bull. Pl. Prot. Int. Agr. Rome, 20(1/2):1-2.

Bhargava SN, Shukla DN, Singh NK, Narendra Singh, 1978. Fusarium moniliforme causing panicle rot of rice. Indian Phytopathology, 31(3):367-369

Biological Control Products, 2010. Formulator, manufacturer and supplier of biological control products. Pinetown, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

Biswas S, Das SN, 2002. Efficacy of fungicides for the control of Bakanae disease of rice. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences. 10:288-290.

Booth C, 1971. The Genus Fusarium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Booth C, 1984. The Fusarium problem: historical, economic and taxonomic aspects. The applied mycology of Fusarium. Symposium of the British Mycological Society held at Queen Mary College, London, September 1982., 1-13; [British Mycological Society Symposium 7]; 38 ref.

Brooks F, 2002. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2002. Land Grant Technical Report No. 44. Pago Pago, American Samoa: American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program.

Burgess LW, Liddell CM, Summerell BA, 1988. Laboratory Manual for Fusarium Research, 2nd edition. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney.

Burgess LW, Summerell BA, Bullock S, Gott KP, Backhouse D, 1994. Laboratory Manual for Fusarium Research. 3rd edn. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney.

Calvert OH, Foudin AS, Minor HC, Krause GF, 1985. Fusarium moniliforme colonization of corn ears in Missouri. Plant Disease, 69(11):988-990; [1 fig., 3 tab.]; 14 ref.

Chang YC, Sun, SK, 1975. The perfect stage of Fusarium moniliforme. Journal of Agricultural Research of China, 24:11-19.

Chen CJ, Zhou MG, Ye ZY, Zhou ZY, Chen SL, Chen CJ, Zhou MG, Ye ZY, Zhou ZY, Chen SL, 1997. Causes of rice bakanae (Fusarium moniliforme) occurrence in fertile-and-dry seedbed. Journal of Nanjing Agricultural University, 20(2):42-45.

Chen GuangQuan, 2006. Study on infection law and pathogenic factors of maize ear rot in Hexi Corridor. Journal of Maize Sciences, 14(1):158-160.

Chincholkar SB, Mukerji KG, 2007. Biological control of plant diseases [ed. by Chincholkar, S. B.\Mukerji, K. G.]. Binghampton, USA: Haworth Food & Agricultural Products Press, 426 pp.

Cotten TK, 1996. Survival and seed transmission of Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium proliferatum, and Fusarium subglutinans in maize. M.S. Thesis. Iowa State University. 75pp.

Dagutat Science, 2010. Formulator, manufacturer and supplier of biological control products. Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa.

Deka B, Ali MS, Chandra KC, 1996. Management of grain discoloration of rice. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 26(1):105-106; 9 ref.

Directorate: Food Safety and Quality Assurance South Africa, 2010. Lists of registered pesticides in South Africa. Directorate: Food Safety and Quality Assurance South Africa.

Dodan DS, Ram Singh, Sunder S, 1997. Pattern of rice diseases in Haryana. Plant Disease Research, 12(2):188-191; 6 ref.

Ellis JJ, 1988. Section Liseola of Fusarium.. Mycologia, 80(2):255-258; 6 ref.

Galperin M, Graf S, Kenigsbuch D, 2003. Seed treatment prevents vertical transmission of Fusarium moniliforme, making a significant contribution to disease control. Phytoparasitica, 31(4): 344-352.

Gelderblom WCA, Jaskiewicz K, Marasas WFO, Thiel PG, Hovak RM, 1988. Fumonisins- Novel mycotoxins with cancer-promoting activity produced by Fusarium moniliforme. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 54:1806-1811.

Gerber BJ, 2008. Efficacy evaluation of various biological control agent formulations used as seed and soil drench applications against Fusarium spp. causing grain loss in wheat. Efficacy evaluation of various biological control agent formulations used as seed and soil drench applications against Fusarium spp., South Africa.

Gerber BJ, 2010. Efficacy evaluation of various biological control agent formulations used as seed and soil drench applications on maize yield when seed is infected with Fusarium spp. Efficacy evaluation of various biological control agent formulations used as seed and soil drench applications., South Africa.

Gliessman SR, 2001. Agroecosystem Sustainability: developing practical strategies. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press LLC.

Goulart ACP, Fialho WFB, 1994. Fungicide efficiency in the control of pathogens in corn (Zea mays L.) seeds. Informativo ABRATES, 4(3):55-59; 15 ref.

Haque MA, Rahman MM, Miah SA, 1979. A rapid method of screening rice varieties for resistance to bakanp disease. International Rice Commission Newsletter, 28(2):34-37

Harman GE, Howell CR, Viterbo A, Chet I, Lorito M, 2004. Trichoderma species - opportunistic, avirulent plant symbionts. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 2(1):43-56. http://www.nature.com/reviews

Hasan I, 2010. Plant Diseases and their Biological Control. New Delhi, India: Rajat Publications, 130-170.

Heaton JB, Morschel JR, 1965. A footrot disease of rice variety blue bonnet in Northern Terrotory, Australia, caused by Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon. Tropical Science, 116-121.

Hepperly PR, Feliciano C, Sotomayor A, 1982. Chemical control of seedborne fungi of sorghum and their association with seed quality and germination in Puerto Rico. Plant Disease, 66(10):902-904

Hino T, Furata T, 1968. Studies on control of bakanae disease of rice plants, caused by Gibberella fujikuroi. II. Influence on flowering season on rice plants and seed transmissibility through flower infection. Chugoku Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin, E2:96-110.

