Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ganoderma lucidum
(basal stem rot: Hevea spp.)

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Datasheet

Ganoderma lucidum (basal stem rot: Hevea spp.)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ganoderma lucidum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • basal stem rot: Hevea spp.
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
  •         Class: Agaricomycetes
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • G. lucidum is not considered an invasive species because it is cosmopolitan and has a slow disease cycle.

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
G. lucidum grows on a basal stem of a host tree.
TitleBasidiocarp
CaptionG. lucidum grows on a basal stem of a host tree.
CopyrightTun-Tschu Chang
G. lucidum grows on a basal stem of a host tree.
BasidiocarpG. lucidum grows on a basal stem of a host tree.Tun-Tschu Chang
G. lucidum grows from a main root of a host tree.
TitleBasidiocarp
CaptionG. lucidum grows from a main root of a host tree.
CopyrightTun-Tschu Chang
G. lucidum grows from a main root of a host tree.
BasidiocarpG. lucidum grows from a main root of a host tree.Tun-Tschu Chang
Ganoderma root rot causes thinning foliage of host trees.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionGanoderma root rot causes thinning foliage of host trees.
CopyrightTun-Tschu Chang
Ganoderma root rot causes thinning foliage of host trees.
SymptomsGanoderma root rot causes thinning foliage of host trees.Tun-Tschu Chang

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst. 1881

Preferred Common Name

  • basal stem rot: Hevea spp.

Other Scientific Names

  • Boletus lucidus Curtis 1781
  • Polyporus lucidus (Curtis) Fr. 1821

International Common Names

  • English: butt rot: trees; dieback: trees; wood decay
  • Spanish: podredumbre basal
  • French: pourridie basal
  • Chinese: ling-zhi

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Glaenzender Lackporling; Weissfäule: Laubhölzer

EPPO code

  • GANOLU (Ganoderma lucidum)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page G. lucidum is not considered an invasive species because it is cosmopolitan and has a slow disease cycle.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
  •                 Class: Agaricomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Agaricomycetidae
  •                         Order: Polyporales
  •                             Family: Ganodermataceae
  •                                 Genus: Ganoderma
  •                                     Species: Ganoderma lucidum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaWidespreadNative Not invasive Zhao, 1989
-GuangdongPresentHuang and Jiang, 2000
-GuangxiPresentHuang and Jiang, 2000
-JiangsuPresentHuang and Jiang, 2000
-JilinPresentHuang et al., 2000
-ShaanxiPresentTian et al., 2003
-YunnanPresentHuang and Jiang, 2000
IndiaWidespreadNative Not invasive Bakshi et al., 1976
-Andhra PradeshPresentNative Not invasive Srinivasulu et al., 2001
-AssamPresentRay et al., 2008
-Himachal PradeshPresentAshok et al., 2006
-Indian PunjabPresentNative Not invasive Dargan et al., 2002
-KarnatakaPresentNative Not invasive Prasad and Naik, 2002
-KeralaPresentNative Not invasive
-Madhya PradeshPresentNative Not invasive Harsh et al., 1993; Verma et al., 2013
-MaharashtraPresentVerma et al., 2013
-RajasthanPresentNative Not invasive Lodha et al., 1994
-Tamil NaduPresentNative Not invasive Gunasekaran et al., 1986
-West BengalPresentNative Not invasive Mehrotra et al., 1996
IranPresentMoradali et al., 2007
JapanPresentNative Not invasive Ichikawa et al., 2013
NepalPresentNative Not invasive Appanah et al., 2000
PakistanPresentNative Not invasive Appanah et al., 2000
PhilippinesPresentNative Not invasive Quiniones, 1980
TaiwanWidespreadNative Not invasive Ying et al., 1976
ThailandPresentNative Not invasive
TurkeyPresentGüzeldag and Çolak, 2007
VietnamPresentHuang and Jiang, 2000
YemenPresentNative Not invasive

