Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Gibberella avenacea
(Fusarium blight)

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Datasheet

Gibberella avenacea (Fusarium blight)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Gibberella avenacea
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Fusarium blight
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Sordariomycetes
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Gibberella avenacea R.J. Cook

Preferred Common Name

  • Fusarium blight

Other Scientific Names

  • Fusarium avenaceum (Corda: Fr.) Sacc.
  • Fusarium avenaceum f.sp. fabae (Yu) Yamamoto
  • Fusarium avenaceum subsp. aywerte Sangal. & L.W. Burgess
  • Fusarium roseum var. avenaceum (Sacc.) W.C. Snyder et Hansen

International Common Names

  • English: bud rot; crown rot; die-back; dry rot; ear blight; foot rot; fusariosis; head blight; root decline; root rot; scab; seedling blight; seedling rot; snow mould; stalk and ear rot; stem base disease; stem rot; wet apple core rot
  • Spanish: fusariosis (cereales); quemaduras de la espiga (cereales)
  • French: déssèchement des feuilles

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Fussfäule: Getreide; Wurzelfäule: Getreide

EPPO code

  • GIBBAV (Gibberella avenacea)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Sordariomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Hypocreomycetidae
  •                         Order: Hypocreales
  •                             Family: Nectriaceae
  •                                 Genus: Gibberella
  •                                     Species: Gibberella avenacea

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresentLogrieco et al. (1990); CABI and EPPO (2005); CABI (Undated)
EthiopiaPresentGorfu (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
South AfricaPresentLamprecht et al. (1984); Lamprecht et al. (1986); Wyk et al. (1987); Lamprecht et al. (1988); CABI and EPPO (2005); CABI (Undated)
TunisiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)

Asia

ChinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-GansuPresentLiang (1986); Li ChunJie and Nan ZhiBiao (1996); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-HubeiPresentLiao et al. (1987); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-JiangsuPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-QinghaiPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-ShanghaiPresentWang et al. (1981)
-SichuanPresentHuang XiaoHong and Ye HuaZhi (2005)
-TibetPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-YunnanPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-ZhejiangPresentGu et al. (1990); CABI and EPPO (2005)
GeorgiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
IndiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-Arunachal PradeshPresentRoy (1974); Chaudhary et al. (1991); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-ManipurPresentDevi and Singh (1994); Devi et al. (1997); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-PunjabPresentSingh and Chohan (1973); Narinder Singh et al. (1997); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-Uttar PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
IndonesiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
IranPresentZare and Ershad (1997); CABI and EPPO (2005)
IraqPresentCABI and EPPO (2005); CABI (Undated)
IsraelPresentJoffe and Palti (1977); Zauberman and Schiffmann-Nadel (1977); CABI and EPPO (2005)
JapanPresentKodo et al. (1995); Koizumi et al. (1997); CABI and EPPO (2005); CABI (Undated);
-HokkaidoPresentHorita and Kodama (1996); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-HonshuPresentMukobata et al. (1986); CABI and EPPO (2005)
KazakhstanPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
LebanonPresentLogrieco et al. (1990); CABI and EPPO (2005)
MalaysiaPresentSalleh and Sulaiman (1984); CABI and EPPO (2005)
South KoreaPresentSung et al. (1977); CABI and EPPO (2005)
Sri LankaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
TaiwanPresentTseng et al. (1996); CABI and EPPO (2005)
TurkeyPresentLogrieco et al. (1990); CABI and EPPO (2005)
UzbekistanPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)

