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Datasheet

Gibberella fujikuroi
(bakanae disease of rice)

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Datasheet

Gibberella fujikuroi (bakanae disease of rice)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Gibberella fujikuroi
  • Preferred Common Name
  • bakanae disease of rice
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Sordariomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Bakanae caused by G. fujikuroi. Infected plants in the field (left); Conidia on infected leaf sheaths (right)
TitleSymptoms on rice leaves
CaptionBakanae caused by G. fujikuroi. Infected plants in the field (left); Conidia on infected leaf sheaths (right)
CopyrightChin Khoon Min
Bakanae caused by G. fujikuroi. Infected plants in the field (left); Conidia on infected leaf sheaths (right)
Symptoms on rice leavesBakanae caused by G. fujikuroi. Infected plants in the field (left); Conidia on infected leaf sheaths (right)Chin Khoon Min
Ear rot.
TitleSymptoms on maize
CaptionEar rot.
CopyrightISU
Ear rot.
Symptoms on maizeEar rot.ISU
White streaks on maize kernels.
TitleSymptoms on maize kernels
CaptionWhite streaks on maize kernels.
CopyrightUniversity of Mysore
White streaks on maize kernels.
Symptoms on maize kernelsWhite streaks on maize kernels.University of Mysore
Stalk rot.
TitleSymptoms on stalk
CaptionStalk rot.
CopyrightISU
Stalk rot.
Symptoms on stalkStalk rot.ISU

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Gibberella fujikuroi (Sawada) Wollenw.

Preferred Common Name

  • bakanae disease of rice

Other Scientific Names

  • Alysidium verticillioides (Sacc.) Kuntze
  • Fusarium moniliforme J. Sheld.
  • Fusarium moniliforme f. moniliforme
  • Fusarium moniliforme f. subglutinans (Luc) C. Moreau
  • Fusarium moniliforme subsp. majus (Wollenw. & Reinking) Raillo
  • Fusarium moniliforme subsp. moniliforme
  • Fusarium moniliforme var. erumpens Wollenw. & Reinking
  • Fusarium moniliforme var. fici Caldis
  • Fusarium moniliforme var. hangzhouense Gong C. Wang & Q.M. Ye
  • Fusarium moniliforme var. intermedium Neish & M. Legg
  • Fusarium moniliforme var. majus Wollenw. & Reinking
  • Fusarium moniliforme var. minus Wollenw.
  • Fusarium moniliforme var. minus Wollenw. & Reinking
  • Fusarium moniliforme var. oryzae Saccas
  • Fusarium moniliforme var. subglutinans Wollenw. & Reinking
  • Fusarium neoceras var. subglutinans (Wollenw. & Reinking) Raillo
  • Fusarium sacchari var. subglutinans (Wollenw. & Reinking)
  • Fusarium subglutinans (Wollenw. & Reinking) P.E. Nelson, Toussoun & Marasas
  • Fusarium subglutinans var. subglutinans
  • Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg
  • Gibberella fujikuroi (Sawada) S. Ito
  • Gibberella fujikuroi f. fujikuroi (Sawada) Wollenw.
  • Gibberella fujikuroi f. oryzae Saccas
  • Gibberella fujikuroi var. fujikuroi
  • Gibberella fujikuroi var. fujikuroi (Sawada) Wollenw.
  • Gibberella fujikuroi var. intermedia Kuhlman
  • Gibberella fujikuroi var. moniliformis (Wineland) Kuhlman
  • Gibberella fujikuroi var. subglutinans E.T. Edwards
  • Gibberella moniliforme
  • Gibberella moniliformis Wineland
  • Gibberella moniliformis var. bambusicola S. Yamam.
  • Gibberella moniliformis var. moniliformis
  • Gibberella moniliformis var. subglutinans Wollenw. & Reinking
  • Gibberella subglutinans (E.T. Edwards) P.E. Nelson, Toussoun & Marasas
  • Lisea fujikuroi Sawada
  • Lisea fujikuroi Sawada
  • Oospora verticillioides Sacc.