Africa

EgyptPresentNative Not invasive Michal et al., 1967
GhanaPresentNative Not invasive Ryvarden and Johansen, 1980
KenyaPresentNative Not invasive Ryvarden and Johansen, 1980
NigeriaPresentOfodile and Bikomo, 2008
TanzaniaPresentNative Not invasive Ryvarden and Johansen, 1980

North America

USA
-ArizonaPresentNative Not invasive Farr et al., 1995
-ArkansasPresentNative Not invasive Farr et al., 1995
-CaliforniaPresentNative Not invasive Farr et al., 1995
-ConnecticutPresentNative Not invasive Farr et al., 1995
-FloridaPresentNative Not invasive Farr et al., 1995
-GeorgiaPresentNative Not invasive Farr et al., 1995
-HawaiiPresentNative Not invasive Farr et al., 1995
-IndianaPresentNative Not invasive Farr et al., 1995
-IowaPresentNative Not invasive Farr et al., 1995
-LouisianaPresentNative Not invasive Farr et al., 1995
-MarylandPresentNative Not invasive Farr et al., 1995
-MassachusettsPresentNative Not invasive Farr et al., 1995
-MichiganPresentNative Not invasive Farr et al., 1995
-MinnesotaPresentNative Not invasive Farr et al., 1995
-MississippiPresentNative Not invasive Farr et al., 1995
-New JerseyPresentNative Not invasive Farr et al., 1995
-New YorkPresentNative Not invasive Farr et al., 1995
-North CarolinaPresentNative Not invasive Farr et al., 1995
-OhioPresentNative Not invasive Farr et al., 1995
-OklahomaPresentNative Not invasive Farr et al., 1995
-OregonPresentNative Not invasive Farr et al., 1995
-PennsylvaniaPresentNative Not invasive Farr et al., 1995
-Rhode IslandPresentNative Not invasive Farr et al., 1995
-South CarolinaPresentNative Not invasive Farr et al., 1995
-TexasPresentNative Not invasive Farr et al., 1995
-VirginiaPresentNative Not invasive Farr et al., 1995

South America

ArgentinaPresentNative Not invasive Bazzalo and Wright, 1982
ColombiaPresentNative Not invasive Obregon-Botero, 1969

Europe

Bosnia-HercegovinaPresentUscuplic and Tre?tic, 2003
BulgariaPresentNative Not invasive Stoichev and Naidenov, 1984
EstoniaPresentNative Not invasive Hanso and Hanso, 1999
HungaryPresentNative Not invasive Szedlay et al., 1996
ItalyPresentNative Not invasive Intini, 1987
SerbiaPresentKaraman et al., 2009
SloveniaPresentHabijanic et al., 2009
UKPresentNative Not invasive Burdekin, 1979

Oceania

Australia
-QueenslandPresentNative Not invasive Hood et al., 1996

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Freshwater
Freshwater Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Marine
Marine Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-natural
semi-natural/Cold lands / tundra Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
semi-natural/Deserts Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
semi-natural/Natural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
semi-natural/Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
semi-natural/Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
semi-natural/Wetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / dieback
Growing point / dieback
Growing point / wilt
Growing point / wilt
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / rot of wood
Roots / rot of wood
Stems / dead heart
Stems / dead heart
Stems / dieback
Stems / dieback
Stems / discoloration
Stems / discoloration
Stems / internal discoloration
Stems / internal discoloration
Stems / mycelium present
Stems / mycelium present
Stems / rot
Stems / rot
Whole plant / cut at stem base
Whole plant / cut at stem base
Whole plant / dead heart
Whole plant / dead heart
Whole plant / discoloration
Whole plant / discoloration
Whole plant / early senescence
Whole plant / early senescence
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback
Whole plant / uprooted or toppled
Whole plant / uprooted or toppled
Whole plant / wilt
Whole plant / wilt

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aspergillus terreus Antagonist
Bacillus subtilis Pathogen
Myrothecium roridum Pathogen
Trichoderma koningii Antagonist

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Roots hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches fruiting bodies; hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Wood hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

References

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Appanah S; Allard G; Amatya SM, 2000. Dieback of sissoo. Proceedings of international seminar, Kathmandu, Nepal, 25-28 April 2000. Field Document - FORSPA, No.18:65 pp.; many ref.

