Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Gibberella avenacea
(Fusarium blight)

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Datasheet

Gibberella avenacea (Fusarium blight)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 15 January 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Gibberella avenacea
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Fusarium blight
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Sordariomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Gibberella avenacea (Fusarium blight); Macroconidia of G. avenacea magnified 160x. September 2007.
TitleMacroconidia
CaptionGibberella avenacea (Fusarium blight); Macroconidia of G. avenacea magnified 160x. September 2007.
Copyright©Glimmerpilzchen/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Gibberella avenacea (Fusarium blight); Macroconidia of G. avenacea magnified 160x. September 2007.
MacroconidiaGibberella avenacea (Fusarium blight); Macroconidia of G. avenacea magnified 160x. September 2007.©Glimmerpilzchen/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 3.0
Gibberella avenacea (Fusarium blight); Post-emergance symptoms. November 1995.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionGibberella avenacea (Fusarium blight); Post-emergance symptoms. November 1995.
Copyright©USDA Forest Service - Northern and Intermountain Region/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0
Gibberella avenacea (Fusarium blight); Post-emergance symptoms. November 1995.
SymptomsGibberella avenacea (Fusarium blight); Post-emergance symptoms. November 1995.©USDA Forest Service - Northern and Intermountain Region/via Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Gibberella avenacea R.J. Cook

Preferred Common Name

  • Fusarium blight

Other Scientific Names

  • Fusarium avenaceum (Corda: Fr.) Sacc.
  • Fusarium avenaceum f.sp. fabae (Yu) Yamamoto
  • Fusarium avenaceum subsp. aywerte Sangal. & L.W. Burgess
  • Fusarium roseum var. avenaceum (Sacc.) W.C. Snyder et Hansen

International Common Names

  • English: bud rot; crown rot; die-back; dry rot; ear blight; foot rot; fusariosis; head blight; root decline; root rot; scab; seedling blight; seedling rot; snow mould; stalk and ear rot; stem base disease; stem rot; wet apple core rot
  • Spanish: fusariosis (cereales); quemaduras de la espiga (cereales)
  • French: déssèchement des feuilles

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Fussfäule: Getreide; Wurzelfäule: Getreide

EPPO code

  • GIBBAV (Gibberella avenacea)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Sordariomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Hypocreomycetidae
  •                         Order: Hypocreales
  •                             Family: Nectriaceae
  •                                 Genus: Gibberella
  •                                     Species: Gibberella avenacea

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 02 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresent
EthiopiaPresent
KenyaPresent
South AfricaPresent
TunisiaPresent

Asia

AzerbaijanPresent
ChinaPresent
-AnhuiPresent
-GansuPresent
-HubeiPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-JilinPresent2012
-NingxiaPresent
-QinghaiPresent
-ShanghaiPresent
-SichuanPresent
-TibetPresent
-YunnanPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
GeorgiaPresent
IndiaPresent
-Arunachal PradeshPresent
-ManipurPresent
-PunjabPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IndonesiaPresent
IranPresent
IraqPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent
-HokkaidoPresent
-HonshuPresent
KazakhstanPresent
LebanonPresent
MalaysiaPresent
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
TaiwanPresent
TurkeyPresent
UzbekistanPresent

Europe

AustriaPresent
BelarusPresent
BelgiumPresent
BulgariaPresent, Widespread
CroatiaPresent
CzechiaPresent
CzechoslovakiaPresent
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent, Few occurrences
DenmarkPresent
EstoniaPresent
FinlandPresent
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent, Widespread
GreecePresent
HungaryPresent
IcelandPresent
IrelandPresent
ItalyPresent, Widespread
LatviaPresent
LithuaniaPresent
NetherlandsPresent
NorwayPresent, Widespread
PolandPresent, Widespread
PortugalPresent
RomaniaPresent
RussiaPresent
-Central RussiaPresent
-Eastern SiberiaPresent
-Northern RussiaPresent
-Russian Far EastPresent
-SiberiaPresent
-Western SiberiaPresent
SerbiaPresent
Serbia and MontenegroPresent
SlovakiaPresent
SloveniaPresent
SpainPresent
SwedenPresent
SwitzerlandPresent
UkrainePresent
United KingdomPresent
-EnglandPresent
-ScotlandPresent

