Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Fusarium oxysporum
(basal rot)

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Datasheet

Fusarium oxysporum (basal rot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 23 February 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Fusarium oxysporum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • basal rot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Sordariomycetes
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Both tomato plants being compared by plant pathologists were exposed to the same Fusarium wilt pathogen, but the healthy one was protected by a benign, saprophytic strain.
TitleHealthy and infected comparison
CaptionBoth tomato plants being compared by plant pathologists were exposed to the same Fusarium wilt pathogen, but the healthy one was protected by a benign, saprophytic strain.
CopyrightUSDA-ARS
Both tomato plants being compared by plant pathologists were exposed to the same Fusarium wilt pathogen, but the healthy one was protected by a benign, saprophytic strain.
Healthy and infected comparisonBoth tomato plants being compared by plant pathologists were exposed to the same Fusarium wilt pathogen, but the healthy one was protected by a benign, saprophytic strain.USDA-ARS
Plant pathologist examining a culture of the beneficial strain of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum.
TitleCulture examination
CaptionPlant pathologist examining a culture of the beneficial strain of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum.
CopyrightUSDA-ARS
Plant pathologist examining a culture of the beneficial strain of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum.
Culture examinationPlant pathologist examining a culture of the beneficial strain of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum.USDA-ARS
Plant pathologist observes growth of the plant-pathogenic strain of the Fusarium oxysporum that causes fusarium wilt.
TitleCulture examination
CaptionPlant pathologist observes growth of the plant-pathogenic strain of the Fusarium oxysporum that causes fusarium wilt.
CopyrightUSDA-ARS
Plant pathologist observes growth of the plant-pathogenic strain of the Fusarium oxysporum that causes fusarium wilt.
Culture examinationPlant pathologist observes growth of the plant-pathogenic strain of the Fusarium oxysporum that causes fusarium wilt.USDA-ARS

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtendahl

Preferred Common Name

  • basal rot

Other Scientific Names

  • Fusarium oxysporum var. orthocerus

International Common Names

  • English: corm rot; foot rot; root rot; seedling wilt; sugarcane pokkah boeng; wilt
  • Spanish: fusariosis vascular; marchitez fusariosis; podredumbre fusariana
  • French: pourriture des tubercules

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Basalfäule; Fussfäule; Stengelgrundfäule; Welke; Zwiebelfäule

EPPO code

  • FUSAOX (Fusarium oxysporum)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Sordariomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Hypocreomycetidae
  •                         Order: Hypocreales
  •                             Family: Nectriaceae
  •                                 Genus: Fusarium
  •                                     Species: Fusarium oxysporum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 01 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent
BeninPresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent
EgyptPresent
EthiopiaPresent
GhanaPresent
KenyaPresent
LibyaPresent
MalawiPresent
MaliPresent
MoroccoPresent
NigeriaPresent
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresent
TunisiaPresent
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

AzerbaijanPresent
BahrainPresent
BangladeshPresent
ChinaPresent
-BeijingPresent
-FujianPresent
-GansuPresent
-GuangxiPresent
-HainanPresent
-HebeiPresent
-HenanPresent
-HubeiPresent
-HunanPresent
-Inner MongoliaPresent
-JilinPresent
-LiaoningPresent
-NingxiaPresent
-ShaanxiPresent
-ShandongPresent
-ShanxiPresent
-XinjiangPresent
-YunnanPresentOriginal citation: Li et al. (2014)
-ZhejiangPresent
IndiaPresent
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-GujaratPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-ManipurPresent
-OdishaPresent
-PunjabPresent
-RajasthanPresent
-SikkimPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent
IranPresent
IraqPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent
-HokkaidoPresent
-HonshuPresent
JordanPresent
MalaysiaPresent
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
NepalPresent
North KoreaPresent
PakistanPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresent
SingaporePresent, Widespread
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
SyriaPresent
TaiwanPresent
TurkeyPresent