Ashok Kumar; Surinder Kumar; Ranjeet Singh; Shailendra Kumar, 2006. Ganoderma root rot incidence in an afforested stand of Khair (Acacia catechu Willd.) in lower Siwaliks of Himachal Pradesh. Indian Forester, 132(7):878-884. http://www.indianforester.org

Bakshi BK; Reddy MAR; Singh S, 1976. Ganoderma root rot mortality in Khair (Acacia catechu Willd.) in reforested stands. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 6(1):30-38

Bazzalo ME; Wright JE, 1982. Survey of the Argentine species of the Ganoderma lucidum complex. Mycotaxon, 16(1):293-325

Burdekin DA, 1979. Common decay fungi in broadleaved trees. Arboricultural Leaflet, Department of the Environment, No. 5:41 pp.

Chang TT, 2003. Effect of soil moisture content on the survival of Ganoderma species and other wood-inhibiting fungi. Plant Dis., 87:1201-1204.

Chang TT; Chang RJ, 1999. Generation of volatile ammonia from urea fungicidal to Phellinus noxius in infested wood in soil under controlled conditions. Plant Pathology, 48(3):337-344; 37 ref.

Chang TT; Hsieh HJ; Chang RJ; Fu CS, 1999. Common tree diseases in Taiwan. Taiwan Forestry Research Institute. (In Chinese).

Dargan JS; Dhingra GS; Kuldeep Lalji, 2002. Pathological problems and mycoflora associated with Dalbergia sissoo plantations in Punjab. Plant Disease Research, 17(2):269-277; 17 ref.

Darus A; Seman JA; Azahari M, 1996. Spread of Ganoderma boninense and vegetative compatibility studies of a single palm field isolates. In: Proc. PORIM Int. Palm Oil Congress, Selangor, Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Palm Oil Research Institute, 317-329.

Farr DF; Bills GF; Chamuris GP; Rossman AY, 1995. Fungi on Plants and Plant Products in the United States. St. Paul, USA: APS Press.

Gunasekaran M; Ramadoss N; Ramiah M; Bhaskaran R; Ramanathan T, 1986. Role of neem cake in the control of Thanjavur wilt of coconut. Indian Coconut Journal, 17(1):7-12

Güzeldag G; Çolak O, 2007. Molecular identification of Ganoderma lucidum from Turkey. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 9(5):767-770. http://www.fspublishers.org/

Habijanic J; Svagelj M; Berovic M; Boh B; Wraber B, 2009. Submerged and solid-state cultivation of bioactive extra- and intracellular polysaccharides of medicinal mushrooms Ganoderma lucidum (W. Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst. and Grifola frondosa (Dicks.: Fr.) S. F. Gray (Aphyllophoromycetideae). International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 11(4):409-418. http://dl.begellhouse.com/journals/708ae68d64b17c52,4554be083929b23c,120acc867ef59a7e.html

Hanso M; Hanso S, 1999. On the root rot fungi in the forests of Estonia. Metsanduslikud Uurimused, 31:141-161; 4 pp of ref.

Harsh NSK; Soni KK; Tiwari CK, 1993. Ganoderma root-rot in an Acacia arboretum. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 23(4):252-254

Hood IA; Ramsden M; Allen P, 1996. Taxonomic delimitation and pathogenicity to seedlings of Delonix regia and Albizia lebbeck of a species related to Ganoderma lucidum on broadleaf trees in Queensland. Australasian Plant Pathology, 25(2):86-98; 27 ref.

Huang HongBing; Jiang YingQiao, 2000. The quantitative determination and TLC identification of total nucleosides in sporophore of Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss. ex Fr.) Karst. Journal of Plant Resources and Environment, 9(3):61-62.