North America

CanadaPresent, Widespread
-AlbertaPresent
-British ColumbiaPresent
-ManitobaPresent
-New BrunswickPresent
-Nova ScotiaPresent
-OntarioPresent
-Prince Edward IslandPresent
-QuebecPresent
-SaskatchewanPresent
MexicoPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
United StatesPresent
-ArizonaPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-ColoradoPresent
-ConnecticutPresent
-IdahoPresent
-MinnesotaPresent
-MontanaPresent
-NevadaPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North DakotaPresent
-OregonPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-TexasPresent
-WashingtonPresent
-WyomingPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, Widespread
-New South WalesPresent
-VictoriaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
New ZealandPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BrazilPresent
-ParanaPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
ChilePresent
ColombiaPresent
PeruPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / dieback
Growing point / rot
Inflorescence / blight; necrosis
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Seeds / discolorations
Stems / discoloration of bark
Vegetative organs / dry rot

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite
Hypocrea rufa Antagonist
Khuskia oryzae Antagonist

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

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Abbas HK, Mirocha CJ, Berdal BP, Sundheim L, Gunther R, Johnsen B, 1987. Isolation and toxicity of Fusarium species from various areas of Norway. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, 37:427-435

Abramson D, Clear RM, Smith DM, 1993. Trichothecene production by Fusarium spp. isolated from Manitoba grain. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 15(3):147-152; 22 ref

Adler A, Lew H, Edinger W, 1990. Incidence and toxicity of Fusarium species in cereals from Austria. Bodenkultur, 41(2):145-152; 43 ref

Akhmed D, 1990. Species composition and pathogenicity of the causal agents of Fusarium wilt of carnation. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 24(6):572-576; 24 ref

Al-Hamdany MA, Salih MM, 1986. Wilt causing fungi on broad bean. Indian Phytopathology, 39(4):620-622; 4 ref

Alpat'ev NM, Shestiperova ZI, 1981. Fusarium species as pathogens of lucerne. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 15(1):33-34

Andersson B, Kristiansson U, 1989. Breeding for resistance to root rot in red clover. Proceedings of the XVI International Grassland Congress, 4-11 October 1989, Nice, France., 363-364; 3 ref

Anon, 1983. Incidence and control of cereal diseases. Annual report of the Edinburgh School of Agriculture, 137-140

Aprasad KS, Bateman GL, Read PJ, 1997. Variation in pathogenicity on potato tubers and sensitivity to thiabendazole of the dry rot fungus Fusarium avenaceum. Potato Research, 40(4):357-365; 21 ref

Arestegui C ME, Dongo D SL, 1974. Fusarium species on broad bean (Vicia faba L.). Investigaciones Agropecuarias, 4(1/2):41-46

Arseniuk E, Góral G, Czembor HJ, 1993. Reaction of triticale, wheat and rye accessions to graminaceous Fusarium spp. infection at the seedling and adult plant growth stages. Euphytica, 70(3):175-183; 30 ref

Assemat P, Dawson M, Quenin H, Tregou MP, 1995. Fusarium on wheat grains in France. Frequency and place of different species. Phytoma, No. 479:22-24; 7 ref

Atanasoff D, 1923. Fusarium blight of the cereal crops. Mededeel, Landbouwhoogeschool, 27:1-132

Bailey BA, Jennings JC, Anderson JD, 1997. The 24-kDa protein from Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. erythroxyli: occurrence in related fungi and the effect of growth medium on its production. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 43(1):45-55; 33 ref

Banks JN, Rizvi RH, Barker I, Turner JA, Rahman S, Northway BJ, 1996. Specific monoclonal antibodies to Fusarium species and Microdochium nivale. Food and Agricultural Immunology, 8(4):249-268; 19 ref

Barbetti MJ, 1985. Survey of fungi associated with subterranean clover leaves and petioles in Western Australia. Plant Pathology, 34(1):49-53; [3 tab.]; 20 ref

Barbetti MJ, 1989. Response of Medicago cultivars to fungal root pathogens associated with Trifolium subterraneum. Plant Protection Quarterly, 4(2):75-77; 13 ref

Barbetti MJ, 1990. Effect of adding lime to potting soil on the pathogenicity of four root pathogens of subterranean clover. Phytophylactica, 22(2):245-249; 22 ref

