Gaultheria shallon (salal)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Biology and Ecology
- Latitude/Altitude Ranges
- Air Temperature
- Rainfall Regime
- Soil Tolerances
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Pathway Vectors
- Environmental Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Detection and Inspection
- Prevention and Control
- Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs
- Distribution Maps
Don't need the entire report?
Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.Generate report
PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Gaultheria shallon Pursh
Preferred Common Name
Other Scientific Names
- Brossaea shallon (Pursh) Kuntze
- Shallonium serrulatum Raf.
International Common Names
- English: shallon
Local Common Names
- Germany: shallon-rebhuhnbeere; shallon-scheinbeere
- GAHSH (Gaultheria shallon)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
G. shallon is an ericaceous shrub typically found as part of the understory of coniferous forests in the west coast of North American, from California to Alaska. It can form dense to almost impenetrable thickets that dominate the site, reducing forest regeneration and shadowing native plant species. In its native range it has moderate to low invasiveness. Outside of this range it has been reported as a particular problem in the UK, where it can form dense thickets in acid soils which prevent other more valuable pasture species from establishing. Minor introductions have also been reported in France, Germany, Ireland and New Zealand.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Ericales
- Family: Ericaceae
- Genus: Gaultheria
- Species: Gaultheria shallon
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
The genus Gaultheria was first created by the German American botanist Pehr Kalm in his “Guide of Canada”, in homage to the French Canadian botanist Jean Françoise Gaultier.
The names shallon and salal are of Amerindian origin, probably from the Chinook language sallal, recorded during Lewis and Clack expedition as shelwel, shellwell (Oxford Dictionary, 2014).
DescriptionTop of page
G. shallon is a perennial, evergreen shrub with a growth form from sprawling to erect. G. shallon can reach 0.2-5 m tall, growing strongly from rhizomes. Leaves are evergreen, alternate, round to ovate, pointed, glossy green, with a leathery texture. The lower side of the leaf is rough and lighter green. Each leaf has a base rounded or cordate, margins finely serrulate (with the “teeth” fimbriate apically), apex mucronate/apiculate or aristate, surfaces glabrous, reaching 5-10 cm long (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2015). Young shoots are red. Mature bark and twigs of G. shallon are grayish-brown and smooth. The twigs change angles between each node, giving it a zigzag appearance. The flowers are hermaphroditic (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by insects. The inflorescence consists of a bracteate raceme, one-sided, with 5 to 15 flowers at the ends of branches. Flowers are white to pale pink, urn-shaped and they appear in late spring and early summer. Each flower is composed of a deeply five-parted, glandular-haired calyx and an urn-shaped pink to white, glandular to hairy, five-lobed corolla, 7-10 mm long. Flowers mature to fleshy, reddish to blue, rough-surfaced, hairy, nearly spherical fruit 6-10 mm in diameter (Pojar and MacKinnon, 2004).
Plant TypeTop of page Perennial
DistributionTop of page
The centre of origin of G. shallon comprises the west coast of North America; Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, Oregon and California.