Huang YaoGe; Barl B; Ivanochko G, 2000. Selected non-timber forest products with medicinal applications from Jilin Province in China. General Technical Report - North Central Research Station, USDA Forest Service [Forest communities in the third millennium: Linking research, business, and policy toward a sustainable non-timber forest product sector. Proceedings of a meeting, Kenora, Ontario, Canada, 1-4 October, 1999.], No.NC-217:93-101.

Ichikawa K; Ohsawa M; Shibata H; Nakagawa S, 2013. Occurrence of wood-rotting fungi at a peach orchard in Yamanashi Prefecture. Annual Report of the Kanto-Tosan Plant Protection Society, No.60:59-62. http://www.ktpps.org/

Intini M, 1987. Wood-decomposing fungi of the genus Ganoderma on town trees. Rivista di Micologia Bollettino dell'Associazione Micologica Bresadola, 30(1-2):20-32

Kandan A; Rajendran V; Raguchander V; Samiyappan R, 2010. Rapid detection of Ganoderma disease of coconut by immunoassay and PCR. In: Molecular biology of plant pathogens [ed. by Gangawane, L. V.\Khilare, V. C.]. Delhi, India: Daya Publishing House, 131-144.

Karaman M; Mimica-Dukic N; Knezevic P; Svircev Z; Matavuly M, 2009. Antibacterial properties of selected lignicolous mushrooms and fungi from Northern Serbia. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 11(3):269-279. http://dl.begellhouse.com/journals/708ae68d64b17c52,4f53a14232dd0d51,6b4c13c82bf3caa5.html

Karthikeyan M; Radhika K; Bhaskaran R; Mathiyazhagan S; Samiyappan R; Velazhahan R, 2007. Pathogenicity confirmation of Ganoderma disease of coconut using early diagnosis technique. Journal of Phytopathology, 155(5):296-304. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/jph

Lodha S; Dwivedi NK; Bhandari DC; Bohra MD, 1994. Infection and colonization of jojoba by Ganoderma lucidum. Phytoparasitica, 22(3):229-231

Mehrotra MD; Pandey PC; Chakrabarti K; Suresh Sharma; Hazra K, 1996. Root and heart rots in Acacia mangium plantations in India. Indian Forester, 122(2):155-160; 6 ref.

Michal SH; Elarosi H; Abd-el-rehim MA, 1967. Two Polyporaceae causing wood-rot of Casuarina in United Arab Republic (Egypt). Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna 6 (3), (173-4). [5 refs.].

Moncalvo JM; Wang HueiFang; Hseu RueyShyang, 1995. Gene phylogeny of the Ganoderma lucidum complex based on ribosomal DNA sequences. Comparison with traditional taxonomic characters. Mycological Research, 99(12):1489-1499; 39 ref.

Moradali MF; Hedjaroude GA; Mostafavi H; Abbasi M; Ghods S; Sharifi-Tehrani A, 2007. The genus Ganoderma (Basidiomycota) in Iran. Mycotaxon, 99:251-269. http://www.mycotaxon.com

Núñez M; Ryvarden L, 2001. East Asian polypores. Vol 1. Ganodermataceae and Hymenochaetaceae. Oslo, Norway: Fungiflora.

Obregon-Botero R, 1969. Some diseases o Rubus spp., Inga spp., Furcraea macrophylla and Allium fistulosum. Rev. Fac. Nac. Agron., Medellin 26 (67), (3-18). [Es, 9 ref.].

Ofodile LN; Bikomo EO, 2008. Antibacterial activity of Ganoderma lucidum from Nigeria. Hamdard Medicus, 51(1):14-17.

Pegler DN, 2002. Useful fungi of the world: the Lin-zhi-the mushroom of immortality. Mycologist, 16:100-101.

Prasad M; Naik ST, 2002. Management of root rot and heart rot of Acacia mangium Willd. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 15(2):321-326; 10 ref.

Quiniones SS, 1980. Notes on the diseases of forest trees in the Philippines. Sylvatrop, 5(4):263-271; 4 ref.

