Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici
(Fusarium crown rot)

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Datasheet

Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici (Fusarium crown rot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Fusarium crown rot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Sordariomycetes
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici Jarvis & Shoemaker

Preferred Common Name

  • Fusarium crown rot

International Common Names

  • Spanish: Fusarium del tomate
  • French: maladie de la pourriture des racines

Local Common Names

  • Canada: crown and foot rot
  • France: pourriture brune
  • Italy: il marciume basale del pomodoro

EPPO code

  • FUSARL (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopers

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Sordariomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Hypocreomycetidae
  •                         Order: Hypocreales
  •                             Family: Nectriaceae
  •                                 Genus: Fusarium
  •                                     Species: Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 12 May 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresent, Few occurrences
South AfricaPresent
TunisiaPresent

Asia

IranPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent
-HokkaidoPresent
TurkeyPresent
United Arab EmiratesPresent, Localized

Europe

BulgariaPresent, Localized
GreecePresent
-CretePresent
ItalyPresent
-SardiniaPresent
MaltaPresent
SpainPresent, Localized

North America

CanadaPresent
-OntarioPresent
MexicoAbsent, Intercepted only
United StatesPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-FloridaPresent, Localized
-MississippiPresent, Widespread
-OhioPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent, Localized

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-QueenslandPresent, Localized
-Western AustraliaPresent, Widespread

South America

BrazilPresent, Localized
ChilePresent

Growth Stages

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Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / rot of wood
Stems / internal discoloration
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Fusarium oxysporum Pathogen Fungi|Hyphae UK
Glomus intraradices Antagonist
Trichoderma harzianum Antagonist Fungi|Hyphae UK

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Soil, sand and gravelMycelium, chlamydospores Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)

References

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Abdalla ME, Elwakil MA, Mathur SB, 1998. Fusarium Oxysporum associated with tomato seeds in Egypt. World Wide Web page at www.bspp.org.uk/icpp98/abstracts/4.8/6.html.

Agriculture Western Australia, 2000. 64. Part of Highway to Horticulture CD - Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici) of tomatoes. Part of Farmnote no. 93/91 URL: www.agric.wa.gov.au/agency/Pubns/H2H/5c72d27.htm.

Alabouvette C, Schippers B, Lemanceau P, Bakker PAHM, 1998. Biological control of fusarium wilts: towards development of commercial products. In: Boland GJ, Kuykendall LD, eds. Plant-Microbe Interactions and Biological Control. New York, USA: Marcel Dekker, 15-36.

Al-Ahmad M, 1994. Disease and pest outbreaks. United Arab Emirates. First record of Fusarium crown rot on tomato in UAE. Arab and Near East Plant Protection Newsletter, No. 19:39.

Apodaca-Sánchez MA, Zavaleta-Mejía E, García Espinoza RO, 1994. Effect of six crops on crown and root rot of tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. f.sp. radicis-lycopersici Jarvis & Shoemaker. Fitopatología, 29(1):86-93; 23 ref.

Armstrong GM, Armstrong JK, 1981. Formae speciales and races of Fusarium oxysporum causing wilt diseases. In: Nelson PE, Toussoun A, Cook RJ, eds. Fusarium: diseases, biology and taxonomy. University Park, Pennsylvania, USA and London, UK: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 391-399.

Bakker PAHM, Raaijmakers JM, Schippers B, 1998. Siderophore receptor as a marker to track fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. In: Akkermans ADL, Elsas JD Van, Bruijn FJ De, eds. Molecular Microbial Ecology Manual 6.1.4. Dordrecht, Germany: Kluwer, 1-9.

Benhamou N, Kloepper JW, Tuzun S, 1998. Induction of resistance against Fusarium wilt of tomato by combination of chitosan with an endophytic bacterial strain: ultrastructure and cytochemistry of the host response. Planta, 204(2):153-168; 38 ref.

