Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ganoderma lucidum
(basal stem rot: Hevea spp.)

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Datasheet

Ganoderma lucidum (basal stem rot: Hevea spp.)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ganoderma lucidum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • basal stem rot: Hevea spp.
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
  •         Class: Agaricomycetes
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • G. lucidum is not considered an invasive species because it is cosmopolitan and has a slow disease cycle.

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
G. lucidum grows on a basal stem of a host tree.
TitleBasidiocarp
CaptionG. lucidum grows on a basal stem of a host tree.
CopyrightTun-Tschu Chang
G. lucidum grows on a basal stem of a host tree.
BasidiocarpG. lucidum grows on a basal stem of a host tree.Tun-Tschu Chang
G. lucidum grows from a main root of a host tree.
TitleBasidiocarp
CaptionG. lucidum grows from a main root of a host tree.
CopyrightTun-Tschu Chang
G. lucidum grows from a main root of a host tree.
BasidiocarpG. lucidum grows from a main root of a host tree.Tun-Tschu Chang
Ganoderma root rot causes thinning foliage of host trees.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionGanoderma root rot causes thinning foliage of host trees.
CopyrightTun-Tschu Chang
Ganoderma root rot causes thinning foliage of host trees.
SymptomsGanoderma root rot causes thinning foliage of host trees.Tun-Tschu Chang

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst. 1881

Preferred Common Name

  • basal stem rot: Hevea spp.

Other Scientific Names

  • Boletus lucidus Curtis 1781
  • Polyporus lucidus (Curtis) Fr. 1821

International Common Names

  • English: butt rot: trees; dieback: trees; wood decay
  • Spanish: podredumbre basal
  • French: pourridie basal
  • Chinese: ling-zhi

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Glaenzender Lackporling; Weissfäule: Laubhölzer

EPPO code

  • GANOLU (Ganoderma lucidum)

Summary of Invasiveness

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G. lucidum is not considered an invasive species because it is cosmopolitan and has a slow disease cycle.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
  •                 Class: Agaricomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Agaricomycetidae
  •                         Order: Polyporales
  •                             Family: Ganodermataceae
  •                                 Genus: Ganoderma
  •                                     Species: Ganoderma lucidum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresentNative
GhanaPresentNative
KenyaPresentNative
NigeriaPresent
TanzaniaPresentNative

Asia

ChinaPresent, WidespreadNative
-GuangdongPresent
-GuangxiPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-JilinPresentOriginal citation: Huang et al. (2000)
-ShaanxiPresent
-YunnanPresent
IndiaPresent, WidespreadNative
-Andhra PradeshPresentNative
-AssamPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-KarnatakaPresentNative
-KeralaPresentNative
-Madhya PradeshPresentNative
-MaharashtraPresent
-PunjabPresentNative
-RajasthanPresentNative
-Tamil NaduPresentNative
-West BengalPresentNative
IranPresent
JapanPresentNative
NepalPresentNative
PakistanPresentNative
PhilippinesPresentNative
TaiwanPresent, WidespreadNative
ThailandPresentNative
TurkeyPresentOriginal citation: Güzeldag and Çolak (2007)
VietnamPresent
YemenPresentNative

Europe

Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresentOriginal citation: Uscuplic and Tre?tic (2003)
BulgariaPresentNative
EstoniaPresentNative
HungaryPresentNative
ItalyPresentNative
SerbiaPresent
SloveniaPresent
United KingdomPresentNative

North America

United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-ArizonaPresentNative
-ArkansasPresentNative
-CaliforniaPresentNative
-ConnecticutPresentNative
-FloridaPresentNative
-GeorgiaPresentNative
-HawaiiPresentNative
-IndianaPresentNative
-IowaPresentNative
-LouisianaPresentNative
-MarylandPresentNative
-MassachusettsPresentNative
-MichiganPresentNative
-MinnesotaPresentNative
-MississippiPresentNative
-New JerseyPresentNative
-New YorkPresentNative
-North CarolinaPresentNative
-OhioPresentNative
-OklahomaPresentNative
-OregonPresentNative
-PennsylvaniaPresentNative
-Rhode IslandPresentNative
-South CarolinaPresentNative
-TexasPresentNative
-VirginiaPresentNative