Europe

BulgariaPresent
CroatiaPresent
CzechiaPresent
CzechoslovakiaPresent
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent
DenmarkPresent
FinlandPresent
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent
GreecePresent
-CretePresent
HungaryPresent
ItalyPresentLiguria, Piedmont
-SardiniaPresent
-SicilyPresent
NetherlandsPresent
NorwayPresent
PolandPresent
RomaniaPresent
RussiaPresent
SerbiaPresent
Serbia and MontenegroPresent
SpainPresent
-Canary IslandsPresent
SwedenPresent
UkrainePresent
United KingdomPresent
-EnglandPresent

North America

BahamasPresent
CanadaPresent
-AlbertaPresent
-British ColumbiaPresent
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresent
-OntarioPresent
-Prince Edward IslandPresent
-QuebecPresent
-SaskatchewanPresent
CubaPresent
DominicaPresent
GrenadaPresent
MexicoPresent
Saint LuciaPresent
United StatesPresent
-AlabamaPresent
-ArizonaPresent
-ArkansasPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-ColoradoPresent
-ConnecticutPresent
-DelawarePresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-HawaiiPresent
-IdahoPresent
-IllinoisPresent
-IowaPresent
-LouisianaPresent
-MarylandPresent
-MassachusettsPresent
-MichiganPresent
-MinnesotaPresent
-MississippiPresent
-MontanaPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-North DakotaPresent
-OhioPresent2000
-OklahomaPresent
-OregonPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-South CarolinaPresent
-South DakotaPresent
-TennesseePresent
-TexasPresent
-VirginiaPresent
-WashingtonPresent
-WisconsinPresent

Oceania

American SamoaPresent
AustraliaPresent
-New South WalesPresent
-Northern TerritoryPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-TasmaniaPresent
-VictoriaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
New ZealandPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BoliviaPresent
BrazilPresent
-Espirito SantoPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-Santa CatarinaPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ChilePresent
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresent
UruguayPresent
VenezuelaPresent

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / necrosis
Stems / wilt
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Acremoniella atra Pathogen
Aspergillus fischeri Antagonist
Bacillus subtilis Pathogen
Burkholderia gladioli pv. gladioli Antagonist Japan
Clonostachys rosea Antagonist
Glomus fasciculatum Antagonist
Glomus mosseae Antagonist
Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite tomatoes
Neurospora sitophila Pathogen
Penicillium aurantiogriseum Antagonist
Pseudomonas fluorescens Antagonist
Pseudomonas putida Pathogen
Trichoderma harzianum Antagonist
Trichothecium roseum Antagonist
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Pathogen

References

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Abdullah, S. K., Monfort, E., Asensio, L., Salinas, J., Lopez Llorca, L. V., Jansson, H. B., 2009. Soil mycobiota of date palm plantations in Elche, SE Spain. Czech Mycology, 61(2), 149-162. http://www.natur.cuni.cz/cvsm

Abedi-Tizaki M, Zafari DM, 2014. First report of Fusarium wilt of licorice by Fusarium oxysporum in Iran. Journal of Plant Pathology, 96(2):437. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/

Adamska, I., 2001. Microscopic fungus-like organisms and fungi of the Slowinski National Park II (NW Poland). Acta Mycologica, 36, 31-65.

Agrios GN, 1988. Plant Pathology. London, UK: Academic Press, Inc. (London) Ltd., 803 pp.

Aguín, O., Cao, A., Pintos, C., Santiago, R., Mansilla, P., Butrón, A., 2014. Occurrence of Fusarium species in maize kernels grown in northwestern Spain. Plant Pathology, 63(4), 946-951. doi: 10.1111/ppa.12151

Amani M, 2011. Identification of fungal pathogens on banana (Musa acuminata L.) in Sistan & Bluchestan province. Plant Protection Journal, 3(2):Pe147-Pe159, En160. http://www.ppjiau.com/fa/index.php

Antonopoulos, D. F., Elena, K., Tjamos, E. C., 2003. First report of Fusarium wilt of alfalfa in Greece. Plant Disease, 87(6), 751. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.2003.87.6.751B

Arias, M. M. D., Munkvold, G. P., Ellis, M. L., Leandro, L. F. S., 2013. Distribution and frequency of Fusarium species associated with soybean roots in Iowa. Plant Disease, 97(12), 1557-1562. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-11-12-1059-RE

Bao YX, Sun HJ, Li YF, Duan ZZ, McCord PH, Cui YP, Zhang MQ, 2016. First report of Fusarium oxysporum isolate gx3 causing sugarcane Pokkah Boeng in Guangxi of China. Plant Disease, 100(8):1785. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Barbetti, M. J., MacNish, G. C., 1978. Root rot of subterranean clover in the irrigation areas of south-western Western Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 18(92), 426-433.