International Common Names

  • English: fig endosepsis; maize stalk rot; pokkah boeng; pseudo-stem rot of plantain; sett rot of sugarcane; stalk rot of maize; stem and ear rot of sweet corn; stem rot of rice; white stalk of rice
  • Spanish: mal del pié del arroz; podredumbre apical de la caña
  • French: déssèchement des feuilles de la canne à sucre; maladie du gigantisme du riz; pourriture de la pointe de la canne à sucre

Local Common Names

  • China: white stalk
  • Germany: Bakanä-Krankheit: Reis
  • Guyana: Mon Rice
  • Japan: Bakanae
  • Philippines: Palay lalahe

EPPO code

  • GIBBFU (Gibberella fujikuroi)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Sordariomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Hypocreomycetidae
  •                         Order: Hypocreales
  •                             Family: Nectriaceae
  •                                 Genus: Gibberella
  •                                     Species: Gibberella fujikuroi

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent
AngolaPresent
BeninPresent
Burkina FasoPresent
CameroonPresent
Central African RepublicPresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent
EgyptPresent
EswatiniPresent
EthiopiaPresent
GambiaPresent
GhanaPresent
KenyaPresent
LibyaPresent
MadagascarPresent
MalawiPresent
MaliPresent
MauritaniaPresent
MoroccoPresent
MozambiquePresent
NigerPresent
NigeriaPresent
RéunionPresent
SenegalPresent
Sierra LeonePresent
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresent
TogoPresent
UgandaPresent
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

AfghanistanPresent
AzerbaijanPresent
BangladeshPresent, Widespread
BruneiPresent
CambodiaPresent
ChinaPresent
-AnhuiPresent
-ChongqingPresent
-GansuPresent
-GuangxiPresent
-GuizhouPresent
-HebeiPresent
-HeilongjiangPresent
-HenanPresent
-HunanPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-JilinPresent
-LiaoningPresent
-NingxiaPresent
-ShaanxiPresent
-ShandongPresent
-ShanghaiPresent
-ShanxiPresent
-SichuanPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
IndiaPresent, Widespread
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-AssamPresent
-DelhiPresent
-GujaratPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-ManipurPresent
-MeghalayaPresent
-OdishaPresent
-PunjabPresent
-RajasthanPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent, Widespread
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent
IranPresent
IraqPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent
LaosPresent, Widespread
MalaysiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
-SabahPresent
MyanmarPresent
NepalPresent, Widespread
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresent
SingaporePresent
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
SyriaPresent
TaiwanPresent
ThailandPresent
TurkeyPresent
UzbekistanPresent
VietnamPresent
YemenPresent

Europe

AustriaPresent
BulgariaPresent
CroatiaPresent
CzechiaPresent
CzechoslovakiaPresent
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent
Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsPresent
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent
GreecePresent
HungaryPresent
ItalyPresent
NetherlandsPresent
PolandPresent
PortugalPresent
RomaniaPresent
RussiaPresent, Localized
-SiberiaPresent
SerbiaPresent
Serbia and MontenegroPresent
SlovakiaPresentOriginal citation: ?robárová et al. (2000)
SpainPresent
SwitzerlandPresent
UkrainePresent
United KingdomPresent

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresent
BarbadosPresent
BelizePresent
CanadaPresent
-OntarioPresent
-SaskatchewanPresent
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent
Dominican RepublicPresent
El SalvadorPresent
GrenadaPresent
GuadeloupePresent
GuatemalaPresent
HaitiPresent
HondurasPresent
JamaicaPresent
MartiniquePresent
MexicoPresent
NicaraguaPresent
PanamaPresent
Puerto RicoPresent
Saint Kitts and NevisPresent
Saint LuciaPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
United StatesPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-ConnecticutPresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-HawaiiPresent
-IllinoisPresent
-IowaPresent
-KansasPresent
-MassachusettsPresent
-MichiganPresent
-MinnesotaPresent
-MississippiPresent
-MissouriPresent
-NebraskaPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-North DakotaPresent
-OklahomaPresent