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-QueenslandPresentNative

South America

ArgentinaPresentNative
ColombiaPresentNative

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedProtected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalCold lands / tundra Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalDeserts Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Freshwater Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Marine Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / dieback
Growing point / dieback
Growing point / wilt
Growing point / wilt
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / rot of wood
Roots / rot of wood
Stems / dead heart
Stems / dead heart
Stems / dieback
Stems / dieback
Stems / discoloration
Stems / discoloration
Stems / internal discoloration
Stems / internal discoloration
Stems / mycelium present
Stems / mycelium present
Stems / rot
Stems / rot
Whole plant / cut at stem base
Whole plant / cut at stem base
Whole plant / dead heart
Whole plant / dead heart
Whole plant / discoloration
Whole plant / discoloration
Whole plant / early senescence
Whole plant / early senescence
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback
Whole plant / uprooted or toppled
Whole plant / uprooted or toppled
Whole plant / wilt
Whole plant / wilt

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aspergillus terreus Antagonist
Bacillus subtilis Pathogen
Myrothecium roridum Pathogen
Trichoderma koningii Antagonist

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Roots hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches fruiting bodies; hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Wood hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

References

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Appanah S; Allard G; Amatya SM, 2000. Dieback of sissoo. Proceedings of international seminar, Kathmandu, Nepal, 25-28 April 2000. Field Document - FORSPA, No.18:65 pp.; many ref.

Ashok Kumar; Surinder Kumar; Ranjeet Singh; Shailendra Kumar, 2006. Ganoderma root rot incidence in an afforested stand of Khair (Acacia catechu Willd.) in lower Siwaliks of Himachal Pradesh. Indian Forester, 132(7):878-884. http://www.indianforester.org

Bakshi BK; Reddy MAR; Singh S, 1976. Ganoderma root rot mortality in Khair (Acacia catechu Willd.) in reforested stands. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 6(1):30-38

Bazzalo ME; Wright JE, 1982. Survey of the Argentine species of the Ganoderma lucidum complex. Mycotaxon, 16(1):293-325

Burdekin DA, 1979. Common decay fungi in broadleaved trees. Arboricultural Leaflet, Department of the Environment, No. 5:41 pp.

Chang TT, 2003. Effect of soil moisture content on the survival of Ganoderma species and other wood-inhibiting fungi. Plant Dis., 87:1201-1204.

Chang TT; Chang RJ, 1999. Generation of volatile ammonia from urea fungicidal to Phellinus noxius in infested wood in soil under controlled conditions. Plant Pathology, 48(3):337-344; 37 ref.

Chang TT; Hsieh HJ; Chang RJ; Fu CS, 1999. Common tree diseases in Taiwan. Taiwan Forestry Research Institute. (In Chinese).

Dargan JS; Dhingra GS; Kuldeep Lalji, 2002. Pathological problems and mycoflora associated with Dalbergia sissoo plantations in Punjab. Plant Disease Research, 17(2):269-277; 17 ref.

Darus A; Seman JA; Azahari M, 1996. Spread of Ganoderma boninense and vegetative compatibility studies of a single palm field isolates. In: Proc. PORIM Int. Palm Oil Congress, Selangor, Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Palm Oil Research Institute, 317-329.

Farr DF; Bills GF; Chamuris GP; Rossman AY, 1995. Fungi on Plants and Plant Products in the United States. St. Paul, USA: APS Press.

Gunasekaran M; Ramadoss N; Ramiah M; Bhaskaran R; Ramanathan T, 1986. Role of neem cake in the control of Thanjavur wilt of coconut. Indian Coconut Journal, 17(1):7-12

Güzeldag G; Çolak O, 2007. Molecular identification of Ganoderma lucidum from Turkey. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 9(5):767-770. http://www.fspublishers.org/

Habijanic J; Svagelj M; Berovic M; Boh B; Wraber B, 2009. Submerged and solid-state cultivation of bioactive extra- and intracellular polysaccharides of medicinal mushrooms Ganoderma lucidum (W. Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst. and Grifola frondosa (Dicks.: Fr.) S. F. Gray (Aphyllophoromycetideae). International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 11(4):409-418. http://dl.begellhouse.com/journals/708ae68d64b17c52,4554be083929b23c,120acc867ef59a7e.html

Hanso M; Hanso S, 1999. On the root rot fungi in the forests of Estonia. Metsanduslikud Uurimused, 31:141-161; 4 pp of ref.