Barguil, B. M., Viana, F. M. P., Anjos, R. M., Cardoso, J. E., 2009. First report of dry rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum on rose (Rosa spp.) in Brazil. Plant Disease, 93(7), 766. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-93-7-0766A

Baysal-Gurel F, Cinar A, 2015. First report of Fusarium root rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum infecting pigmented grapefruit trees in Turkey. Plant Disease, 99(4):553. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Bentley, A. R., Petrovic, T., Griffiths, S. P., Burgess, L. W., Summerell, B. A., 2007. Crop pathogens and other Fusarium species associated with Austrostipa aristiglumis. Australasian Plant Pathology, 36(5), 434-438. doi: 10.1071/AP07047

Bernal Areces B, DeronceléCaigñet R, Díaz Pérez T, 2012. Pests and diseases that affect white basil (Ocimum basilicum) growing under protected conditions. (Registro de plagas de albahaca blanca (Ocimum basilicum) bajo condiciones de cultivo protegido.) Fitosanidad, 16(2):87-89. http://www.inisav.cu/fitosanidad/2012/16(2)12.pdf

Bertetti D, Martini P, Repetto L, Odasso M, Poli A, Gullino ML, Garibaldi A, 2012. First report of a vascular wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum on Iceland poppy (Papaver nudicaule L.) cultivated in Italy. (Presenza di una tracheomicosi causata da Fusarium oxysporum su Papaver nudicaule L. coltivato in Italia.) Protezione delle Colture, No.4:68-70. http://www.agrinnova.org/comunicazione.php

Bertetti D, Pensa P, Martini P, Poli A, Gullino ML, Garibaldi A, 2013. Occurrence of wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum on two new ornamental species grown in Liguria: Papaver nudicauli and Echeveria agavoides. (Presenza di tracheomicosi causate da Fusarium oxysporum su due nuove specie ornamentali allevate in Liguria: Papaver nudicauli en Echeveria agavoides.) Protezione delle Colture, No.2:51.

Bertetti D, Pensa P, Poli A, Gullino ML, Garibaldi A, 2011. First report of a vascular wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum on Cereus peruvianus monstruosus cultivated in Italy. (Presenza in Italia di Fusarium oxysporum su Cereus peruvianus monstruosus.) Protezione delle Colture, No.4:84-86. http://www.agrinnova.org/comunicazione.php

Bertetti D, Pensa P, Poli A, Gullino ML, Garibaldi A, 2011. First report of a vascular wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum on jade plant (Crassula ovata) cultivated in Italy. (Presenza di una tracheomicosi causata da Fusarium oxysporum su Crassula ovata coltivata in Italia.) Protezione delle Colture, No.3:44-47. http://www.agrinnova.org/comunicazione.php

Bertetti D, Pensa P, Poli A, Gullino ML, Garibaldi A, 2012. Fusarium oxysporum, new pathogen of Crassula ovata and Cereus peruvianus monstruosus grown in Italy. (Fusarium oxysporum, nuovo parassita di Crassula ovata e Cereus peruvianus monstruosus coltivati in Italia.) Protezione delle Colture, No.2:31-32. http://www.agrinnova.org/comunicazione.php

Bettucci, L., Alonso, R., Fernández, L. M., 1997. A comparative study of fungal populations in healthy and symptomatic twigs and seedlings of Eucalyptus globulus in Uruguay. Sydowia, 49(2), 109-117.

Bhalla, M. K., Nozzolillo, C., Schneider, E. F., 1984. Pathogenicity of soil fungi associated with a root rot of lentils. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 6(1), 21-28.