Bateman GL, 1997. Pathogenicity of fungi associated with winter loss and injury in white lupin. Plant Pathology, 46(2):157-167; 22 ref

Bateman GL, KwaSna H, Ward E, 1996. Relationships among Fusarium spp. estimated by comparing restriction fragment length polymorphisms in polymerase chain reaction-amplified nuclear rDNA. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 42(12):1232-1240; 28 ref

Benken AA, Khatskevich LK, 1976. Soil infection of cereals by common root rot. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 10(6):491-496

Beyer W, Höxter H, Miedaner T, Sander E, Geiger HH, 1993. Indirect ELISA for quantitative assessment of Fusarium spp. in rye. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 100(3):278-284; 21 ref

Binarová P, Nedelník J, Fellner M, Nedbálková B, 1990. Selection for resistance to filtrates of Fusarium spp. in embryogenic cell suspension culture of Medicago sativa L. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 22(3):191-196; 24 ref

Booth C, 1977. Fusarium. Laboratory guide to the identification of the major species. Kew, UK: Commonwealth Mycological Institute

Booth C, Spooner BM, 1984. Gibberella avenacea, teleomorph of Fusarium avenaceum, from stems of Pteridium aquilinum.. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 82(1):178-180; [1 fig.]; 4 ref

Bosch U, Mirocha CJ, Abbas HK, Menna Mdi, 1989. Toxicity and toxin production by Fusarium isolates from New Zealand. Mycopathologia, 108(2):73-79; 27 ref

Bottalico A, Logrieco A, Visconti A, 1989. Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in infected corn in Italy. Mycopathologia, 107(2-3):85-92; 44 ref

Braslavská O, 1984. Fusarium Link ex Fr. species on potato in Slovakia. Ceská Mykologie, 38(4):243-245; [1 tab.]; 7 ref

Bretag TW, 1985. Fungi associated with root rots of annual Medicago spp. in Australia. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 85(2):329-334; [8 tab.]; 23 ref

Bretag TW, Kollmorgen JF, 1986. Effects of trifluralin, benomyl and metalaxyl on the incidence and severity of root disease in annual Medicago spp., and evaluation of cultivars for resistance to root rot. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 26(1):65-70; [5 tab.]; 18 ref

BÅng U, 1989. Effect of haulm treatment and harvest time on incidence of tuber rots of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) after standard wounding and on frequency of stem lesions caused by Phoma foveata Foister. Potato Research, 32(1):101-112; 25 ref

CABI/EPPO, 2005. Gibberella avenacea. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 950. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Calman AI, Tewari JP, Mugala M, 1986. Fusarium avenaceum as one of the causal agents of seedling blight of canola in Alberta. Plant Disease, 70(7):964; 2 ref

Celetti MJ, Johnston HW, Kimpinski J, Platt HW, Martin RA, 1990. Incidence of soil-borne plant pathogens isolated from barley and winter wheat, and other crops in the rotation, on Prince Edward Island. Plant Pathology, 39(4):606-611; 19 ref

Chambers SC, 1973. Studies on Fusarium species associated with "pathogen-tested" seed potatoes in Victoria. Australian Journal of Experimental Agricultural and Animal Husbandry, 13:718-723

Chaudhary RG, Edison S, Vishwadhar, 1991. Epidemiology and basic facts of severity, yield loss and grain quality deterioration due to ear blight of wheat in Arunachal Pradesh. Indian Phytopathology, 43(4):571-574; 6 ref

Chulkina VA, 1975. Recent studies on root rots in Siberia. Vestnik Sel'skokhozyaistvennoi Nauki, No.5:63-69

Clear RM, Patrick SK, 1990. Fusarium species isolated from wheat samples containing tombstone (scab) kernels from Ontario, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 70(4):1057-1069; 38 ref

Cook RJ, 1967. Gibberella avenacea sp. n., perfect stage of Fusarium roseum f. sp. cerealis 'Avenaceum'. Phytopathology, 57:732-736

Cosic J, Jurkovic D, Vrandecic K, Simic B, 2007. Pathogenicity of Fusarium species to wheat and barley ears. Cereal Research Communications [6th Alps-Adria Scientific Workshop: Environmental consequences of sustainability. 30 April-5 May 2007, Obervellach, Austria.], 35(2):529-532. http://www.akademiai.com/content/t3n75tg76l760114/fulltext.pdf