Harsh NSK; Soni KK; Tiwari CK, 1993. Ganoderma root-rot in an Acacia arboretum. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 23(4):252-254

Hood IA; Ramsden M; Allen P, 1996. Taxonomic delimitation and pathogenicity to seedlings of Delonix regia and Albizia lebbeck of a species related to Ganoderma lucidum on broadleaf trees in Queensland. Australasian Plant Pathology, 25(2):86-98; 27 ref.

Huang HongBing; Jiang YingQiao, 2000. The quantitative determination and TLC identification of total nucleosides in sporophore of Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss. ex Fr.) Karst. Journal of Plant Resources and Environment, 9(3):61-62.

Huang YaoGe; Barl B; Ivanochko G, 2000. Selected non-timber forest products with medicinal applications from Jilin Province in China. General Technical Report - North Central Research Station, USDA Forest Service [Forest communities in the third millennium: Linking research, business, and policy toward a sustainable non-timber forest product sector. Proceedings of a meeting, Kenora, Ontario, Canada, 1-4 October, 1999.], No.NC-217:93-101.

Ichikawa K; Ohsawa M; Shibata H; Nakagawa S, 2013. Occurrence of wood-rotting fungi at a peach orchard in Yamanashi Prefecture. Annual Report of the Kanto-Tosan Plant Protection Society, No.60:59-62. http://www.ktpps.org/

Intini M, 1987. Wood-decomposing fungi of the genus Ganoderma on town trees. Rivista di Micologia Bollettino dell'Associazione Micologica Bresadola, 30(1-2):20-32

Kandan A; Rajendran V; Raguchander V; Samiyappan R, 2010. Rapid detection of Ganoderma disease of coconut by immunoassay and PCR. In: Molecular biology of plant pathogens [ed. by Gangawane, L. V.\Khilare, V. C.]. Delhi, India: Daya Publishing House, 131-144.

Karaman M; Mimica-Dukic N; Knezevic P; Svircev Z; Matavuly M, 2009. Antibacterial properties of selected lignicolous mushrooms and fungi from Northern Serbia. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 11(3):269-279. http://dl.begellhouse.com/journals/708ae68d64b17c52,4f53a14232dd0d51,6b4c13c82bf3caa5.html

Karthikeyan M; Radhika K; Bhaskaran R; Mathiyazhagan S; Samiyappan R; Velazhahan R, 2007. Pathogenicity confirmation of Ganoderma disease of coconut using early diagnosis technique. Journal of Phytopathology, 155(5):296-304. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/jph

Lodha S; Dwivedi NK; Bhandari DC; Bohra MD, 1994. Infection and colonization of jojoba by Ganoderma lucidum. Phytoparasitica, 22(3):229-231

Mehrotra MD; Pandey PC; Chakrabarti K; Suresh Sharma; Hazra K, 1996. Root and heart rots in Acacia mangium plantations in India. Indian Forester, 122(2):155-160; 6 ref.

Michal SH; Elarosi H; Abd-el-rehim MA, 1967. Two Polyporaceae causing wood-rot of Casuarina in United Arab Republic (Egypt). Phytopathologia Mediterranea, Bologna 6 (3), (173-4). [5 refs.].

Moncalvo JM; Wang HueiFang; Hseu RueyShyang, 1995. Gene phylogeny of the Ganoderma lucidum complex based on ribosomal DNA sequences. Comparison with traditional taxonomic characters. Mycological Research, 99(12):1489-1499; 39 ref.

Moradali MF; Hedjaroude GA; Mostafavi H; Abbasi M; Ghods S; Sharifi-Tehrani A, 2007. The genus Ganoderma (Basidiomycota) in Iran. Mycotaxon, 99:251-269. http://www.mycotaxon.com

Núñez M; Ryvarden L, 2001. East Asian polypores. Vol 1. Ganodermataceae and Hymenochaetaceae. Oslo, Norway: Fungiflora.