Oceania

American SamoaPresent
AustraliaPresent, Widespread
-New South WalesPresent
-Northern TerritoryPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-VictoriaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
FijiPresent
GuamPresent
New CaledoniaPresent
New ZealandPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent
Solomon IslandsPresent
VanuatuPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BoliviaPresent
BrazilPresent
-GoiasPresent
-Mato GrossoPresent
-Mato Grosso do SulPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ChilePresent
ColombiaPresent
GuyanaPresent, Widespread
ParaguayPresent
PeruPresent
SurinamePresent, Widespread
VenezuelaPresent

Growth Stages

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Post-harvest, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / lesions: scab or pitting
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / fungal growth
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Seeds / distortion
Seeds / lesions on seeds
Seeds / rot
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / mould growth on lesion
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Whole plant / damping off
Whole plant / early senescence
Whole plant / seedling blight

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite
Olpitrichum tenellum Pathogen
Tolypocladium niveum Pathogen
Trichoderma hamatum Antagonist
Trichoderma harzianum Antagonist
Trichoderma koningii Antagonist
Trichoderma pseudokoningii Antagonist

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Growing medium accompanying plants
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

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?robárová A, Logrieco A, Nadubinská M, 2000. Maize kernels infestation by Fusarium spp. in the period 1996-1998 in Slovakia. Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica, 3(4):90-93

Abdel-Hak, Sirry AR, 1973. Studies on root-rot diseases of rice caused by Sclerotium rolfsii and Fusarium moniliforme. Agricultural Research Review, 51(3):79-97

Ahmed MI, Raza T, 1992. Survey of Pakistan's rice crop for bakanae. International Rice Research Newsletter, 17(1):23

Ali MS, Deka B, 1996. Role of fungi causing grain discoloration of rice and management under storage. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 26(1):79-85

Anderson B, White DG, 1987. Fungi associated with cornstalks in Illinois in 1982 and 1983. Plant Disease, 71(2):135-137; 12 ref

Aurangzeb M, Ahmed J, Ilyas MB, 1998. Chemical control of Bakanae disease of rice caused by Fusarium moniliforme. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 10(1):14-17

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore

Babu HNR, Lokesh S, 1996. Seed mycoflora of some paddy (Oryza sativa L.) varieties in Karnataka (India). Plant Disease Research, 11(1):49-51

Baldacci E, 1946. The presence in Italy of Fusarium moniliforme on rice and its phytopathological significance. Int. Bull. Pl. Prot. Int. Agr. Rome, 20(1/2):1-2

Bhargava SN, Shukla DN, Singh NK, Narendra Singh, 1978. Fusarium moniliforme causing panicle rot of rice. Indian Phytopathology, 31(3):367-369

Biological Control Products, 2010. Formulator, manufacturer and supplier of biological control products. Pinetown, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

Biswas S, Das SN, 2002. Efficacy of fungicides for the control of Bakanae disease of rice. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences. 10:288-290

Booth C, 1971. The Genus Fusarium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Booth C, 1984. The Fusarium problem: historical, economic and taxonomic aspects. The applied mycology of Fusarium. Symposium of the British Mycological Society held at Queen Mary College, London, September 1982., 1-13; [British Mycological Society Symposium 7]; 38 ref

Brooks F, 2002. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2002. Land Grant Technical Report No. 44. Pago Pago, American Samoa: American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program

Burgess LW, Liddell CM, Summerell BA, 1988. Laboratory Manual for Fusarium Research, 2nd edition. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney

Burgess LW, Summerell BA, Bullock S, Gott KP, Backhouse D, 1994. Laboratory Manual for Fusarium Research. 3rd edn. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney

Calvert OH, Foudin AS, Minor HC, Krause GF, 1985. Fusarium moniliforme colonization of corn ears in Missouri. Plant Disease, 69(11):988-990; [1 fig., 3 tab.]; 14 ref

Chang YC, Sun, SK, 1975. The perfect stage of Fusarium moniliforme. Journal of Agricultural Research of China, 24:11-19