Bolton, A. T., 1984. Root rot of Ficus benjamina. Plant Disease, 68(9), 816-817. doi: 10.1094/PD-69-816

Britton, K. O., Redlin, S. C., 1995. Damping-off of flowering dogwood seedlings caused by Colletotrichum acutatum and Fusarium oxysporum. Plant Disease, 79(11), 1188. doi: 10.1094/PD-79-1188D

Brooks F, 2002. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2002. Land Grant Technical Report No. 44. Pago Pago, American Samoa: American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program.

Cao XM, Cai J, Li SB, Zhang H, Lu ZQ, Hu XP, 2013. Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum associated with root rot of Glycyrrhiza uralensis in China. Plant Disease, 97(11):1514. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Castillo-Pando, M., Somers, A., Green, C. D., Priest, M., Sriskanthades, M., 2001. Fungi associated with dieback of Semillon grapevines in the Hunter Valley of New South Wales. Australasian Plant Pathology, 30(1), 59-63. doi: 10.1071/AP00068

Chen WeiQun, Swart, W. J., 2001. Genetic variation among Fusarium oxysporum isolates associated with root rot of Amaranthus hybridus in South Africa. Plant Disease, 85(10), 1076-1080. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.10.1076

Choi InYoung, Kim JuHee, Lee WangHyu, Park JiHyun, Shin HyeonDong, 2015. First report on fusarium wilt of zucchini caused by Fusarium oxysporum, in Korea. Mycobiology, 43(2):174-178. http://mycobiology.or.kr/search.php?where=aview&id=10.5941/MYCO.2015.43.2.174&code=0184MB&vmode=FULL

Chona, B. L. , 1932. The occurrence in England of a Potato wilt disease due to Fusarinm oxysporum Schlecht. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 17(3), 229-235 pp.

Corpas-Hervias, C., Melero-Vara, J. M., Molinero-Ruiz, M. L., Zurera-Muñoz, C., Basallote-Ureba, M. J., 2006. Characterization of isolates of Fusarium spp. obtained from asparagus in Spain. Plant Disease, 90(11), 1441-1451. doi: 10.1094/PD-90-1441

Crawford, M. A., Morgan-Jones, G., 1988. Fusarium oxysporum causing leaf and stem blight of Jacquemontia tamnifolia in Alabama. Plant Disease, 72(3), 268. doi: 10.1094/PD-72-0268A

Crowhurst, R. N., King, F. Y., Hawthorne, B. T., Sanderson, F. R., Choi-Pheng, Y., 1995. RAPD characterization of Fusarium oxysporum associated with wilt of angsana (Pterocarpus indicus) in Singapore. Mycological Research, 99(1), 14-18. doi: 10.1016/S0953-7562(09)80310-9

Davis, R. M., Marshall, K. D., Valencia, J., 1993. First report of Fusarium wilt of basil in California. Plant Disease, 77(5), 537. doi: 10.1094/PD-77-0537C

Demers, J. E., Gugino, B. K., Jiménez-Gasco, M. del M., 2015. Highly diverse endophytic and soil Fusarium oxysporum populations associated with field-grown tomato plants. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 81(1), 81-90. doi: 10.1128/AEM.02590-14

Duvnjak, T., Sudaric, A., Kocar, M. M., Cosic, J., Vrandecic, K., 2017. First report of soybean Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum in Croatia. Plant Disease, 101(1), 249. doi: 10.1094/pdis-05-16-0665-pdn

Edel-Hermann, V., Gautheron, N., Steinberg, C., 2012. Genetic diversity of Fusarium oxysporum and related species pathogenic on tomato in Algeria and other Mediterranean countries. Plant Pathology, 61(4), 787-800. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2011.02551.x

Elias, K. S., Schneider, R. W., Lear, M. M., 1991. Analysis of vegetative compatibility groups in nonpathogenic populations of Fusarium oxysporum isolated from symptomless tomato roots. Canadian Journal of Botany, 69(10), 2089-2094. doi: 10.1139/b91-263

Elmer WH, Marra RE, 2012. First report of crown rot of bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis) caused by Fusarium oxysporum in the United States. Plant Disease, 96(10):1577. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Feather, T. V., Ohr, H. D., Munnecke, D. E., Carpenter, J. B., 1989. The occurrence of Fusarium oxysporum on Phoenix canariensis, a potential danger to date production in California. Plant Disease, 73(1), 78-80. doi: 10.1094/PD-73-0078