A record for G. shallon in Nei Menggu, China has been reported (CPNWH, 2015) but it is likely that this record is invalid.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|China||Present||CABI (Undated)||Recorded in Nei Menggu. Record likely to be invalid; Original citation: Consortium of Pacific Northwest Herbaria (CNPWH) (2015)|
|France||Present||Introduced||Invasive||EPPO (2014); Meyer (2015)|
|Germany||Present||Introduced||Encyclopedia of Life (2015); CABI (Undated)|
|Ireland||Present||Introduced||1961||Invasive||EPPO (2014)||Introduced in 1961 for food and to provide cover|
|Spain||Present||Introduced||CABI (Undated)||Present in a botanical garden; Original citation: Discover Life (2015)|
|United Kingdom||Present, Widespread||Introduced||1828||Invasive||Pojar and Mackinnon (2004); EPPO (2014); Encyclopedia of Life (2015)|
|Canada||Present||CABI (Undated a)||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-British Columbia||Present||Native||CABI (Undated)||Original citation: Consortium of Pacific Northwest Herbaria (CNPWH) (2015)|
|United States||Present||CABI (Undated a)||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Alaska||Present||Native||CABI (Undated)||Original citation: Consortium of Pacific Northwest Herbaria (CNPWH) (2015)|
|-California||Present||Native||CABI (Undated)||Original citation: Consortium of Pacific Northwest Herbaria (CNPWH) (2015)|
|-Oregon||Present||Native||CABI (Undated)||Original citation: Consortium of Pacific Northwest Herbaria (CNPWH) (2015)|
|-Texas||Present||Introduced||CABI (Undated)||Original citation: Discover Life (2015)|
|-Washington||Present||Native||CABI (Undated)||Original citation: Consortium of Pacific Northwest Herbaria (CNPWH) (2015)|
|Australia||Present||CABI (Undated a)||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Tasmania||Present||Introduced||1972||Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (2014)|
|New Zealand||Present||Introduced||1954||Invasive||Webb et al. (1988)|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
G. shallon was introduced to Britain from North America in 1828 by David Douglas, who intended the plant to be used as an ornamental (Pojar and Mackinnon, 2004). By 1914 it could be seen growing in the wild. After establishing in heathlands as a mild invasive species, its spread was traditionally controlled by cattle ranchers. Probably as a result of these practices and in view of its potential as forage, G. shallon was introduced into Ireland in 1961 (EPPO, 2014).
Further introductions in Europe are likely to be associated with releases from botanical gardens or collectors. In New Zealand is believed that G. shallon has been naturalized since 1946 (Webb et al., 1988). It was introduced into Tasmania, Australia in 1973 where it has also naturalized (Council of Heads of Australaisan Herbaria, 2014).
IntroductionsTop of page
|Introduced to||Introduced from||Year||Reason||Introduced by||Established in wild through||References||Notes|
|Natural reproduction||Continuous restocking|
|Ireland||UK||1961||Forage (pathway cause)||Yes||EPPO (2014)|
|New Zealand||North America||1946-1954||Yes||Webb et al. (1988)|
|UK||North America||1828||Ornamental purposes (pathway cause)||Yes||Pojar and Mackinnon (2004)|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
The risk of G. shallon being introduced into new areas is likely related to its availability in the North American market for ornamental purposes. The risk of spread, however, is probably low east of the Rocky Mountains, as the climatic conditions in continental North America are unfavourable for this species. This species is however readily spread by birds eating the berries and translocating them into new areas.
HabitatTop of page
G. shallon forms thickets at forest edges and in recently cut coniferous to mixed stands, becoming less dense as the tree canopy is more developed. G. shallon tolerates open sun and some shading. If heavily shaded, plants become elongated and eventually die. It grows in the understory, dominant in a variety of lowland to montane, coniferous or mixed evergreen forests. It is often a component in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) or western hemlock-western redcedar (Thuja plicata) forests. In full sun, it forms dense thickets whilst in shade, it is more spindly. It is ericaceous and can tolerate drought, but is not tolerant of severe frost. In the UK it thrives on lowland heath, a rare habitat, which provides acidic soil and is warmer than upland heath.
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial – Managed||Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Disturbed areas||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
|Rail / roadsides||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-natural||Natural forests||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Rocky areas / lava flows||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
|Coastal areas||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Coastal dunes||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
G. shallon affects many pasture species mainly by overshadowing them and forming dense thickets that do not allow other plant species to emerge and grow.
Biology and EcologyTop of page
G. shallon has a chromosome number of 22 (Chinnappa and Chmielewski, 1987).
G. shallon can reproduce both from seed and from vegetative regeneration. However, new seedling establishment is apparently insignificant where plants have already established. In these areas, the expansion of existing clones occurs through layering, sprouting of rhizomes, root suckering and sprouting from the stem base (Haeussler and Coates, 1986).
Physiology and Phenology
G. shallon has a wide native range and through local adaptation it exhibits variable annual and geographic phenological development. Plants generally flower in late spring or early summer, from May to July (Kruckeberger, 1982). Fruit ripening occurs from August through to October and fruits may persist on the stem until December (Whittaker, 1954; Dimock et al., 1974; Haeussler and Coates, 1986).