Chen CJ, Zhou MG, Ye ZY, Zhou ZY, Chen SL, Chen CJ, Zhou MG, Ye ZY, Zhou ZY, Chen SL, 1997. Causes of rice bakanae (Fusarium moniliforme) occurrence in fertile-and-dry seedbed. Journal of Nanjing Agricultural University, 20(2):42-45

Chen GuangQuan, 2006. Study on infection law and pathogenic factors of maize ear rot in Hexi Corridor. Journal of Maize Sciences, 14(1):158-160

Chincholkar SB, Mukerji KG, 2007. Biological control of plant diseases [ed. by Chincholkar, S. B.\Mukerji, K. G.]. Binghampton, USA: Haworth Food & Agricultural Products Press, 426 pp

Cotten TK, 1996. Survival and seed transmission of Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium proliferatum, and Fusarium subglutinans in maize. M.S. Thesis. Iowa State University. 75pp

Dagutat Science, 2010. Formulator, manufacturer and supplier of biological control products. Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa

Deka B, Ali MS, Chandra KC, 1996. Management of grain discoloration of rice. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 26(1):105-106; 9 ref

Directorate: Food Safety and Quality Assurance South Africa, 2010. Lists of registered pesticides in South Africa. Directorate: Food Safety and Quality Assurance South Africa

Dodan DS, Ram Singh, Sunder S, 1997. Pattern of rice diseases in Haryana. Plant Disease Research, 12(2):188-191; 6 ref

Ellis JJ, 1988. Section Liseola of Fusarium.. Mycologia, 80(2):255-258; 6 ref

Galperin M, Graf S, Kenigsbuch D, 2003. Seed treatment prevents vertical transmission of Fusarium moniliforme, making a significant contribution to disease control. Phytoparasitica, 31(4): 344-352

Gelderblom WCA, Jaskiewicz K, Marasas WFO, Thiel PG, Hovak RM, 1988. Fumonisins- Novel mycotoxins with cancer-promoting activity produced by Fusarium moniliforme. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 54:1806-1811

Gerber BJ, 2008. Efficacy evaluation of various biological control agent formulations used as seed and soil drench applications against Fusarium spp. causing grain loss in wheat. Efficacy evaluation of various biological control agent formulations used as seed and soil drench applications against Fusarium spp., South Africa

Gerber BJ, 2010. Efficacy evaluation of various biological control agent formulations used as seed and soil drench applications on maize yield when seed is infected with Fusarium spp. Efficacy evaluation of various biological control agent formulations used as seed and soil drench applications., South Africa

Gliessman SR, 2001. Agroecosystem Sustainability: developing practical strategies. Boca Raton, USA: CRC Press LLC

Goulart ACP, Fialho WFB, 1994. Fungicide efficiency in the control of pathogens in corn (Zea mays L.) seeds. Informativo ABRATES, 4(3):55-59; 15 ref

Haque MA, Rahman MM, Miah SA, 1979. A rapid method of screening rice varieties for resistance to bakanp disease. International Rice Commission Newsletter, 28(2):34-37

Harman GE, Howell CR, Viterbo A, Chet I, Lorito M, 2004. Trichoderma species - opportunistic, avirulent plant symbionts. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 2(1):43-56. http://www.nature.com/reviews

Hasan I, 2010. Plant Diseases and their Biological Control. New Delhi, India: Rajat Publications, 130-170

Heaton JB, Morschel JR, 1965. A footrot disease of rice variety blue bonnet in Northern Terrotory, Australia, caused by Fusarium moniliforme Sheldon. Tropical Science, 116-121

Hepperly PR, Feliciano C, Sotomayor A, 1982. Chemical control of seedborne fungi of sorghum and their association with seed quality and germination in Puerto Rico. Plant Disease, 66(10):902-904

Hino T, Furata T, 1968. Studies on control of bakanae disease of rice plants, caused by Gibberella fujikuroi. II. Influence on flowering season on rice plants and seed transmissibility through flower infection. Chugoku Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin, E2:96-110