Benhamou N, Lafontaine PJ, Nicole M, 1994. Induction of systemic resistance to Fusarium crown and root rot in tomato plants by seed treatment with chitosan. Phytopathology, 84(12):1432-1444; 43 ref.

Benhamou N, Rey P, Chérif M, Hockenhull J, Tirilly Y, 1997. Treatment with the mycoparasite Pythium oligandrum triggers induction of defense-related reactions in tomato roots when challenged with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici. Phytopathology, 87(1):108-122; 45 ref.

Benhamou N, Rey P, Cherif M, Hockenhull J, Tirilly Y, 1997. Treatment with the mycoparasite Pythium oligandrum triggers induction of defense-related reactions in tomato roots when challenged with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici. Sainte-Foy, Quebec, Canada: Université Laval. Phytopathology, 87(1):108-122.

Blondeel R, Jamart G, Kamoen O, 1991. Epidemiology of Fusarium oxysporum radicis lycopersici.. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 56(2b):369-373; 7 ref.

Bochow H, 1992. Phytosanitary effects of Bacillus subtilis as biocontrol agent. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 57(2b):387-393; 11 ref.

Bochow H, Dolej S, Lyr H (ed. ), Russell PE (ed.), Dehne HW (ed.), Sisler HD, 1999. Mechanisms of tolerance induction in plants by root colonising Bacillus subtilis isolates. Modern fungicides and antifungal compounds II. 12th International Reinhardsbrunn Symposium, Friedrichroda, Thuringia, Germany, 24-29 May 1998. Andover, UK: Intercept Limited, 411-416.

Boer M De, Sluis I Van der, Loon LC Van, Bakker PAHM, 1998. In vitro compatibility between fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. strains can increase effectivity of Fusarium wilt control by combinations of these strains. In: Duffy BK, Rosenberger U, DJfago G, eds. Molecular Approaches to Biological Control. IOBC/wprs Bulletin 21(9):257-262.

Bourbos VA, Skoudridakis MT, 1991. Control of tomato brown root rot in the greenhouse using soil solarization. Bulletin SROP, 14(5):172-177; 11 ref.

Brayford D, 1996. IMI descriptions of fungi and bacteria, Set No. 127, Nos. 1261-1270. Mycopathologia, 133(1):33-63.

Can C, Yucel S, Korolev N, Katan T, 2004. First report of fusarium crown and root rot of tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici in Turkey. Plant Pathology, 53(6):814. http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/ppa

Caron M, Fortin JA, Richard C, 1986. Effect of phosphorus concentration and Glomus intraradices on Fusarium crown and root rot of tomatoes. Phytopathology, 76(9):942-946; 18 ref.

Cartia G, Di Primo P, 1999. Alternatives to soil fumigation with methyl bromide for the control of soilborne plant pathogens in Southern Italy. Abstracts of papers of the Seventh SIPaV Annual Meeting Piacenza, 23-24 September 1999, Plant Pathology and Sustainable Agriculture. Universita di Reggio Calabria, Gallina, Italy: Dipartimento di Agrochimica e Agrobiologia.

Chin-A-Woeng TFC, Bloemberg GV, Bij AJvan der, Drift KMGMvan der, Schripsema J, Kroon B, Scheffer RJ, Keel C, Bakker PAHM, Tichy HV, Bruijn FJde, Thomas-Oates JE, Lugtenberg BJJ, 1998. Biocontrol by phenazine-1-carboxamide-producing Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1391 of tomato root rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 11(11):1069-1077; 43 ref.

CMI, 1984. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, 559. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Dolej S, 1998. Effects of metabolites from the rhizobacterium Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn in the pathosystem tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) - Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici Jarvis & Shoemaker. Dissertation. Humboldt-UniversitSt zu Berlin, Landw.-GSrtn. FakultSt.