This species is an evergreen woody shrub that once established expands vigorously from rhizomes. Longevity of individual plants is unknown, but the clones remain on site many decades.
G. shallon can be found on soils derived from a wide range of parent rocks, including diorite, breccia and basalt, serpentine, granite and metamorphic rock (Whittaker, 1954; Whittaker, 1960; Sawyer et al., 1977; Halverson et al., 1986). Elevation ranges from sea level to approximately 1000 m, with the limit lowering in the northern reaches of the distribution limit. Generally, G. shallon grows better on moist sandy or peaty soils, but it can be found on a wide variety of mineral and organic soils, including shallow rocky soils, sand dunes, coarse alluvium, glacial till and peat (Hawk and Zobel, 1974; Haussler and Coates, 1986). G. shallon requires little nutrients and it can grow on poor to moderately rich soils (Klinka et al., 1989; Prescott et al., 2003). This shrub prefers soils with a neutral to slightly acid pH, but it can grow well in acid soils up until pH 4.0. The growth form of G. shallon can change depending on site conditions, with plants assuming a dwarfed or mat-like growth form on shallow, droughty soils. G. shallon commonly grows on decaying wood and stumps. It can also grow as an epiphyte on living trees in extremely humid areas (Hauessler and Coates, 1986).
Preferred habitats for G. shallon are sunny edges, dappled shade or shady edges of woodlands. G. shallon grows in cool, humid to perhumid, mesothermal climates (Klinka et al., 1985, 1989). Winters are typically mild with little snow accumulation (Haussler and Coates, 1986). G. shallon reaches its greatest size and abundance in the foggy maritime temperate forests along the Pacific Coast (van Meter, 1985). Plants can survive to temperatures as low as -15 ºC, but they are sensitive to frost (Haussler and Coates, 1986).
ClimateTop of page
|C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate||Preferred||Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C|
|Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year|
|Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer||Tolerated||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers|
|Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter||Tolerated||Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)|
|Df - Continental climate, wet all year||Tolerated||Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)|
Latitude/Altitude RangesTop of page
|Latitude North (°N)||Latitude South (°S)||Altitude Lower (m)||Altitude Upper (m)|
Air TemperatureTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit|
|Absolute minimum temperature (ºC)||-15|
Rainfall RegimeTop of page Winter
Soil TolerancesTop of page
- seasonally waterlogged
Special soil tolerances
Natural enemiesTop of page
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
A number of fungal pathogens have been reported on G. shallon. These include, Phoma exigua [Boeremia exigua] Phyllosticta gaultheriae and Phyllostic pyrolae [Mycosphaerella pyrolae] (Shamou and Zhao, 2005; Zhao and Shamou, 2006).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
G. shallon is naturally dispersed over short distances through the production of rhizomes.
The berries are attractive to birds and are consumed and excreted into new areas facilitating its spread.
G. shallon was introduced into the British Isles as forage and cattle cover in the early nineteenth century and again in mid twentieth century. It was also planted for game cover in woods and on heaths. It was also introduced into botanical gardens for ornamental purposes where it has since escaped.
Pathway CausesTop of page
Pathway VectorsTop of page
|Host and vector organisms||Seeds transported to new areas after ingestion and egestion by birds||Yes||Plant Life, 2015|
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Impact on Habitats
G. shallon is a strong competitor for nutrients. In nutrient poor sites it can outcompete trees or other shrubs by being the first species to reach and use the available nutrients (especially nitrogen), reducing other species growth (Prescott et al., 2003; Prescott and Sajedi, 2008). G. shallon can also influence the mineralization of nitrogen through the release of tannins (Prescott et al., 1996).
Impact on Biodiversity
G. shallon can form dense thickets through the development of suckers from roots and rhizomes. As a result, G. shallon can rapidly take over large areas as the thickets can shade out any vegetation underneath and provide very little growing space for other species. This can decrease plant diversity in particular that of shade intolerant species.