Hsieh WH, Smith SN, Snyder WC, 1977. Mating groups in Fusarium moniliforme. Phytopathology, 67(8):1041-1043

Huelma CC, Moody K, Mew TW, 1996. Weed seeds in rice seed shipments: a case study. International Journal of Pest Management, 42(3):147-150; 13 ref

Idrees M, Wahid A, Javed MS, Saleem A, 1999. Effect of a boll rotting fungus Fusarium moniliforme on seed germination, seedling mortality in cotton and its control. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 11(1):49-51; 15 ref

Iguchi S, 1964. Overwintering of bakanae disease fungus. Annual Report of the Society of Plant Protection of North Japan, 15:39

Ilyas MB, Iftikhar K, 1997. Screening of rice germplasm and fungitoxicants against bakanae disease of rice. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 9(1):67-73; 16 ref

Imolehin ED, 1983. Rice seedborne fungi and their effect on seed germination. Plant Disease, 67(12):1334-1336; [1 fig., 2 tab.]; 15 ref

Imura J, 1940. On the angles between blades and culms in the accelarated rice seedlings caused by Gibberella fujikuroi. Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Japan, 10:45-48

IPPC, 2005. Disease of Crops. IPPC Official Pest Report. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/IPP/En/default.jsp

ISTA, 1985. International Rules for Seed Testing, Rules 1985. Draper SR, ed. Zurich, Switzerland: International Seed Testing Association, 1-520

Joffe AZ, Palti J, 1977. Species of Fusarium found in uncultivated desert-type soils in Israel. Phytoparasitica, 5(2):119-121

Jurjevic Z, Wilson DM, Wilson JP, Geiser DM, Juba JH, Mubatanhema W, Widstrom NW, Rains GC, 2005. Fusarium species of the Gibberella fujikuroi complex and fumonisin contamination of pearl millet and corn in Georgia, USA. Mycopathologia, 159(3):401-406. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=102966

Kanjanasoon P, 1965. Studies on the bakanae disease of rice in Thailand. PhD thesis, Tokyo University, Japan

Katharou S, 1981. Gene pool organization in Fusarium moniliforme. PhD Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, USA, 89 pp

Kedera, CJ, Leslie JF, Claflin, LE, 1992. Systemic infection of corn by Fusarium moniliforme. Phytopathology, 82:1138

Kellerman TS, Marasas WFO, Thiel PG, Gelderblom WCA, Cawood M, Coetzer JAW, 1990. Leukoencephalomacia in two horses induced by oral dosing of fumonisin B1. Onderstepoort, J. Vet. Res., 57:269-275

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Khan SAJ, Jalaluddin M, Ghaffar A, Khanzada AK, 1996. Detection of Fusarium moniliforme Sheld., the cause of seedling wilt of rice. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 28(2):231-232; 4 ref

Khokkar LK, 1990. Bakanae and footrot of rice in Punjab, Pakistan. International Rice Research Newsletter, 15(3):41-44

Kim CK, 1981. Ecological studies of bakanae disease of rice caused by Gibberella fujikuroi. The Korean Journal of Plant Protection, 20(3):145-150

Kim WG, Oh IS, Yu SH, Park JS, 1984. Fusarium moniliforme detected in seeds of corn and its pathological significance. Korean Journal of Mycology, 12(3):105-110; [3 fig., 5 tab.]; 25 ref

King TH, 1968. Occurrence and distribution of diseases and pests of rice and their control in Thailand. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 16(3):41-44

Kini KR, Leth V, Mathur SB, 2002. Genetic variation in Fusarium moniliforme isolated from seeds of different host species from Burkina Faso based on random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Journal of Phytopathology, 150(4/5):209-212

Klittich CJR, Leslie JF, 1988. Unusual isolates of Fusarium moniliforme from Kansas (Abstr.). Phytopathology, 78:1519

Klittich CJR, Leslie JF, 1992. Identification of a second mating population within the Fusarium moniliforme anamorph of Gibberella fujikuroi.. Mycologia, 84(4):541-547; 23 ref