Obregon-Botero R, 1969. Some diseases o Rubus spp., Inga spp., Furcraea macrophylla and Allium fistulosum. Rev. Fac. Nac. Agron., Medellin 26 (67), (3-18). [Es, 9 ref.].

Ofodile LN; Bikomo EO, 2008. Antibacterial activity of Ganoderma lucidum from Nigeria. Hamdard Medicus, 51(1):14-17.

Pegler DN, 2002. Useful fungi of the world: the Lin-zhi-the mushroom of immortality. Mycologist, 16:100-101.

Prasad M; Naik ST, 2002. Management of root rot and heart rot of Acacia mangium Willd. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 15(2):321-326; 10 ref.

Quiniones SS, 1980. Notes on the diseases of forest trees in the Philippines. Sylvatrop, 5(4):263-271; 4 ref.

Rajendran L; Kandan A; Karthikeyan G; Raguchander T; Samiyappan R, 2009. Early detection of Ganoderma causing basal stem rot disease in coconut plantations. Journal of Oil Palm Research, 21(June):627-635.

Ray AK; Charkrabarthy R; Acharya GC, 2008. Ganoderma disease of arecanut in Assam. Indian Journal of Arecanut, Spices and Medicinal Plants, 10(1):4-7. http://dacnet.nic.in/spices

Ryvarden L, 1995. Can we trust morphology in Ganoderma? In: Buchanan PK, Hseu RS, Moncalvo JM, eds. Ganoderma Systematics, Phytopathology and Pharmacology. Proceedings of Contributed Symposium 59A,B, 5th International Mycological Congress, Vancouver, 1994. Taipei, Taiwan: Applied Microbiology Laboratory, National Taiwan University, 19-24.

Ryvarden L; Gilbertson RL, 1993. European polypores: Part 1: Abortiporus - Lindtneria. Oslo, Norway; Fungiflora A/S, 387 pp.

Ryvarden L; Johansen I, 1980. A preliminary Polypore flora of East Africa. A preliminary Polypore flora of East Africa. Fungiflora. Oslo Norway, 636 pp.

Sinclair WA; Lyon HH; Johnson WT, 1987. Diseases of trees and shrubs. Ithaca, New York, USA: Cornell University Press, 574 pp.

Smith BJ; Sivasithamparam K, 2000. Internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequence of five species of Ganoderma from Australia. Mycological Research, 104(8):943-951; 48 ref.

Solomon JJ; Nambiar KKN, 1998. Major coconut diseases in India and their management. Pathological problems of economic crop plants and their management., 295-307; 81 ref.

Srinivasulu B; Aruna K; Rao DVR, 2001. Biocontrol of Ganoderma wilt of coconut palm. South Indian Horticulture, 49(Special):240-242; 4 ref.

Steyaert RL, 1961. Note on the nomenclature of fungi and incidently of Ganoderma lucidum. Taxon, 10:251-252.

Steyaert RL, 1972. Species of Ganoderma and related genera mainly of the Bogor and Leiden herbaria. Persoonia, 7:55-118.

Stoichev G; Naidenov Ya, 1984. The genus Ganoderma Karst. in Bulgaria. Gorskostopanska Nauka, 21(3):83-87

Szedlay G; Jakucs E; B=ka K; Boldizsßr I, 1996. Macro- and micromorphological characteristics of Ganoderma lucidum Karsten strains isolated in Hungary. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici, 88:57-68; 17 ref.

Tian GuangHui; Lin Juan; Chen WenQiang; Wang Zhi; Zhou XuanWei, 2003. Analysis of volatile oil composition of wild and cultured Ganoderma lucidum. Edible Fungi of China, 22(2):48.

Turner PD, 1965. Infection of oil palms by Ganoderma. Phytopathology, 55:937.

Uscuplic M; Tre?tic T, 2003. Fungi of primary forests "Ravna vala" on mountain Igman and "Trstionica" near Kakanj - first contribution. (Gljive pra?umskih rezervata "Ravna vala" na Igmanu i "Trstionica" pored Kaknja - prvi prilog.) Radovi ?umarskog Fakulteta Univerziteta u Sarajevu, 33(1):51-54.