Coulman BE, Lambert M, 1995. Selection for resistance to root rot caused by Fusarium spp. in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 75(1):141-146; 22 ref

Czembor E, Strobel GA, 1997. Limitations of exotic and indigenous isolates of Fusarium avenaceum for the biological control of spotted knapweed - Centaurea maculosa. World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, 13(1):119-123; 12 ref

Daamen RA, Langerak CJ, Stol W, 1991. Surveys of cereal diseases and pests in the Netherlands. 3. Monographella nivalis and Fusarium spp. in winter wheat fields and seed lots. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 97(2):105-114; 36 ref

Darozhkin MA, Chakalinskaya NI, Nitsieuskaya VI, 1976. Lucerne diseases in Byelorussia. Vestsi Akademii Navuk BSSR, Biyalagichnykh Navuk, No.1:47-52

Debelyi GA, Grishina EE, Derbenskii VI, 1991. Forms of Lupinus angustifolius resistant to Fusarium. Selektsiya i Semenovodstvo (Moskva), No. 6:24-25

Devi RKT, Singh NI, 1994. Effect of temperature and light on growth and sporulation of Fusarium rice sheath rot. International Rice Research Notes, 19(3):28

Devi RKT, Singh NI, 1995. Survival of fusarial sheath rot fungi of rice. Plant Disease Research, 10(1):91-95; 10 ref

Devi RKT, Singh NI, Dubey RC, 1997. Distribution, pathogenecity and physiology of Fusarium spp. causing rice sheath rot in Manipur. In: Sati SC, Saxena J, eds. Himalayan microbial diversity part 1. New Delhi, India: Today and Tomorrow's Printers and Publishers, 295-303

Diehl JA, 1979. Effect of cultivation systems on wheat root rot. Summa Phytopathologica, 5(3/4):134-139

Domsch KH, Gams W, Anderson TH, 1980. Compendium of soil fungi. Volumes 1 and 2. London, UK: Academic Press Ltd. 859 pp

Donaldson GC, Ball LA, Axelrood PE, Glass NL, 1995. Primer sets developed to amplify conserved genes from filamentous ascomycetes are useful in differentiating Fusarium species associated with conifers. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 61(4):1331-1340; 50 ref

Dorovskaya LM, 1978. Species composition of pathogens of root rot of spring wheat in the Urals district. Sbornik Nauchnykh Rabot Saratovskogo Sel'skokhozyaistvennogo Instituta, No. 118:65-73

Dorozhkin NA, Bel'skaya SI, Grigor'eva TP, 1979. Mixed tuber rots of potato during storage. Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya, 14(1):109-111

Dorozhkin NA, Bilai VI, Belskaya SI, ellanskaya IA, Alekseeva TP, Novikova LM, 1984. Fusarium fungi on potato in Belorussia. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 18(4):326-330; [2 tab.]; 17 ref

Dorozhkin NA, Mikhailova RV, Lobanok AG, Novikova LM, 1982. The formation of extracellular depolymerases by the pathogens of Fusarium rots of potato. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 16(2):143-148

Downes MJ, 1972. Observations on some Fusarium populations in Co. Donegal oat soils. Scientific Proceedings of the Royal Dublin Society, B, 3(10):127-135

Duben J, Fehrmann H, 1980. Occurrence and pathogenicity of Fusarium species on winter wheat in the German Federal Republic III. Relation between infection of the haulm base and the ear. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 87(1):1-12

Duthie JA, Hall R, Asselin AV, 1986. Fusarium species from seed of winter wheat in eastern Canada. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 8(3):282-288; 29 ref

El-Abyad MS, Hindorf H, Rizk MA, 1988. Impact of salinity stress on soil-borne fungi of sugarbeet. II. Growth activities in vitro.. Plant and Soil, 110(1):33-37; 20 ref

Elmer WH, 1996. Fusarium fruit rot of pumpkin in Connecticut. Plant Disease, 80(2):131-135; 11 ref

Fartushnyak G, 1975. Effect of ecological factors on the development of the pathogens of snow mould of winter wheat. Sistematika, ekolologiya i fiziologiya pochvennykh gribov. Kiev. USSR, 150