Ferrant, N. P., Carroll, R. B., 1981. Fusarium wilt of soybean in Delaware. Plant Disease, 65(7), 596-599. doi: 10.1094/PD-65-596

Fogliata, G. M., Martínez, C. V., Acosta, M. E., Muñoz, M. L., Ploper, L. D., 2013. First report of Fusarium rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum on lemon in Tucumán, Argentina. Plant Disease, 97(7), 989. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-01-12-0069-PDN

Gao, F., Xiang, Z., Zhang, Y. L., 2012. First Report of Ziziphus jujuba Wilt Caused by Fusarium oxysporum in China. Plant disease, 96(4), 586. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-10-11-0910

Garber, B. H. , Paxman, G. A. , 1963. Fusarium wilt of Cotton in California. Plant Disease Reporter, 47(5), 398-400 pp.

Garcia Bayona L, Grajales A, Cardenas ME, Sierra R, Cepero de Garcia MC, Bernal A, Jimenez P, Restrepo S, 2011. First report of Fusarium oxysporum causing potato dry rot in Solanum tuberosum in Colombia. New Disease Reports, 24:Article 14. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=024014

Garibaldi A, Bertetti D, Pensa P, Poli A, Gullino ML, 2011. First report of Fusarium oxysporum causing wilt on jade plant (Crassula ovata) in Italy. Plant Disease, 95(9):1191. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Garibaldi A, Bertetti D, Pensa P, Poli A, Gullino ML, 2013. First report of crown and stem rot of crested molded wax agave (Echeveria agavoides) caused by Fusarium oxysporum in Italy. Plant Disease, 97(2):288-289. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Garibaldi A, Bertetti D, Rapetti S, Gullino ML, 2011. First report of a new Fusarium oxysporum causing carnation wilt in Colombia. Journal of Plant Pathology, 93(4, Supplement):S4.74. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/issue/view/118

Garibaldi A, Gilardi G, Poli A, Gullino ML, 2011. First report of Fusarium wilt of chicory (Cichorium intybus) caused by Fusarium oxysporum in Italy. Plant Disease, 95(4):496. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Garibaldi, A., Gilardi, G., Gullino, M. L., 2003. First report of Fusarium oxysporum on Eruca vesicaria and Diplotaxis spp. in Europe. Plant Disease, 87(2), 201. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.2003.87.2.201A

Garibaldi, A., Gilardi, G., Gullino, M. L., 2004. First report of Fusarium oxysporum causing vascular wilt of lamb's lettuce (Valerianella olitoria) in Italy. Plant Disease, 88(1), 83. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.2004.88.1.83C

Garibaldi, A., Gilardi, G., Gullino, M. L., 2005. Fusarium wilt of bitterroot (Lewisia cotyledon) in Italy caused by Fusarium oxysporum. Plant Disease, 89(6), 684. doi: 10.1094/PD-89-0684A

Garibaldi, A., Gilardi, G., Troisi, M., Gullino, M. L., 2009. First report of Fusarium wilt of endive (Cichorium endivia) caused by Fusarium oxysporum in Italy. Plant Disease, 93(10), 1078. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-93-10-1078C

Garibaldi, A., Minuto, A., Bertetti, D., Gullino, M. L., 2004. Fusarium wilt of gerbera in soil and soilless crops in Italy. Plant Disease, 88(3), 311. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.2004.88.3.311C

Garibaldi, A., Minuto, A., Gullino, M. L., 1998. First report of Fusarium wilt on Paris daisy (Argyranthemum [Dendranthema] frutescens). Plant Disease, 82(12), 1403. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.1998.82.12.1403C

Garibaldi, A., Minuto, A., Gullino, M. L., 2004. Fusarium wilt of African daisy (Osteospermum sp.) caused by Fusarium oxysporum in Italy. Plant Disease, 88(3), 309. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.2004.88.3.309A