Europe

AustriaPresentAdler et al. (1990); Wellacher (1991); CABI and EPPO (2005)
BelarusPresentDarozhkin et al. (1976); Dorozhkin et al. (1979); Dorozhkin et al. (1984); CABI and EPPO (2005)
BelgiumPresentWanson and Maraite (1984); CABI and EPPO (2005); Scauflaire et al. (2013)
BulgariaPresent, WidespreadMladenov (1974); Kutova (1976); Kutova (1980); Naĭdenov (1984); Kodo et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2005)
CroatiaPresentCosic et al. (2007)
CzechiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005); CABI (Undated);
CzechoslovakiaPresentProchazka (1980); Seppänen (1982); CABI (Undated);
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent, Few occurrencesStojšin and Marić (1995)
DenmarkPresentPersson et al. (1997); CABI and EPPO (2005)
EstoniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
FinlandPresentRuokola and Vestberg (1978); Tahvonen et al. (1995); Yli-Mattila and Hyvönen (1996); CABI and EPPO (2005); CABI (Undated);
FrancePresentLogrieco et al. (1990); Mercier et al. (1991); Assemat et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2005)
GermanyPresent, WidespreadGotz and Pett (1977); Rintelen (1992); Nirenberg et al. (1994); Wegener and Wolf (1995); CABI and EPPO (2005); CABI (Undated)
GreecePresentLogrieco et al. (1990); CABI and EPPO (2005)
HungaryPresentMesterhazy (1977); Pissinger (1982); Lenti (1991); Kodo et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2005)
IcelandPresentStefansson and Hallsson (2011)
IrelandPresentDownes (1972); CABI and EPPO (2005)
ItalyPresent, WidespreadPiglionica et al. (1976); Bottalico et al. (1989); Logrieco et al. (1990); Pancaldi et al. (1997); CABI and EPPO (2005)
LatviaPresentKhatskevich and Benken (1990); CABI and EPPO (2005)
LithuaniaPresentSpokauskiene (1978); Mačkinaitė and Strukčinskas (1993); CABI and EPPO (2005); CABI (Undated)
NetherlandsPresentDaamen et al. (1991); Nijs et al. (1996); CABI and EPPO (2005)
NorwayPresent, WidespreadAbbas et al. (1987); Kommedahl et al. (1988); Sundheim (1995); CABI and EPPO (2005); CABI (Undated)
PolandPresent, WidespreadFilipowicz (1984); Truszkowska et al. (1986); Kurzawińska and Poniedziałek (1987); Olszak (1994); Wiwart and Korona (1997); CABI and EPPO (2005); Orlikowski and Ptaszek (2015)
PortugalPresentLogrieco et al. (1990); Santos (1995); CABI and EPPO (2005)
RomaniaPresentFlorea et al. (1971); Tușa et al. (1981); CABI and EPPO (2005)
RussiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-Central RussiaPresentKiselev and Dukhanina (1975); Alpat'ev and Shestiperova (1981); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-Eastern SiberiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-Northern RussiaPresentAkhmed (1990); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-Russian Far EastPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-SiberiaPresentChulkina (1975); Benken and Khatskevich (1976)
-Western SiberiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
SerbiaPresentPavlović et al. (2008); Stanković et al. (2015)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
SlovakiaPresentŠrobárová (1995); CABI and EPPO (2005); CABI (Undated)
SloveniaPresentSavor and Maček (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
SpainPresentJurado et al. (2006)
SwedenPresentAndersson and Kristiansson (1989); Persson et al. (1997); CABI and EPPO (2005); CABI (Undated)
SwitzerlandPresentWinter and Huber (1978); Hani and Winter (1979); Gindrat (1984); Gindrat and Pilloud (1985); CABI and EPPO (2005)
UkrainePresentKirpicheva (1990); CABI and EPPO (2005)
United KingdomPresentMoon et al. (1987); Parry (1990); Jenkinson and Parry (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005); CABI (Undated)

North America

CanadaPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2005)
-AlbertaPresentCalman et al. (1986); Hwang et al. (1989); Hwang et al. (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-British ColumbiaPresentPunja (1997); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-ManitobaPresentLamari and Bernier (1985); Clear and Patrick (1990); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-New BrunswickPresentCABI and EPPO (2005); CABI (Undated)
-Nova ScotiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-OntarioPresentClear and Patrick (1990); CABI and EPPO (2005); Sun and Hsiang (2016); CABI (Undated)
-Prince Edward IslandPresentCeletti et al. (1990); Sturz and Carter (1995); CABI and EPPO (2005); CABI (Undated)
-QuebecPresentCoulman and Lambert (1995); CABI and EPPO (2005); CABI (Undated)
-SaskatchewanPresentClear and Patrick (1990); CABI and EPPO (2005)
MexicoPresentCABI and EPPO (2005); García-Núñez et al. (2016)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
United StatesPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-ArizonaPresentKoike et al. (2012)
-CaliforniaPresentRuppel (1991); Koike et al. (1996); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-ColoradoPresentRuppel (1991); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-ConnecticutPresentElmer (1996); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-IdahoPresentKaiser (1992); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-MinnesotaPresentKommedahl et al. (1975); Wilcoxson et al. (1988); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-MontanaPresentRuppel (1991); Czembor and Strobel (1997); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-NevadaPresentUddin and Knous (1991); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-New YorkPresentCABI and EPPO (2005); CABI (Undated)
-North DakotaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-OregonPresentRuppel (1991); Smiley and Patterson (1996); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-PennsylvaniaPresentKou et al. (2014)
-TexasPresentRuppel (1991); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-WashingtonPresentLin and Cook (1977); Kaiser (1992); Smiley and Patterson (1996); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-WyomingPresentRuppel (1991); CABI and EPPO (2005)