Duffy BK, Défago G, 1999. Macro- and microelement fertilizers influence the severity of Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato in a soilless production system. HortScience, 34(2):287-291; 34 ref.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Eshel D, Gamliel A, Katan J, Grinstein A, 1999. Evaluation of soil fumigants on soilborne fungal pathogens in a controlled-environment system and in soil. Crop Protection, 18(7):437-443; 22 ref.

Estrada Ramírez FJ, Leyva Mir GS, 1990. Aetiology of the crown and root rot of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) in Sinaloa and San Luis Potosi^tail~, and research on sources of resistance to the pathogen. Revista Chapingo, 15(67-68):13-16; 8 ref.

Farr DF, Bills GF, Chamuris GP, Rossman AY, 1989. Fungi on Plants and Plant Products in the United States. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, 1252 pp.

Fazio G, Stevens MR, Scott JW, 1999. Identification of RAPD markers linked to Fusarium crown and root rot resistance (Frl) in tomato. Euphytica, 105(3):205-210; 31 ref.

Franceschini A, Maddau L, Corda P, Ionta G, 1996. Observations on Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato and its control in Sardinia. [Osservazioni sul 'marciume basale' del pomodoro e sui relativi mezzi di lota in Sardegna]. Difesa delle Piante, 19(4):125-138.

Gillespie DR, Menzies JG, 1993. Fungus gnats vector Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici. Annals of Applied Biology, 123(3):539-544; 21 ref.

Hajlaoui MR, Hamza N, Gargouri S, Guermech A, 2001. Appearance in Tunisia of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, causing root and collar rot of tomato. (Apparition en Tunisie de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, agent de la pourriture des racines et du collet de la tomate.) Bulletin OEPP, 31(4):505-507.

Hartman JR, Fletcher JT, 1991. Fusarium crown and root rot of tomatoes in the UK. Plant Pathology, 40(1):85-92; 17 ref.

Honda N, Hirai M, Ano T, Shoda M, 1999. Control of tomato damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani by the heterotrophic nitrifier Alcaligenes faecalis and its product, hydroxylamine. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 65(2):153-162; 41 ref.

Ilieva E, Vuchev T, 2000. Fusarium Species on Greenhouse Tomatoes in Bulgaria. World Wide Web page at http://genome.cornell.edu/tgc/newsletters/vol42/v42p18b.html.

Jacobs A, Heerden SWvan, 2012. First report of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici in South Africa. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 7(1):29-32. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-011-0039-1/fulltext.html

Jamart G, Bakonyi J, Kamoen O, 1994. UV disinfection of recirculating nutrient solution in closed horticulture systems. Mededelingen - Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 59(3a):1071-1078; 16 ref.

Jarvis WR, Thorpe HJ, 1981. Control of fusarium foot and root rot of tomato by soil amendment with lettuce residues. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 3(3):159-162

Jones JP, Woltz SS, Scott JW, 1990. Factors affecting development of Fusarium crown rot of tomato. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 103:142-148; 5 ref.

Katan T, Shlevin E, Katan J, 1997. Sporulation of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici on stem surfaces of tomato plants and aerial dissemination of inoculum. Phytopathology, 87(7):712-719; 36 ref.

Killebrew F, Willcutt H, Harris P, 2000. Greenhouse Tomatoes: Pest Management in Mississippi. World Wide Web page at http://ext.msstate.edu/pubs/pub1861.htm.

Kourany E, Arnason JT, 1988. Accumulation of phototoxic thiophenes in Tagetes erecta (Asteraceae) elicited by Fusarium oxysporum.. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 33(2):287-297; 26 ref.

Kusunoki M, Tezuka N, 1994. The pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici to several plants. Proceedings of the Kansai Plant Protection Society, No. 36:1-6; 11 ref.

Laterrot H, 1998. Disease resistance in tomato: present situation and hopes. World Conference of Horticultural Research, 17-20 June, 1998, Rome, Italy. Avignon, France: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique. World Wide Web page at http://pop.agrsci.unibo.it/wchr/wc2/laterrot.html.