Fields P, Pouleur S, Richard C, 1995. The effect of high temperature storage on the capacity of an ice-nucleating-active bacterium and fungus to reduce insect cold-tolerance. Canadian Entomologist, 127(1):33-40; 21 ref

Filipowicz A, 1984. Occurrence of fungus diseases of faba bean (Vicia faba L. var. major Harz) in the field. Biuletyn Warzywniczy, 27:393-416; [6 fig., 4 graphs, 4 tab.]; 32 ref

Fletcher JD, Broadhurst PG, Bansal RK, 1991. Fusarium avenaceum: a pathogen of lentil in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 19(2):207-210; 12 ref

Florea N, Bobes I, Ciugudeanu M, 1971. Isolation and identification of some Fusarium species on different species and varieties of wheat and triticale. Buletinul Institutului Agronomic Cluj-Napoca, 31:57-64

Galapn R, Venn K, 1979. Effects of benomyl on 2-0 seedlings of Picea abies (L.) Karst. Meddelelser fra Norsk Institutt for Skogforskning, 34(11):253-262

García-Núñez H, Martínez-Campos AR, López-Orona CA, Díaz-Mínguez JM, 2016. First report of Fusarium avenaceum causing stalk and root rot in commercial potato crops (Solanum tuberosum) in the Toluca Valley, Mexico. Plant Disease, 100(11):2170-2171. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Gindrat D, 1984. Storage rot of potato. II. Lesions development in relation to the parasitic species and temperature. Control measures. Revue Suisse d'Agriculture, 16(6):313-318; [7 fig., 1 tab.]; 21 ref

Gindrat D, Pilloud R, 1985. Fungal rot of potato tubers in controlled atmospheres. Potato Research, 28(2):153-160; [2 fig., 3 tab.]; 7 ref

Gorfu D, 1994. Foot rot disease of faba bean in Ethiopia. FABIS Newsletter, 34-35:27-28

Gotz J, Pett B, 1977. The occurrence of pathogenic Fusarium species on potato tubers in the German Democratic Republic. Nachrichtenblatt fur den Pflanzenschutz in der DDR, 31(1):7-8

Gu ZF, Wang GC, Bao JR, 1990. Studies on the Fusarium species occurring on mulberry plants on Zhejiang Province. Acta Agriculturae Universitatis Zhejiangensis, 16(Suppl. 2):269-274; 5 ref

Hampton JG, 1980. Fungal pathogens in New Zealand certified wheat seed. New Zealand Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 8(3/4):301-304

Hani F, Winter W, 1979. Disease problems in intensive cereal growing. Mitteilungen fur Schweizerische Landwirtschaft, 27(1/2):45-57

Hanson LE, Schwager SJ, Loria R, 1996. Sensitivity to thiabendazole in Fusarium species associated with dry rot of potato. Phytopathology, 86(4):378-384; 35 ref

Hargreaves AJ, Fox RA, 1978. Some factors affecting survival of Fusarium avenaceum in soil. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 70(2):209-212

Hargreaves AJ, Jarvis WR, 1972. Raspberry bud death and lateral wilt. Scottish Agriculture, 51:384-387

Horita H, Kodama F, 1996. Bud rot of chrysanthemum caused by Fusarium avenaceum. Annual Report of the Society of Plant Protection of North Japan, No. 47:75-77

Huang XiaoHong, Ye HuaZhi, 2005. The population structure of Fusarium spp. from wheat in Sichuan. Southwest China Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 18(3):281-285

Hutcheon JA, Jordan VWL, 1992. Fungicide timing and performance for Fusarium control in wheat. Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests and Diseases - 1992. Volume 2., 633-638; 1 ref

Hwang SF, Howard RJ, Chang KF, Park B, Burnett PA, 1994. Etiology and severity of Fusarium root rot of lentil in Alberta. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 16(4):295-303; 27 ref

Hwang SF, Howard RJ, Moskaluk E, 1989. Crown and root rot of alfalfa in southern Alberta. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 69(1):9-11; 22 ref

James RL, Dumroese RK, Gilligan CJ, Wenny DL, 1989. Pathogenicity of Fusarium isolates from Douglas-fir seed and container-grown seedlings. Station Bulletin of the Idaho Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station, No. 52:10 pp.; 23 ref