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Invasive in its native range
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Has a broad native range
- Abundant in its native range
- Tolerant of shade
- Highly mobile locally
- Long lived
- Has high reproductive potential
- Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
- Reproduces asexually
- Damaged ecosystem services
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Modification of nutrient regime
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Negatively impacts forestry
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Competition - shading
- Competition - smothering
- Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
UsesTop of page
In the Pacific Northwest, G. shallon is the heart of a local but important industry of cut flowers and therefore has some economic value. Wild G. shallon boughs are harvested and used as a floral green in floral arrangements (Ballard and Huntsinger, 2006).
G. shallon berries were a large component of traditional North American diets due to their abundance and ease of harvest. Several tribes have used the berries as part of feasts, mixed with salmon eggs and the leaves as hunger suppressant (Pojar and MacKinnon, 2004). G. shallon can be sustainably harvested for a large number of years before the growth of the plant is reduced, as it is frugal in nutrient needs and regenerates quickly. G. shallon berries taste similar to, the bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus), another member of the Ericaceae family. Fruits can be eaten raw, cooked or dried for later use (Grieve, 1971; Hedrick, 1972; Simmons, 1972; Facciola, 1998; Pojar and Mackinnon, 2004). Dried fruits are used as sweeteners and in jams, preservatives, or drinks (Facciola, 1998). The leaves can be used for making tea (Turner, 1979). Several traditional and natural dyes have been created from G. shallon. From the berries it is possible to obtain a dark purple dye and green-yellow dye from the infusion of the leaves (Moerman and Eierman, 1998).
In traditional medicine, G. shallon has been used as an astringent, a poultice and a stomach tonic. The poultice consists of a mixture of the toasted, pulverized leaves. The plaster can be applied to cuts and insect bites and leaves can be chewed and applied to burns and sores. The stomach tonic is made from an infusion of the leaves and helps to reduce internal inflammation such as stomach ulcers, heart burn, treat diarrhea, period pain, coughs and tuberculosis (Moerman and Eierman, 1998).
Environmental services within forest and wetland ecosystems provided by G. shallon in its native range include supporting services such as primary production, nutrient recycling and soil formation, regulating services such as carbon sequestration, erosion control and soil stability and hydrological stabilization. Mammals which may use the berries as food include the red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris), Townsend's chipmunk (Neotamias townsendii), Douglas' squirrel (Tamiasciurus douglasii) and the black bear (Ursus americanus). In the UK cattle will also feed on the berries. In its native range the fruit are a good food source for birds such as the blue grouse (Dendragapus species) and the band-tailed pigeon (Patagioenas fasciata). In addition to this, in both its native and introduced range many species of songbirds feed on the fruit when available. Hummingbirds may also feed on the flowers.
G. shallon is also an important plant in gardening, especially in its native range and in many parts of North America. It is often used as a ground cover plant for a shady position under trees which spreads slowly by means of suckers (Brickell, 2010). G. shallon may also be used to make green fences for which seedlings should be spaced about 90 cm apart each way (Thomas, 1970). The reason for this is that G. shallon can grow very rapidly and densely. G. shallon is often used to “deer-proof” gardens as the foliage is very dense and usuaally not favored by deer. However, other thicket forming species may better serve in this role
Uses ListTop of page
Animal feed, fodder, forage
- Invertebrate food
- Erosion control or dune stabilization
- Land reclamation
- Botanical garden/zoo
Human food and beverage
- Beverage base
- Emergency (famine) food
- Leaves (for beverage)
Detection and InspectionTop of page
G. shallon can be identified using the 'Key to Genera and Species for Ericaceous' plants provided by the Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2015).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
Outside of its native range it is important that foresters, cattle ranchers, protected areas managers and the general public are made aware of the existence of this shrub in the regions that they work so they can try to control its spread.
Mechanical control is often ineffective with G. shallon owing to its capacity to sprout from rhizomes. In fact, if applied carelessly it may be counter effective and increase spread (USDA Forest Service, 2015).
Fire is not recommended as an eradication measure, as fire can consume the aboveground part, but the shrub can survive by regeneration from the underground structures (Yerkes, 1960; Hawkes et al., 1990).