Lemanceau P, Alabouvette C, 1991. Biological control of Fusarium diseases by the association of fluorescent Pseudomonas and non-pathogenic Fusarium.. Bulletin SROP, 14(8):45-50; 6 ref.

Louter JH, Edgington LV, 1990. Indications of cross-protection against Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 12(3):283-288; 26 ref.

MacHardy WE, Beckman CH, 1981. Vascular wilt fusaria: infection and pathogenesis. In: Nelson PE, Toussoun A, Cook RJ, eds. Fusarium: diseases, biology and taxonomy. University Park, Pennsylvania, USA and London, UK: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 365-390.

Matsusaki M, Yamada M, 1997. Suppressive effects against crown and root rot in tomatoes by application of microbial improving materials. Research Bulletin of the Aichi-ken Agricultural Research Center, No. 29, 145-149.

Mazollier C, 1999. Grafting of tomatoes under protected cultivation. PHM Revue Horticole, No. 404:44-48.

McGovern RJ, Vavrina CS, Noling JW, Datnoff LA, Yonce HD, 1998. Evaluation of application methods of metam sodium for management of fusarium crown and root rot in tomato in southwest Florida. Plant Disease, 82(8):919-923; 32 ref.

Menzies JG, Jarvis WR, 1994. The infestation of tomato seed by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici. Plant Pathology, 43(2):378-386; 23 ref.

Menzies JG, Koch C, Seywerd F, 1990. Additions to the host range of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici.. Plant Disease, 74(8):569-572; 20 ref.

Mihuta-Grimm L, Erb WA, Rowe RC, 1990. Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato in greenhouse rock wool systems: sources of inoculum and disease management with benomyl. Plant Disease, 74(12):996-1002; 11 ref.

Moss MO, Smith JE, 1984. The applied mycology of Fusarium. Symposium of the British Mycological Society held at Queen Mary College, London, September 1982. The applied mycology of Fusarium. Symposium of the British Mycological Society held at Queen Mary College, London, September 1982., x + 264pp.; [British Mycological Society Symposium 7].

M'Piga P, Bélanger RR, Paulitz TC, Benhamou N, 1997. Increased resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici in tomato plants treated with the endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain 63-28. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 50(5):301-320; 35 ref.

Nelson PE, Toussoun TA, Cook RJ, ed. , 1981. Fusarium: diseases, biology and taxonomy. Fusarium: diseases, biology and taxonomy. Pennsylvania State University Press. University Park, Pa. USA, xi + 457 pp.

Pirayesh, S., Zamanizadeh, H., Morid, B., 2018. Molecular identification of physiological races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and radicis lycopersici causal agent of Fusarium wilt of tomato in Iran. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 20(1), 193-202. http://jast.modares.ac.ir/article-23-4759-en.pdf

Porta-Puglia A, Mifsud D, 2005. First record of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici in Malta. Journal of Plant Pathology, 87(2):150.

Primo Pdi, Cartia G, 2001. Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato (FCRR) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL) in South Italy. 1. Investigation on the pathogen occurrence into FCRR affected greenhouses. (Marciume del colletto e della radice su pomodoro al sud.) Colture Protette, 30(8):77-80.

Raabe RD, Conners IL, Martinez AP, 1981. Checklist of plant diseases in Hawaii. Hawaii, USA: College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii, 313 pp. [Information Text Series No. 22.]

Ramsey MD, O'Brien RG, Pegg KG, 1992. Fusarium oxysporum associated with wilt and root rot of tomato in Queensland; races and vegetative compatibility groups. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 32(5):651-655; 16 ref.

Reddy MS, Campbell SE, Young SE, Brown G, 1991. Greenhouse evaluation of rhizobacteria for the suppression of crown and root rot of tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici.. Bulletin SROP, 14(8):39-44; 7 ref.

Ricker MD, 1987. Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato in Pennsylvania. Plant Disease, 71(5):469; 2 ref.