Verma RK; Rinki Hanwat; Rajput PS; Tiwari CK, 2013. Status of Khair mortality in central India. Indian Forester, 139(9):790-796. http://www.indianforester.co.in

Ying SL; Chien CY; Davidson RW, 1976. Root rot of Acacia confusa. Quarterly Journal of Chinese Forestry, 9(1):17-21; 1 pl.; 3 ref.

Zhao JD, 1989. The Ganodermataceae in China. Bibliotheca Mycologica Band 132. Berlin-Stuttgart, Germany: J. Cramer.

Distribution References

Appanah S, Allard G, Amatya S M, 2000. Field Document - FORSPA, Bangkok, Thailand: Forestry Research Support Programme for Asia and the Pacific. 65 pp.

Ashok Kumar, Surinder Kumar, Ranjeet Singh, Shailendra Kumar, 2006. Ganoderma root rot incidence in an afforested stand of Khair (Acacia catechu Willd.) in lower Siwaliks of Himachal Pradesh. Indian Forester. 132 (7), 878-884. http://www.indianforester.org

Bakshi B K, Reddy M A R, Singh S, 1976. Ganoderma root rot mortality in Khair (Acacia catechu Willd.) in reforested stands. European Journal of Forest Pathology. 6 (1), 30-38.

Bazzalo M E, Wright J E, 1982. Survey of the Argentine species of the Ganoderma lucidum complex. Mycotaxon. 16 (1), 293-325.

Burdekin D A, 1979. Common decay fungi in broadleaved trees. In: Arboricultural Leaflet, Department of the Environment, 41 pp.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Dargan J S, Dhingra G S, Kuldeep Lalji, 2002. Pathological problems and mycoflora associated with Dalbergia sissoo plantations in Punjab. Plant Disease Research. 17 (2), 269-277.

Farr DF, Bills GF, Chamuris GP, Rossman AY, 1995. Fungi on Plants and Plant Products in the United States., St. Paul, USA: APS Press.

Gunasekaran M, Ramadoss N, Ramiah M, Bhaskaran R, Ramanathan T, 1986. Role of neem cake in the control of Thanjavur wilt of coconut. Indian Coconut Journal. 17 (1), 7-12.

Habijanic J, Svagelj M, Berovic M, Boh B, Wraber B, 2009. Submerged and solid-state cultivation of bioactive extra- and intracellular polysaccharides of medicinal mushrooms Ganoderma lucidum (W. Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst. and Grifola frondosa (Dicks.: Fr.) S. F. Gray (Aphyllophoromycetideae). International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms. 11 (4), 409-418. DOI:10.1615/IntJMedMushr.v11.i4.70

Hanso M, Hanso S, 1999. On the root rot fungi in the forests of Estonia. (Andmeid juuremädanike tekitajate kohta Eesti metsades.). Metsanduslikud Uurimused. 141-161.

Harsh N S K, Soni K K, Tiwari C K, 1993. Ganoderma root-rot in an Acacia arboretum. European Journal of Forest Pathology. 23 (4), 252-254.

Hood I A, Ramsden M, Allen P, 1996. Taxonomic delimitation and pathogenicity to seedlings of Delonix regia and Albizia lebbeck of a species related to Ganoderma lucidum on broadleaf trees in Queensland. Australasian Plant Pathology. 25 (2), 86-98. DOI:10.1071/AP96015

Huang HongBing, Jiang YingQiao, 2000. The quantitative determination and TLC identification of total nucleosides in sporophore of Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss. ex Fr.) Karst. Journal of Plant Resources and Environment. 9 (3), 61-62.

Ichikawa K, Ohsawa M, Shibata H, Nakagawa S, 2013. Occurrence of wood-rotting fungi at a peach orchard in Yamanashi Prefecture. Annual Report of the Kanto-Tosan Plant Protection Society. 59-62. http://www.ktpps.org/

Intini M, 1987. Wood-decomposing fungi of the genus Ganoderma on town trees. (Gli agenti di carie del genere Ganoderma nel verde urbano.). Rivista di Micologia Bollettino dell'Associazione Micologica Bresadola. 30 (1-2), 20-32.