Control of this species by biological control is currently being considered. Potential biocontrol agents include a number of fungal pathogens identified as natural enemies of G. shallon (Shamoun and Zhao, 2005; Zhao and Shamoun, 2006).
In the UK, cattle ranching can be used to break continuous thickets and reduce G. shallon to a mere component of heathland vegetation.
Fertilization in mixed forests with presence of G. shallon ensures adequate levels of nutrients for trees and other canopy vegetation, reducing the competitive effect of G. shallon (Prescott et al., 2003; Blanco, 2007). G. shallon is resistant to many herbicides including 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, amitrole, picloram and silvex (fenoprop) (Stewart, 1974a; Bovery, 1977; Otchera-Boateng and Herming, 1990). Mode of herbicide application, season and site characteristics all have a great influence on the response of G. shallon to herbicides (Stewart, 1974b; D’anjou, 1990). Herbicides are however often impractical or prohibitively expensive to be effective, owing to the need for repeated application. G. shallon is most susceptible to foliage sprays at budbreak, although many plants recover later from damage (Stewart, 1974b).
Gaps in Knowledge/Research NeedsTop of page
Additional research on the ability to reduce the spread of G. shallon through changes in soil fertility (fertilization and other soil amendments, planting of preferred species) is recommended.
ReferencesTop of page
Ballard HL; Huntsinger L, 2006. Salal harvester local ecological knowledge, harvest practices and understory management on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington. Human Ecology, 34(4):529-547. http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=101592
Blanco JA, 2007. The representation of allelopathy in ecosystem-level forest models. Ecological Modelling, 209(2/4):65-77. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VBS-4P9K982-1&_user=10&_coverDate=12%2F16%2F2007&_rdoc=1&_fmt=summary&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%235934%232007%23997909997%23673370%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=5934&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=28&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=df21a9d83e096916b4110e822e18707d
Brickell C, 2010. RHS Encyclopedia of plants and flowers. London, UK: DK Publishing, 744 pp.
Chinappa CC; Chmielewski JG, 1987. Documented plant chromosome numbers 1987: 1. miscellaneous counts from Western north America. SIDA, Contributions to Botany, 12(2):409-417.
Consortium of Pacific Northwest Herbaria, 2015. Herbarium specimens from the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, Washington, USA: University of Washington Herbarium, Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture. http://www.pnwherbaria.org/
Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2014. Australia's virtual herbarium, Australia. http://avh.ala.org.au
D'Anjou B, 1990. Control of salal. FRDA Report, 109. Victoria, British Columbia, Canada: Canadian Forestry Service, 25-26.
Dimock EJ; Johnston WF; Stein WI, 1974. Gaultheria L. wintergreen. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 450 [ed. by Schopmeyer, C. S.]. Washington, USA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, 422-426.
Discover Life, 2015. Discover life. http://www.discoverlife.org/
Encyclopedia of Life, 2015. Encyclopedia of Life. www.eol.org
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Facciola S, 1998. Cornucopia - a source book of edible plants. Vista, California: Kampong Publications, 713 pp.
Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of North America North of Mexico. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
Halverson NM; Topik C; Vickle Rvan, 1986. Plant association and management guide for the western hemlock zone: Mt. Hood National Forest. Portland, Oregon, USA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, 139 pp.
Hedrick UP, 1972. Sturtevant´s edible plants of the world. New York, USA: Dover Publications, 775 pp.
Hpussler S; Coates D, 1986. Autecological characteristics of selected species that compete with conifers in British Columbia: a literature review. FRDA Report (Victoria, B.C.) Canada; Canadian Forestry Service/British Columbia Ministry of Forests and Lands, No. 001:vi + 180 pp.
Kruckeberg AR, 1982. Gardening with native plants of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, USA: University of Washington Press, 288 pp.
Meter Mvan, 1975. Propagation of Gaultheria shallon (salal). Combined Proceedings of the International Plant Propagators Society, 25:77-78.