Jenkinson P, Parry DW, 1994. Isolation of Fusarium species from common broad-leaved weeds and their pathogenicity to winter wheat. Mycological Research, 98(7):776-780; 18 ref

Joffe AZ, Palti J, 1977. Species of Fusarium found in uncultivated desert-type soils in Israel. Phytoparasitica, 5(2):119-121

Johnston PR, Parkes SL, Broadhurst PG, 1995. Fungi associated with gorse and broom in New Zealand. Australasian Plant Pathology, 24(3):157-167; 43 ref

Jurado M, Vázquez C, Callejas C, González-Jaén MT, 2006. Occurrence and variability of mycotoxigenic Fusarium species associated to wheat and maize in the South West of Spain. Mycotoxin Research [Selected papers presented at the EU-USA Bilateral Workshop on Biodiversity, Genomics and Advanced Methods for Detection of Mycotoxins and Toxigenic Fungi, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, 5-7 July 2005.], 22(2):87-91

Kachalova ZP, Yatsenko ND, 1974. Fusarium diseases of wheat in the Moscow district. Izvestiya Timiryazevskoi sel'skokhozyaistvennoi Akademii, 2:122-130

Kaiser WJ, 1992. Fungi associated with the seeds of commercial lentils from the U.S. Pacific Northwest. Plant Disease, 76(6):605-610; 22 ref

Kariluoto KT, 1982. New records of the genus Entomophthora Fres. infesting insects in Finland. Annales Entomologici Fennici, 48(2):49-50

Kellock AW, Stubbs LL, Parbery DG, 1980. Infection of seed of subterranean clover and allied species by species of Fusarium. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 31(2):297-306

Khatskevich LK, Benken AA, 1990. Root and stem rots of cereals. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), No. 9:14-15

Kirpicheva TS, 1990. Root rot of peas in Ukraine. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), No. 3:23-24

Kiselev I, Dukhanina I, 1975. Fusariosis of lupin and the specific composition of the pathogens of the disease under conditions of the south-western zone of the non-chernozem belt of the USSR. Sistematika, ekologiya i fiziologiya pochvennykh gribov. Kiev. USSR, 146-147

Kiselev II, Dukhanina IA, 1973. Fusarium disease of lupin. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 3:36-37

Kodo N, Nakamura C, Kato H, Yoshizawa T, Mori N, Kaneda C, 1995. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms of mitochondrial DNAs from seven Fusarium species causing Fusarium head blight. Japanese Journal of Genetics, 70(3):435-451; 36 ref

Koike ST, Gordon TR, Kirkpatrick SC, 2012. First report of Fusarium stem and crown rot of fennel in Arizona caused by Fusarium avenaceum. Plant Disease, 96(1):145. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Koike ST, Gordon TR, Lindow SE, 1996. Crown rot of Eustoma caused by Fusarium avenaceum in California. Plant Disease, 80(12):1429; 1 ref

Koizumi S, Kato H, Yoshino R, Hayashi N, Ichinoe M, 1991. Distribution of causal fusaria of wheat and barley scab in Japan. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 57(2):165-173; 28 ref

Koizumi S, Kato H, Yoshino R, Komada H, Ichinoe M, Umehara Y, Hayashi N, 1997. Pathogenecity and ecology of Fusarium species associated with wheat and barley scab in Japan. Bulletin of the Institute for Comprehensive Agricultural Sciences, Kinki University, 5:31-45

Koizumi S, Komada H, Kato H, Yoshino R, Ichinoe M, Hayashi N, 1991. Isolation of wheat and barley scab pathogens from wheat and barley field soil in Japan. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 57(2):263-267; 21 ref

Komenda B, Komenda K, Komenda E, Komenda J, 1982. Study and breeding of winter rye for resistance to snow mould. Tagungsbericht, Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik, 198:525-529

Kommedahl T, Abbas HK, Burnes PM, Mirocha CJ, 1988. Prevalence and toxigenicity of Fusarium species from soils of Norway near the Arctic Circle. Mycologia, 80(6):790-794; 11 ref

Kommedahl T, Windels CE, Lang DS, 1975. Comparison of Fusarium populations on grasslands of Minnesota and Iceland. Mycologia, 67(1):38-44

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