Hsieh WH, Smith SN, Snyder WC, 1977. Mating groups in Fusarium moniliforme. Phytopathology, 67(8):1041-1043

Huelma CC, Moody K, Mew TW, 1996. Weed seeds in rice seed shipments: a case study. International Journal of Pest Management, 42(3):147-150; 13 ref.

Idrees M, Wahid A, Javed MS, Saleem A, 1999. Effect of a boll rotting fungus Fusarium moniliforme on seed germination, seedling mortality in cotton and its control. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 11(1):49-51; 15 ref.

Iguchi S, 1964. Overwintering of bakanae disease fungus. Annual Report of the Society of Plant Protection of North Japan, 15:39.

Ilyas MB, Iftikhar K, 1997. Screening of rice germplasm and fungitoxicants against bakanae disease of rice. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 9(1):67-73; 16 ref.

Imolehin ED, 1983. Rice seedborne fungi and their effect on seed germination. Plant Disease, 67(12):1334-1336; [1 fig., 2 tab.]; 15 ref.

Imura J, 1940. On the angles between blades and culms in the accelarated rice seedlings caused by Gibberella fujikuroi. Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Japan, 10:45-48.

IPPC, 2005. Disease of Crops. IPPC Official Pest Report. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/IPP/En/default.jsp

ISTA, 1985. International Rules for Seed Testing, Rules 1985. Draper SR, ed. Zurich, Switzerland: International Seed Testing Association, 1-520.

Joffe AZ, Palti J, 1977. Species of Fusarium found in uncultivated desert-type soils in Israel. Phytoparasitica, 5(2):119-121

Jurjevic Z, Wilson DM, Wilson JP, Geiser DM, Juba JH, Mubatanhema W, Widstrom NW, Rains GC, 2005. Fusarium species of the Gibberella fujikuroi complex and fumonisin contamination of pearl millet and corn in Georgia, USA. Mycopathologia, 159(3):401-406. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=102966

Kanjanasoon P, 1965. Studies on the bakanae disease of rice in Thailand. PhD thesis, Tokyo University, Japan.

Katharou S, 1981. Gene pool organization in Fusarium moniliforme. PhD Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, USA, 89 pp.

Kedera, CJ, Leslie JF, Claflin, LE, 1992. Systemic infection of corn by Fusarium moniliforme. Phytopathology, 82:1138.

Kellerman TS, Marasas WFO, Thiel PG, Gelderblom WCA, Cawood M, Coetzer JAW, 1990. Leukoencephalomacia in two horses induced by oral dosing of fumonisin B1. Onderstepoort, J. Vet. Res., 57:269-275.

Khan MS, Zaidi A, Wani PA, 2008. Role of Phosphate Solubilizing Micro-organisms in Sustainable Agriculture. In: Microbes in Sustainable Agriculture [ed. by Khan, M. S. \Zaidi, A. \Wani, P. A.]. New York, USA: Nova Science Publishers, 1-21.

Khan SAJ, Jalaluddin M, Ghaffar A, Khanzada AK, 1996. Detection of Fusarium moniliforme Sheld., the cause of seedling wilt of rice. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 28(2):231-232; 4 ref.

Khokkar LK, 1990. Bakanae and footrot of rice in Punjab, Pakistan. International Rice Research Newsletter, 15(3):41-44.

Kim CK, 1981. Ecological studies of bakanae disease of rice caused by Gibberella fujikuroi. The Korean Journal of Plant Protection, 20(3):145-150.

Kim WG, Oh IS, Yu SH, Park JS, 1984. Fusarium moniliforme detected in seeds of corn and its pathological significance. Korean Journal of Mycology, 12(3):105-110; [3 fig., 5 tab.]; 25 ref.

King TH, 1968. Occurrence and distribution of diseases and pests of rice and their control in Thailand. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 16(3):41-44.

Kini KR, Leth V, Mathur SB, 2002. Genetic variation in Fusarium moniliforme isolated from seeds of different host species from Burkina Faso based on random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Journal of Phytopathology, 150(4/5):209-212.

Klittich CJR, Leslie JF, 1988. Unusual isolates of Fusarium moniliforme from Kansas (Abstr.). Phytopathology, 78:1519.

Klittich CJR, Leslie JF, 1992. Identification of a second mating population within the Fusarium moniliforme anamorph of Gibberella fujikuroi.. Mycologia, 84(4):541-547; 23 ref.

Kuhlman EG, 1982. Varieties of Gibberella fujikuroi with anamorphs in Fusarium section Liseola. Mycologia, 74(5):759-768

Kulik MM, Schoen JF, 1982. Germination, vigour and field emergence of sweet corn seeds infected by Fusarium moniliforme. Seed Science and Technology, 10(3):595-604

Lawrence EB, Nelson PE, Ayers JE, 1981. Histopathology of sweet corn seed and plants infected with Fusarium moniliforme and F. oxysporum. Phytopathology, 71(4):379-386

Leslie JF, 1991. Mating populations in Gibberella fujikuroi (Fusarium section Liseola). Phytopathology, 81(9):1058-1060; 39 ref.

Leslie JF, Plattner RD, Desjardins AE, Klittich CJR, 1992. Fumonisin B production by strains from different mating populations of Gibberella fujikuroi (Fusarium section Liseola). Phytopathology, 82(3):341-345; 58 ref.

Lu F, Chen ZY, Chen YL, Qin JH, Din Z, LuF, Chen ZY, Chen YL, Qin JH, Din Z, 1998. Screening of biological control agents (BCA) against Fusarium moniliforme and determination of their biological activity. Jiangsu Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 14(3):149-153.

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