Meyer T, 2015. [English title not available]. (Flora von Deutschland.) . Günzburg, Germany. http://www.blumeninschwaben.de/index.htm
Otchere-Boateng J; Herring LJ, 1990. Site preparation: chemical. In: Lavender DP, Parish R, Johnson CM, Montgomery G, Vyse A, Willis RA, Winston D, eds. Regenerating British Columbia's forests. Vancouver, Canada: University of British Columbia Press.
Oxford Dictionary, 2014. Oxford dictionaries language matters. Oxford, Uk: Oxford University Press. http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/
Plant Life, 2015. Plant life online database. Sailsbury, UK: Plantlife. http://www.plantlife.org.uk/
Pojar J; Mackinnon A, 2004. Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast., USA: Lone Pine Publishing, 528 pp.
Prescott CE; Coward LP; Weetman GF; Gessel SP, 2003. Effects of repeated nitrogen fertilization on the ericaceous shrub, salal (Gaultheria shallon), in two coastal Douglas-fir forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 61(1-2):45-60.
Prescott CE; Sajedi T, 2008. The role of salal in forest regeneration problems in coastal British Columbia: problem or symptom? Forestry Chronicle [Today's silviculture: tomorrow's forest. Symposium of the Forestry and Industrial Working Group of the Canadian Weed Science Society, Victoria, BC, Canada, 28-29 November 2006.], 84(1):29-36. http://www.nrc.ca/cisti/journals/tfc/TFC.html
Sawyer JO; Thornburgh DA; Griffin JR, 1977. Mixed evergreen forest. In: Terrestrial vegetation of California [ed. by Barbour, M. G. \Major, J.]. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 359-381.
Stewart RE, 1974. Budbreak sprays for site preparation and release from six coastal brush species. USDA Forest Service Research Paper, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, No. PNW-176. 20 pp.
Thomas GS, 1970. Plants for ground cover. London, UK: Dent, 500 pp.
Turner N, 1979. Edible wild fruits and nuts of Canada (edible wild plants of Canada). Ottawa, Canada: National Museum of Natural Sciences, 212 pp.
USDA Forest Service, 2015. Fire effects information system., USA: USDA. http://www.feis-crs.org/beta/
Weber A; Kimmins JP; Gilbert B; Lo YuehHsin; Blanco JA, 2014. Multiple-pathway succession in coastal Tsuga heterophylla, Thuja plicata, and Abies amabilis forests on northeastern Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 44(10):1145-1155. http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/full/10.1139/cjfr-2014-0060
Whittaker RH, 1954. The ecology of serpentine soils: IV. The vegetational response to serpentine soils. Ecology, 35(2):275-288.
Yerkes VP, 1960. Occurrence of shrubs and herbaceous vegetation after clear cutting old-growth Douglas-Fir in the Oregon Cascades. Research Papers. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, No. 34:12.
Zhao ShiGuang; Shamoun SF, 2006. Effects of culture media, temperature, pH, and light on growth, sporulation, germination, and bioherbicidal efficacy of Phoma exigua, a potential biological control agent for salal (Gaultheria shallon). Biocontrol Science and Technology, 16(9/10):1043-1055.
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2014. Australia's virtual herbarium., Australia: http://avh.ala.org.au
Encyclopedia of Life, 2015. Encyclopedia of Life., http://www.eol.org
EPPO, 2014. EPPO Global database (available online). Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/
Meyer T, 2015. [English title not available]. (Flora von Deutschland)., Günzburg, Germany: http://www.blumeninschwaben.de/index.htm
Pojar J, Mackinnon A, 2004. Plants of the Pacific Northwest Coast., USA: Lone Pine Publishing. 528 pp.
Webb C J, Sykes W R, Garnock-Jones P J, 1988. Flora of New Zealand, Volume IV: Naturalised pteridophytes, gymnosperms, dicotyledons. Christchurch, New Zealand: Botany Division, DSIR. 1365 pp. http://floraseries.landcareresearch.co.nz/pages/Book.aspx?fileName=Flora%204.xml
ContributorsTop of page
22/04/15 Original text by:
Yueh-Hsin Lo, Universidad Pública de Navarra, Spain.
Distribution MapsTop of page
Unsupported Web Browser:
One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser.
More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/