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, WidespreadChambers (1973); MacNish (1977); Barbetti (1989); Barbetti (1990); Sangalang et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-New South WalesPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-VictoriaPresentBretag (1985); Mebalds (1987); Mwanza and Kellas (1987); Say et al. (1992); CABI and EPPO (2005); CABI (Undated)
-Western AustraliaPresentWong et al. (1984); Barbetti (1985); CABI and EPPO (2005)
New ZealandPresentHampton (1980); Fletcher et al. (1991); Sayer (1992); Johnston et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2005); CABI (Undated)
Papua New GuineaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)

South America

ArgentinaPresentRadtke and Escande (1973); CABI and EPPO (2005)
BrazilPresentDiehl (1979); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
ChilePresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
ColombiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
PeruPresentArestegui C. and Dongo D. (1974); CABI and EPPO (2005)
VenezuelaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Growing point / dieback
Growing point / rot
Inflorescence / blight; necrosis
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Seeds / discolorations
Stems / discoloration of bark
Vegetative organs / dry rot

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite
Hypocrea rufa Antagonist
Khuskia oryzae Antagonist

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

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Abbas HK; Mirocha CJ; Berdal BP; Sundheim L; Gunther R; Johnsen B, 1987. Isolation and toxicity of Fusarium species from various areas of Norway. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, 37:427-435.

Abramson D; Clear RM; Smith DM, 1993. Trichothecene production by Fusarium spp. isolated from Manitoba grain. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 15(3):147-152; 22 ref.

Adler A; Lew H; Edinger W, 1990. Incidence and toxicity of Fusarium species in cereals from Austria. Bodenkultur, 41(2):145-152; 43 ref.

Akhmed D, 1990. Species composition and pathogenicity of the causal agents of Fusarium wilt of carnation. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 24(6):572-576; 24 ref.

Al-Hamdany MA; Salih MM, 1986. Wilt causing fungi on broad bean. Indian Phytopathology, 39(4):620-622; 4 ref.

Alpat'ev NM; Shestiperova ZI, 1981. Fusarium species as pathogens of lucerne. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 15(1):33-34

Andersson B; Kristiansson U, 1989. Breeding for resistance to root rot in red clover. Proceedings of the XVI International Grassland Congress, 4-11 October 1989, Nice, France., 363-364; 3 ref.

Anon, 1983. Incidence and control of cereal diseases. Annual report of the Edinburgh School of Agriculture, 137-140.

Aprasad KS; Bateman GL; Read PJ, 1997. Variation in pathogenicity on potato tubers and sensitivity to thiabendazole of the dry rot fungus Fusarium avenaceum. Potato Research, 40(4):357-365; 21 ref.

Arestegui C ME; Dongo D SL, 1974. Fusarium species on broad bean (Vicia faba L.). Investigaciones Agropecuarias, 4(1/2):41-46

Arseniuk E; Góral G; Czembor HJ, 1993. Reaction of triticale, wheat and rye accessions to graminaceous Fusarium spp. infection at the seedling and adult plant growth stages. Euphytica, 70(3):175-183; 30 ref.

Assemat P; Dawson M; Quenin H; Tregou MP, 1995. Fusarium on wheat grains in France. Frequency and place of different species. Phytoma, No. 479:22-24; 7 ref.

Atanasoff D, 1923. Fusarium blight of the cereal crops. Mededeel, Landbouwhoogeschool, 27:1-132.

Bailey BA; Jennings JC; Anderson JD, 1997. The 24-kDa protein from Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. erythroxyli: occurrence in related fungi and the effect of growth medium on its production. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 43(1):45-55; 33 ref.

Banks JN; Rizvi RH; Barker I; Turner JA; Rahman S; Northway BJ, 1996. Specific monoclonal antibodies to Fusarium species and Microdochium nivale. Food and Agricultural Immunology, 8(4):249-268; 19 ref.

Barbetti MJ, 1985. Survey of fungi associated with subterranean clover leaves and petioles in Western Australia. Plant Pathology, 34(1):49-53; [3 tab.]; 20 ref.

Barbetti MJ, 1989. Response of Medicago cultivars to fungal root pathogens associated with Trifolium subterraneum. Plant Protection Quarterly, 4(2):75-77; 13 ref.

Barbetti MJ, 1990. Effect of adding lime to potting soil on the pathogenicity of four root pathogens of subterranean clover. Phytophylactica, 22(2):245-249; 22 ref.

Bateman GL, 1997. Pathogenicity of fungi associated with winter loss and injury in white lupin. Plant Pathology, 46(2):157-167; 22 ref.