Karaman M, Mimica-Dukic N, Knezevic P, Svircev Z, Matavuly M, 2009. Antibacterial properties of selected lignicolous mushrooms and fungi from Northern Serbia. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms. 11 (3), 269-279. DOI:10.1615/IntJMedMushr.v11.i3.60

Keypour S, Riahi H, Borhani A, Shayan M R A, Safaie N, 2014. Survey on wood decay fungi Ganoderma species (Ganodermataceae; Polyporales) from Guilan and Mazandaran, Iran. International Journal of Agriculture and Biosciences. 3 (3), 132-135. http://www.ijagbio.com/pdf-files/volume-3-no-3-2014/132-135.pdf

Lodha S, Dwivedi N K, Bhandari D C, Bohra M D, 1994. Infection and colonization of jojoba by Ganoderma lucidum. Phytoparasitica. 22 (3), 229-231.

Lu B H, Zuo B, Liu X L, Feng J, Wang Z M, Gao J, 2016. Trichoderma harzianum causing green mold disease on cultivated Ganoderma lucidum in Jilin Province, China. Plant Disease. 100 (12), 2525. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Mehrotra M D, Pandey P C, Chakrabarti K, Suresh Sharma, Hazra K, 1996. Root and heart rots in Acacia mangium plantations in India. Indian Forester. 122 (2), 155-160.

Michal S H, Elarosi H, Abd el Rehim M A, 1967. Two Polyporaceae causing wood-rot of Casuarina in United Arab Republic (Egypt). Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 6 (3), 173-4.

Moradali M F, Hedjaroude G A, Mostafavi H, Abbasi M, Ghods S, Sharifi-Tehrani A, 2007. The genus Ganoderma (Basidiomycota) in Iran. Mycotaxon. 251-269. http://www.mycotaxon.com

Obregon Botero R, 1969. Some diseases o Rubus spp., Inga spp., Furcraea macrophylla and Allium fistulosum. Revista de la Facultad nacional de Agronomia, Medellin. 26 (67), 3-18.

Ofodile L N, Bikomo E O, 2008. Antibacterial activity of Ganoderma lucidum from Nigeria. Hamdard Medicus. 51 (1), 14-17.

Prasad M, Naik S T, 2002. Management of root rot and heart rot of Acacia mangium Willd. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 15 (2), 321-326.

Quiniones S S, 1980. Notes on the diseases of forest trees in the Philippines. Sylvatrop. 5 (4), 263-271.

Ray A K, Charkrabarthy R, Acharya G C, 2008. Ganoderma disease of arecanut in Assam. Indian Journal of Arecanut, Spices and Medicinal Plants. 10 (1), 4-7.

Ryvarden L, Johansen I, 1980. A preliminary Polypore flora of East Africa. Oslo, Norway: Fungiflora. 636 pp.

Srinivasulu B, Aruna K, Rao D V R, 2001. Biocontrol of Ganoderma wilt of coconut palm. South Indian Horticulture. 49 (Special), 240-242.

Stoĭchev G, Naĭdenov Ya, 1984. The genus Ganoderma Karst. in Bulgaria. Gorskostopanska Nauka. 21 (3), 83-87.

Szedlay G, Jakucs E, Bóka K, Boldizsár I, 1996. Macro- and micromorphological characteristics of Ganoderma lucidum Karsten strains isolated in Hungary. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici. 57-68.

Tian GuangHui, Lin Juan, Chen WenQiang, Wang Zhi, Zhou XuanWei, 2003. Analysis of volatile oil composition of wild and cultured Ganoderma lucidum. Edible Fungi of China. 22 (2), 48.

Vanitha S, Padidasan V V, 2008. Trunk rot in tamarind (Tamarindus indica) caused by Ganoderma lucidum. Biomed. 3 (1), 42-43.

Verma R K, Rinki Hanwat, Rajput P S, Tiwari C K, 2013. Status of Khair mortality in central India. Indian Forester. 139 (9), 790-796. http://www.indianforester.co.in

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