Rodeva V, Stancheva J, 1998. Response of tomato varieties, breeding lines and somaclones to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 4(4):429-433; 7 ref.

Rosewich UL, Pettway R, Kistler CH, Katan T, 1998. Population genetics and microevolution of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici populations from Florida and Europe 8th International Fusarium Workshop, 17-20 August 1998. Egham, UK: CABI Bioscience. World Wide Web page at http://pages.hotbot.com/edu/fusarium/KISTLER.html.

Sarfatti M, Abu-Abied M, Zamir D, 1990. Fusarium resistance genes in tomato. Proceedings of the XIth Eucarpia meeting on tomato genetics and breeding, 15-18; 16 ref.

Sepúlveda-Chavera G, Huanca W, Salvatierra-Martínez R, Latorre BA, 2014. First report of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 and F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici in tomatoes in the Azapa Valley of Chile. Plant Disease, 98(10):1432-1433. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Sivan A, Chet I, 1993. Integrated control of Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato with Trichoderma harzianum in combination with methyl bromide or soil solarization. Crop Protection, 12(5):380-386; 23 ref.

Sivan A, Ucko O, Chet I, 1987. Biological control of Fusarium crown rot of tomato by Trichoderma harzianum under field conditions. Plant Disease, 71(7):587-592; 27 ref.

Smith TK, Graca Sousadias M, 1993. Fusaric acid content of swine feedstuffs. Journal of Agricultural Chemistry, 41:2296-2298.

Smolinska U, Horbowicz M, 1999. Fungicidal activity of volatiles from selected cruciferous plants against resting propagules of soil-borne fungal pathogens. Journal of Phytopathology, 147(2):119-124; 24 ref.

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Takacs A, Dolej S, 1998. The effect of the resistance activator "BION" on the relationship Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici-tomato. [A "BION" rezisztenciaaktivator Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici-paradicsom kapcsolatra gyakorolt hatasanak a vizsgalata]. Novenyvedelem, 34(5):257-259.

Toussoun TA, Nelson PE, 1976. A pictorial guide to the identification of Fusarium species according to the taxonomic system of Snyder and Hansen. A pictorial guide to the identification of Fusarium species according to the taxonomic system of Snyder and Hansen. Pennsylvania State University Press. University Park, Pennsylvania USA, Ed. 2:43 pp.

Tu JC, Zheng JM, 1994. Comparison of several biological agents and benomyl in the control of Fusarium crown and root rot of tomatoes. Mededelingen - Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 59(3a):951-958; 21 ref.

Vakalounakis DJ, Laterrot H, Moretti A, Ligoxigakis EK, Smardas K, 1997. Linkage between Frl (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici resistance) and Tm-2 (tobacco mosaic virus resistance-2) loci in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Annals of Applied Biology, 130(2):319-323; 17 ref.

Validov SZ, Lugtenberg BJJ, Kamilova F, 2009. Diagnosis of tomato foot and root rot by quantification of Fusarium oxysporum in plant material. Acta Horticulturae [Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Tomato Diseases, Kusadasi, Turkey, 8-12 October 2007.], No.808:29-32. http://www.actahort.org

Vanachter A, 1990. Some important disease problems in tomato growing in Belgium during the season - 1990. Parasitica, 46(2-3):89-91.

Vidhyasekaran P, 1990. Mycorrhiza induced resistance, a mechanism for management of crop diseases. Current trends in mycorrhizal research. Proceedings of the National Conference on Mycorrhiza, held at Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, India, Feb. 14-16, 1990., 91-93; 14 ref.

Woltz SS, Jones JP, Scott JW, 1992. Sodium chloride, nitrogen source, and lime influence Fusarium crown rot severity in tomato. HortScience, 27(10):1087-1088; 9 ref.

Yu JQ, Komada H, 1999. Hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa) bark, a substrate with anti-pathogen properties that suppress some root diseases of tomato. Scientia Horticulturae, 81(1):13-24; 17 ref.