Bateman GL; KwaSna H; Ward E, 1996. Relationships among Fusarium spp. estimated by comparing restriction fragment length polymorphisms in polymerase chain reaction-amplified nuclear rDNA. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 42(12):1232-1240; 28 ref.

Benken AA; Khatskevich LK, 1976. Soil infection of cereals by common root rot. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 10(6):491-496

Beyer W; Höxter H; Miedaner T; Sander E; Geiger HH, 1993. Indirect ELISA for quantitative assessment of Fusarium spp. in rye. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 100(3):278-284; 21 ref.

Binarová P; Nedelník J; Fellner M; Nedbálková B, 1990. Selection for resistance to filtrates of Fusarium spp. in embryogenic cell suspension culture of Medicago sativa L. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 22(3):191-196; 24 ref.

Booth C, 1977. Fusarium. Laboratory guide to the identification of the major species. Kew, UK: Commonwealth Mycological Institute.

Booth C; Spooner BM, 1984. Gibberella avenacea, teleomorph of Fusarium avenaceum, from stems of Pteridium aquilinum.. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 82(1):178-180; [1 fig.]; 4 ref.

Bosch U; Mirocha CJ; Abbas HK; Menna Mdi, 1989. Toxicity and toxin production by Fusarium isolates from New Zealand. Mycopathologia, 108(2):73-79; 27 ref.

Bottalico A; Logrieco A; Visconti A, 1989. Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in infected corn in Italy. Mycopathologia, 107(2-3):85-92; 44 ref.

Braslavská O, 1984. Fusarium Link ex Fr. species on potato in Slovakia. Ceská Mykologie, 38(4):243-245; [1 tab.]; 7 ref.

Bretag TW, 1985. Fungi associated with root rots of annual Medicago spp. in Australia. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 85(2):329-334; [8 tab.]; 23 ref.

Bretag TW; Kollmorgen JF, 1986. Effects of trifluralin, benomyl and metalaxyl on the incidence and severity of root disease in annual Medicago spp., and evaluation of cultivars for resistance to root rot. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 26(1):65-70; [5 tab.]; 18 ref.

BÅng U, 1989. Effect of haulm treatment and harvest time on incidence of tuber rots of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) after standard wounding and on frequency of stem lesions caused by Phoma foveata Foister. Potato Research, 32(1):101-112; 25 ref.

CABI/EPPO, 2005. Gibberella avenacea. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 950. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Calman AI; Tewari JP; Mugala M, 1986. Fusarium avenaceum as one of the causal agents of seedling blight of canola in Alberta. Plant Disease, 70(7):964; 2 ref.

Celetti MJ; Johnston HW; Kimpinski J; Platt HW; Martin RA, 1990. Incidence of soil-borne plant pathogens isolated from barley and winter wheat, and other crops in the rotation, on Prince Edward Island. Plant Pathology, 39(4):606-611; 19 ref.

Chambers SC, 1973. Studies on Fusarium species associated with "pathogen-tested" seed potatoes in Victoria. Australian Journal of Experimental Agricultural and Animal Husbandry, 13:718-723.

Chaudhary RG; Edison S; Vishwadhar, 1991. Epidemiology and basic facts of severity, yield loss and grain quality deterioration due to ear blight of wheat in Arunachal Pradesh. Indian Phytopathology, 43(4):571-574; 6 ref.

Chulkina VA, 1975. Recent studies on root rots in Siberia. Vestnik Sel'skokhozyaistvennoi Nauki, No.5:63-69

Clear RM; Patrick SK, 1990. Fusarium species isolated from wheat samples containing tombstone (scab) kernels from Ontario, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 70(4):1057-1069; 38 ref.

Cook RJ, 1967. Gibberella avenacea sp. n., perfect stage of Fusarium roseum f. sp. cerealis 'Avenaceum'. Phytopathology, 57:732-736.

Cosic J; Jurkovic D; Vrandecic K; Simic B, 2007. Pathogenicity of Fusarium species to wheat and barley ears. Cereal Research Communications [6th Alps-Adria Scientific Workshop: Environmental consequences of sustainability. 30 April-5 May 2007, Obervellach, Austria.], 35(2):529-532. http://www.akademiai.com/content/t3n75tg76l760114/fulltext.pdf

Coulman BE; Lambert M, 1995. Selection for resistance to root rot caused by Fusarium spp. in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 75(1):141-146; 22 ref.

Czembor E; Strobel GA, 1997. Limitations of exotic and indigenous isolates of Fusarium avenaceum for the biological control of spotted knapweed - Centaurea maculosa. World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, 13(1):119-123; 12 ref.