Rajendran L; Kandan A; Karthikeyan G; Raguchander T; Samiyappan R, 2009. Early detection of Ganoderma causing basal stem rot disease in coconut plantations. Journal of Oil Palm Research, 21(June):627-635.

Ray AK; Charkrabarthy R; Acharya GC, 2008. Ganoderma disease of arecanut in Assam. Indian Journal of Arecanut, Spices and Medicinal Plants, 10(1):4-7. http://dacnet.nic.in/spices

Ryvarden L, 1995. Can we trust morphology in Ganoderma? In: Buchanan PK, Hseu RS, Moncalvo JM, eds. Ganoderma Systematics, Phytopathology and Pharmacology. Proceedings of Contributed Symposium 59A,B, 5th International Mycological Congress, Vancouver, 1994. Taipei, Taiwan: Applied Microbiology Laboratory, National Taiwan University, 19-24.

Ryvarden L; Gilbertson RL, 1993. European polypores: Part 1: Abortiporus - Lindtneria. Oslo, Norway; Fungiflora A/S, 387 pp.

Ryvarden L; Johansen I, 1980. A preliminary Polypore flora of East Africa. A preliminary Polypore flora of East Africa. Fungiflora. Oslo Norway, 636 pp.

Sinclair WA; Lyon HH; Johnson WT, 1987. Diseases of trees and shrubs. Ithaca, New York, USA: Cornell University Press, 574 pp.

Smith BJ; Sivasithamparam K, 2000. Internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequence of five species of Ganoderma from Australia. Mycological Research, 104(8):943-951; 48 ref.

Solomon JJ; Nambiar KKN, 1998. Major coconut diseases in India and their management. Pathological problems of economic crop plants and their management., 295-307; 81 ref.

Srinivasulu B; Aruna K; Rao DVR, 2001. Biocontrol of Ganoderma wilt of coconut palm. South Indian Horticulture, 49(Special):240-242; 4 ref.

Steyaert RL, 1961. Note on the nomenclature of fungi and incidently of Ganoderma lucidum. Taxon, 10:251-252.

Steyaert RL, 1972. Species of Ganoderma and related genera mainly of the Bogor and Leiden herbaria. Persoonia, 7:55-118.

Stoichev G; Naidenov Ya, 1984. The genus Ganoderma Karst. in Bulgaria. Gorskostopanska Nauka, 21(3):83-87

Szedlay G; Jakucs E; B=ka K; Boldizsßr I, 1996. Macro- and micromorphological characteristics of Ganoderma lucidum Karsten strains isolated in Hungary. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici, 88:57-68; 17 ref.

Tian GuangHui; Lin Juan; Chen WenQiang; Wang Zhi; Zhou XuanWei, 2003. Analysis of volatile oil composition of wild and cultured Ganoderma lucidum. Edible Fungi of China, 22(2):48.

Turner PD, 1965. Infection of oil palms by Ganoderma. Phytopathology, 55:937.

Uscuplic M; Tre?tic T, 2003. Fungi of primary forests "Ravna vala" on mountain Igman and "Trstionica" near Kakanj - first contribution. (Gljive pra?umskih rezervata "Ravna vala" na Igmanu i "Trstionica" pored Kaknja - prvi prilog.) Radovi ?umarskog Fakulteta Univerziteta u Sarajevu, 33(1):51-54.

Verma RK; Rinki Hanwat; Rajput PS; Tiwari CK, 2013. Status of Khair mortality in central India. Indian Forester, 139(9):790-796. http://www.indianforester.co.in

Ying SL; Chien CY; Davidson RW, 1976. Root rot of Acacia confusa. Quarterly Journal of Chinese Forestry, 9(1):17-21; 1 pl.; 3 ref.

Zhao JD, 1989. The Ganodermataceae in China. Bibliotheca Mycologica Band 132. Berlin-Stuttgart, Germany: J. Cramer.

Distribution Maps

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