Yu JQ, Komada H, Yokoyama H, Yamamoto M, Terada T, Matsui Y, 1997. Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) bark, a potential growth substrate for soilless culture with bioactivity against some soilborne diseases. Journal of Horticultural Science, 72(6):989-996; 23 ref.

Distribution References

Abdalla ME, Elwakil MA, Mathur SB, 1998. Fusarium Oxysporum associated with tomato seeds in Egypt., http://www.bspp.org.uk/icpp98/abstracts/4.8/6.html

Agriculture Western Australia, 2000. Part of Highway to Horticulture CD - Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici) of tomatoes. Part of Farmnote no. 93/91., 64. http://www.agric.wa.gov.au/agency/Pubns/H2H/5c72d27.htm

Al-Ahmad M, 1994. Disease and pest outbreaks. United Arab Emirates. First record of Fusarium crown rot on tomato in UAE. Arab and Near East Plant Protection Newsletter. 39.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Cabral C S, Gonçalves A M, Fonseca M E N, Urben A F, Costa H, Lourenço V, Boiteux L S, Reis A, 2020. First detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici across major tomato-producing regions in Brazil. Phytoparasitica. 48 (4), 545-553. DOI:10.1007/s12600-020-00824-5

Can C, Yucel S, Korolev N, Katan T, 2004. First report of fusarium crown and root rot of tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici in Turkey. Plant Pathology. 53 (6), 814. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2004.01087.x

EPPO, 2022. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. 1 pp. https://gd.eppo.int/

Franceschini A, Maddau L, Corda P, Ionta G, 1996. Observations on Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato and its control in Sardinia. (Osservazioni sul 'marciume basale' del pomodoro e sui relativi mezzi di lota in Sardegna.). Difesa delle Piante. 19 (4), 125-138.

Hajlaoui M R, Hamza N, Gargouri S, Guermech A, 2001. Appearance in Tunisia of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, causing root and collar rot of tomato. (Apparition en Tunisie de Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, agent de la pourriture des racines et du collet de la tomate.). Bulletin OEPP. 31 (4), 505-507. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2338.2001.tb01034.x

Ilieva E, Vuchev T, 2000. Fusarium Species on Greenhouse Tomatoes in Bulgaria., http://genome.cornell.edu/tgc/newsletters/vol42/v42p18b.html

Jacobs A, Heerden S W van, 2012. First report of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici in South Africa. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 7 (1), 29-32. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-011-0039-1/fulltext.html DOI:10.1007/s13314-011-0039-1

Killebrew F, Willcutt H, Harris P, 2000. Greenhouse Tomatoes: Pest Management in Mississippi., http://ext.msstate.edu/pubs/pub1861.htm

Pirayesh S, Zamanizadeh H, Morid B, 2018. Molecular identification of physiological races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and radicis lycopersici causal agent of Fusarium wilt of tomato in Iran. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology. 20 (1), 193-202. http://jast.modares.ac.ir/article-23-4759-en.pdf

Porta-Puglia A, Mifsud D, 2005. First record of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici in Malta. Journal of Plant Pathology. 87 (2), 150.

Primo P di, Cartia G, 2001. Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato (FCRR) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL) in South Italy. 1. Investigation on the pathogen occurrence into FCRR affected greenhouses. (Marciume del colletto e della radice su pomodoro al sud.). Colture Protette. 30 (8), 77-80.

Ramsey M D, O'Brien R G, Pegg K G, 1992. Fusarium oxysporum associated with wilt and root rot of tomato in Queensland; races and vegetative compatibility groups. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 32 (5), 651-655. DOI:10.1071/EA9920651

Ricker M D, 1987. Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato in Pennsylvania. Plant Disease. 71 (5), 469. DOI:10.1094/PD-71-0469C

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Vanachter A, 1990. Some important disease problems in tomato growing in Belgium during the season - 1990. Parasitica. 46 (2-3), 89-91.

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