Daamen RA; Langerak CJ; Stol W, 1991. Surveys of cereal diseases and pests in the Netherlands. 3. Monographella nivalis and Fusarium spp. in winter wheat fields and seed lots. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 97(2):105-114; 36 ref.

Darozhkin MA; Chakalinskaya NI; Nitsieuskaya VI, 1976. Lucerne diseases in Byelorussia. Vestsi Akademii Navuk BSSR, Biyalagichnykh Navuk, No.1:47-52

Debelyi GA; Grishina EE; Derbenskii VI, 1991. Forms of Lupinus angustifolius resistant to Fusarium. Selektsiya i Semenovodstvo (Moskva), No. 6:24-25.

Devi RKT; Singh NI, 1994. Effect of temperature and light on growth and sporulation of Fusarium rice sheath rot. International Rice Research Notes, 19(3):28.

Devi RKT; Singh NI, 1995. Survival of fusarial sheath rot fungi of rice. Plant Disease Research, 10(1):91-95; 10 ref.

Devi RKT; Singh NI; Dubey RC, 1997. Distribution, pathogenecity and physiology of Fusarium spp. causing rice sheath rot in Manipur. In: Sati SC, Saxena J, eds. Himalayan microbial diversity part 1. New Delhi, India: Today and Tomorrow's Printers and Publishers, 295-303.

Diehl JA, 1979. Effect of cultivation systems on wheat root rot. Summa Phytopathologica, 5(3/4):134-139

Domsch KH; Gams W; Anderson TH, 1980. Compendium of soil fungi. Volumes 1 and 2. London, UK: Academic Press Ltd. 859 pp.

Donaldson GC; Ball LA; Axelrood PE; Glass NL, 1995. Primer sets developed to amplify conserved genes from filamentous ascomycetes are useful in differentiating Fusarium species associated with conifers. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 61(4):1331-1340; 50 ref.

Dorovskaya LM, 1978. Species composition of pathogens of root rot of spring wheat in the Urals district. Sbornik Nauchnykh Rabot Saratovskogo Sel'skokhozyaistvennogo Instituta, No. 118:65-73

Dorozhkin NA; Bel'skaya SI; Grigor'eva TP, 1979. Mixed tuber rots of potato during storage. Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya, 14(1):109-111

Dorozhkin NA; Bilai VI; Belskaya SI; ellanskaya IA; Alekseeva TP; Novikova LM, 1984. Fusarium fungi on potato in Belorussia. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 18(4):326-330; [2 tab.]; 17 ref.

Dorozhkin NA; Mikhailova RV; Lobanok AG; Novikova LM, 1982. The formation of extracellular depolymerases by the pathogens of Fusarium rots of potato. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 16(2):143-148

Downes MJ, 1972. Observations on some Fusarium populations in Co. Donegal oat soils. Scientific Proceedings of the Royal Dublin Society, B, 3(10):127-135

Duben J; Fehrmann H, 1980. Occurrence and pathogenicity of Fusarium species on winter wheat in the German Federal Republic III. Relation between infection of the haulm base and the ear. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 87(1):1-12

Duthie JA; Hall R; Asselin AV, 1986. Fusarium species from seed of winter wheat in eastern Canada. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 8(3):282-288; 29 ref.

El-Abyad MS; Hindorf H; Rizk MA, 1988. Impact of salinity stress on soil-borne fungi of sugarbeet. II. Growth activities in vitro.. Plant and Soil, 110(1):33-37; 20 ref.

Elmer WH, 1996. Fusarium fruit rot of pumpkin in Connecticut. Plant Disease, 80(2):131-135; 11 ref.

Fartushnyak G, 1975. Effect of ecological factors on the development of the pathogens of snow mould of winter wheat. Sistematika, ekolologiya i fiziologiya pochvennykh gribov. Kiev. USSR, 150

Fields P; Pouleur S; Richard C, 1995. The effect of high temperature storage on the capacity of an ice-nucleating-active bacterium and fungus to reduce insect cold-tolerance. Canadian Entomologist, 127(1):33-40; 21 ref.

Filipowicz A, 1984. Occurrence of fungus diseases of faba bean (Vicia faba L. var. major Harz) in the field. Biuletyn Warzywniczy, 27:393-416; [6 fig., 4 graphs, 4 tab.]; 32 ref.

Fletcher JD; Broadhurst PG; Bansal RK, 1991. Fusarium avenaceum: a pathogen of lentil in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 19(2):207-210; 12 ref.

Florea N; Bobes I; Ciugudeanu M, 1971. Isolation and identification of some Fusarium species on different species and varieties of wheat and triticale. Buletinul Institutului Agronomic Cluj-Napoca, 31:57-64

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