Gerten, D. M., Bowden, R. L., 1985. First report of a rot of Lithops spp. caused by Fusarium oxysporum. Plant Disease, 69(9), 811. doi: 10.1094/PD-69-811b

Gilardi G, Amatulli MT, Scarpa D, Gullino ML, Garibaldi A, 2011. New phytopathogenic disease problems caused by soil pathogens on Cichorium spp. (Nuovi problemi fitopatologici causati da patogeni tellurici su Cichorium spp.) Protezione delle Colture, No.2:80-92. http://www.ag4roinnova.org

Gopi R, Avasthe RK, Kalita H, Ashish Yadav, Chandan Kapoor, Chanda Poudyal, 2016. A new record of Fusarium oxysporum causing stem lodging, inflorescence and capsule rot in large cardamom. Indian Phytopathology, 69(3):316-317. http://epubs.icar.org.in/ejournal/index.php/IPPJ/article/view/60171/25000

Gordon TR, Kirkpatrick SC, Henry PM, Kong M, Broome JC, 2016. First report of a wilt disease of blackberry caused by Fusarium oxysporum in California. Plant Disease, 100(5):1018. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Graney, L., Elmer, W. H., Loyd, A. L., 2017. First report of Fusarium wilt of yellowwood (Cladrastis kentukea) caused by Fusarium oxysporum in the United States. Plant Disease, 101(1), 258. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-05-16-0644-PDN

Greathead DJ, Greathead AH, 1992. Biological control of insect pests by insect parasitoids and predators: the BIOCAT database. Biocontrol News and Information, 13(4):61N-68N.

Haapalainen, M., Latvala, S., Kuivainen, E., Qiu, Y., Segerstedt, M., Hannukkala, A. O., 2016. Fusarium oxysporum, F. proliferatum and F. redolens associated with basal rot of onion in Finland. Plant Pathology, 65(8), 1310-1320. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ppa.12521/abstract

Hannachi I, Rezgui S, Cherif M, 2014. First report of mature citrus trees being affected by fusarium wilt in Tunisia. Plant Disease, 98(4):566. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Hanson, L. E., 2006. First report of Fusarium yellows of sugar beet caused by Fusarium oxysporum in Michigan. Plant Disease, 90(12), 1554. doi: 10.1094/PD-90-1554B

Hanson, L. E., Jacobsen, B. J., 2006. Beet root-rot inducing isolates of Fusarium oxysporum from Colorado and Montana. Plant Disease, 90(2), 247. doi: 10.1094/PD-90-0247A

Hanson, L. E., Schwager, S. J., Loria, R., 1996. Sensitivity to thiabendazole in Fusarium species associated with dry rot of potato. Phytopathology, 86(4), 378-384. doi: 10.1094/Phyto-86-378

Hassan, N., Shimizu, M., Hyakumachi, M., 2014. Occurrence of root rot and vascular wilt diseases in roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in Upper Egypt. Mycobiology, 42(1), 66-72. doi: 10.5941/MYCO.2014.42.1.66

Ibrahim NF, Mohd MH, Nor NMIM, Zakaria L, 2015. First report of Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani associated with pineapple rot in Peninsular Malaysia. Plant Disease, 99(11):1650. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Keinath, A. P., 1994. Pathogenicity and host range of Fusarium oxysporum from sweet basil and evaluation of disease control methods. Plant Disease, 78(12), 1211-1215. doi: 10.1094/PD-78-1211

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Vipin Panwar, Ashok Aggarwal, Surinder Paul, Jitender Kumar, Saharan M S, 2016. Distribution dynamics of Fusarium spp. causing Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat at different geographical locations in India. South Asian Journal of Experimental Biology. 6 (5), 167-177. http://sajeb.org/index.php/sajeb/article/view/20252/9837

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Wang Y, Gao J, Yang L N, Wang X M, Wang C W, 2016. First report of Fusarium oxysporum causing stem rot on Philodendron oxycardium in China. Plant Disease. 100 (3), 650. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-06-15-0626-PDN

Wang Yan, Chen XiuRong, Li YingDong, 2009. Survey and pathogen identification of rhubarb diseases in Gansu province. China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica. 34 (8), 953-956. http://www.cjcmm.com.cn

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