Kuhlman EG, 1982. Varieties of Gibberella fujikuroi with anamorphs in Fusarium section Liseola. Mycologia, 74(5):759-768

Kulik MM, Schoen JF, 1982. Germination, vigour and field emergence of sweet corn seeds infected by Fusarium moniliforme. Seed Science and Technology, 10(3):595-604

Lawrence EB, Nelson PE, Ayers JE, 1981. Histopathology of sweet corn seed and plants infected with Fusarium moniliforme and F. oxysporum. Phytopathology, 71(4):379-386

Leslie JF, 1991. Mating populations in Gibberella fujikuroi (Fusarium section Liseola). Phytopathology, 81(9):1058-1060; 39 ref

Leslie JF, Plattner RD, Desjardins AE, Klittich CJR, 1992. Fumonisin B production by strains from different mating populations of Gibberella fujikuroi (Fusarium section Liseola). Phytopathology, 82(3):341-345; 58 ref

Li HuanHuan, Tang Wei, Liu Kui, Zhang Lin, Tang XiaoFeng, Miao Min, Liu YongSheng, 2020. First report of Fusarium fujikuroi causing brown leaf spot on kiwifruit. Plant Disease, 104(5), 1560-1560. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-10-19-2112-PDN

Lu F, Chen ZY, Chen YL, Qin JH, Din Z, LuF, Chen ZY, Chen YL, Qin JH, Din Z, 1998. Screening of biological control agents (BCA) against Fusarium moniliforme and determination of their biological activity. Jiangsu Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 14(3):149-153

Lu F, Chen ZY, Liu YF, Luo BQ, Zhu CJ, Lu F, Chen ZY, Liu YF, LuoBQ, Zhu CJ, 1999. Effect of antagonistic bacteria against rice bakanae and on rice yield. Chinese Journal of Biological Control, 15(2):59-61

Maheshwar PK, Moharram SA, Janardhana GR, 2009. Detection of fumonisin producing Fusarium verticillioides in paddy (Oryza sativa L.) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 40(1):134-138. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1517-83822009000100023&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

Manandhar J, 1999. Fusarium moniliforme in rice seeds: its infection, isolation, and longevity. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 106(6):598-607; 29 ref

Marasas WFO, Kriek NPJ, Wiggins VM, Steyn PS, Towers DK, Hastie TJ, 1979. Incidence, geographic distribution, and toxigenicity of Fusarium species in South African corn. Phytopathology, 69(11):1181-1185

Marin-Sanchez JP, Jimenez-Diaz RM, 1982. Two new Fusarium species infecting rice in southern Spain. Plant Disease, 66(4):332-334

Markell SG, Francl LJ, 2003. Fusarium head blight inoculum: species prevalence and Gibberella zeae spore type. Plant Disease, 87(7):814-820

McGee DC, 1994. Seed assays for Stewart's wilt and other seed-borne diseases of corn. In: Proc. Annu. Corn Sorghum Res. Conf. 48. Washington D.C. USA: American Seed Trade Association, 161-168

Merca SD, Mew TW, 1988. IRRI Seed Health Operation for Rice. In: Plant Proceedings No. 3: Movement of Pest and Control Strategies. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: ASEAN PLANTI, 241-252

Mew TW, Hutchins JD, Reeves JC, 1997. Developments in rice seed health testing policy. In: Hutchins JD (ed.), Reeves JC. Seed health testing: progress towards the 21st century. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 129-138

Mondal AH, Rahman MM, Miah SA, 1988. Distribution and severity of rice seedling diseases in boro seedbeds in Bangladesh. International Rice Research Newsletter, 13(2):20

Munkvold GP, Carlton WM, 1997. Influence of inoculation method on systemic Fusarium moniliforme infection of maize plants grown from infected seeds. Plant Disease, 81(2):211-216; 34 ref

Munkvold GP, McGee DC, Carlton WM, 1997. Importance of different pathways for maize kernel infection by Fusarium moniliforme. Phytopathology, 87(2):209-217; 46 ref

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