Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Fusarium culmorum
(culm rot: cereals)

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Datasheet

Fusarium culmorum (culm rot: cereals)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 05 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Fusarium culmorum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • culm rot: cereals
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Sordariomycetes
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Fusarium culmorum (W.G. Sm.) Sacc.

Preferred Common Name

  • culm rot: cereals

Other Scientific Names

  • Fusarium culmorum f. 1 Wollenw.
  • Fusarium culmorum var. leteius Sherb.
  • Fusarium culmorum var. majus Wollenw.
  • Fusarium roseum Link, pro parte
  • Fusarium roseum cv. 'Culmorum' Snyder, Hansen & Oswald
  • Fusarium roseum f.sp. cerealis cv. 'Culmorum' Snyder, Hansen & Oswald
  • Fusisporium culmorum W.G. Sm.

International Common Names

  • English: foot rot: cereals; partial: cereals ear sterility; root rot: cereals; seedling blight: cereals
  • Spanish: fusariosis; marras de nascencia
  • French: brulure de l'epi des cereales; brulure des panicules des cereales; fusariose basale de l'asperge; fusariose de la tige du mais; fusariose des cereales; pourridie fusarien des legumineuses; pourriture de la tige du mais; pourriture fusarienne de la pomme de terre; pourriture fusarienne du mais

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Fusskrankheit: Getreide; Fusskrankheit: Spargel; Mykotoxinbildner (Trichothecene); Partielle: Getreide Taubaehrigkeit; Stengelgrundfaeule: Getreide

EPPO code

  • FUSACU (Fusarium culmorum)
  • FUSARO (Fusarium roseum)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Sordariomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Hypocreomycetidae
  •                         Order: Hypocreales
  •                             Family: Nectriaceae
  •                                 Genus: Fusarium
  •                                     Species: Fusarium culmorum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresent, Few occurrences
EthiopiaPresent
GhanaPresent
KenyaPresent
LibyaPresent, Few occurrences
MalawiPresent
MoroccoPresent
NigeriaPresent
South AfricaPresent, Few occurrences
TanzaniaPresent, Few occurrences
TunisiaPresent, Few occurrences
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent, Few occurrences

Asia

AzerbaijanPresent
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HebeiPresent
-Inner MongoliaPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-QinghaiPresent
-ShandongPresent
-SichuanPresent
IndiaPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IranPresent
IraqPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent
MalaysiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-SabahPresent
PakistanPresent
SingaporePresent, Few occurrences
SyriaPresent, Few occurrences
TurkeyPresent
UzbekistanPresent

Europe

AustriaPresent
BelarusPresent
BelgiumPresent
BulgariaPresent
CroatiaPresent
CyprusPresent
CzechiaPresent
CzechoslovakiaPresent
Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsPresent
DenmarkPresent
EstoniaPresent
FinlandPresent
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent
GreecePresent
HungaryPresent
IrelandPresent
ItalyPresent
-SardiniaPresent
LatviaPresent
LithuaniaPresent
MaltaPresent
NetherlandsPresent
NorwayPresent
PolandPresent
PortugalPresent
-AzoresPresent
RomaniaPresent
RussiaPresent
-Russia (Europe)Present
-SiberiaPresent
Serbia and MontenegroPresent
SlovakiaPresent
SloveniaPresent
SpainPresent
SwedenPresent
SwitzerlandPresent
UkrainePresent
United KingdomPresent
-Channel IslandsPresent
-EnglandPresent
-ScotlandPresent

North America

BermudaPresent
CanadaPresent
-AlbertaPresent
-British ColumbiaPresent
-ManitobaPresent
-Nova ScotiaPresent
-OntarioPresent
-Prince Edward IslandPresent
-QuebecPresent
-SaskatchewanPresent
JamaicaPresent
MexicoPresent
United StatesPresent, Widespread
-CaliforniaPresent
-IdahoPresent
-MinnesotaPresent
-OregonPresent
-WashingtonPresent
-WisconsinPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
-New South WalesPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-TasmaniaPresent
-VictoriaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
New ZealandPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
ChilePresent
ColombiaPresent
PeruPresent
UruguayPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Stems / rot

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aphelenchoides hamatus Parasite
Bacillus megaterium Pathogen
Clonostachys rosea Antagonist
Coniothyrium minitans Mycoparasite
Khuskia oryzae Antagonist
Pantoea agglomerans Antagonist
Trichoderma harzianum Antagonist

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

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?afránková I, Marková J, Vejrazka K, Hübschová J, Ehrenbergerová J, Vaculová K, 2007. Mycoflora of the spring barley grains especially Fusarium spp. (Mykoflóra zrn jecmene jarního se zamerením na druhy r. Fusarium.) Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, 55(1):165-171

Aboagye-Nuamah F, Offei SK, Cornelius EW, Bancroft RD, 2005. Severity of spoilage storage rots of white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir.). Annals of Applied Biology, 147(2):183-190. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=aab

Abramson D, Clear RM, Smith DM, 1993. Trichothecene production by Fusarium spp. isolated from Manitoba grain. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 15(3):147-152; 22 ref

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore

Backhouse D, Abubakar AA, Burgess LW, Dennis JI, Hollaway GJ, Wildermuth GB, Wallwork H, Henry FJ, 2004. Survey of Fusarium species associated with crown rot of wheat and barley in eastern Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology, 33(2):255-261

Booth C, 1971. The Genus Fusarium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Cao ChunMei, Zhang JianPing, Xu LiMin, Bai QuanJiang, Zhang QingPing, Zhao CunHu, 2001. The type, quantity and distribution of wheat root disease in Bayenaoer Meng, Inner Mongolia. Acta Agriculturae Boreali-Sinica, 16(2):123-126; 5 ref

CMI, 1968. Fusarium culmorum. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 440. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Ezekiel CN, Odebode AC, Fapohunda SO, 2008. Zearalenone production by naturally occurring Fusarium species on maize, wheat and soybeans from Nigeria. Journal of Biological & Environmental Sciences, 2(6):77-82. http://jbes.uludag.edu.tr

Horoszkiewicz-Janka J, Jajor E, 2007. An influence of the selected bioproducts used as barley seed dressings on fungi establishment. (Wpyw wybranych biopreparatów do zaprawiania jeczmienia na zasiedlenie ziarna przez grzyby.) Journal of Research and Applications in Agricultural Engineering, 52(3):61-66

Huang XiaoHong, Ye HuaZhi, 2005. The population structure of Fusarium spp. from wheat in Sichuan. Southwest China Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 18(3):281-285

IMI Herbarium, 1900-. Herbarium specimen. International Mycological Institute (now CABI Bioscience) Herbarium. Egham, UK: CABI Bioscience

Ivic D, Domijan AM, Peraica M, Milicevic T, Cvjetkovic B, 2009. Fusarium spp. contamination of wheat, maize, soybean, and pea grain in Croatia. Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, 60(4):435-442. http://versita.metapress.com/content/37873r17h44n84n7/fulltext.pdf

Koch E, Löffler I, 2009. Partial characterization of the antimicrobial activity of Streptomyces antimycoticus FZB53. Journal of Phytopathology, 157(4):235-242. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/jph

Koike ST, Gordon TR, Aegerter BJ, 2003. Root and basal rot of leek caused by Fusarium culmorum in California. Plant Disease, 87(5):601

Li HL, He XL, Ding SL, Yuan HX, Chen LL, 2016. First report of Fusarium culmorum causing crown rot of wheat in China. Plant Disease, 100(12):2532. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Lõiveke H, 2006. Incidence of Fusarium spp. on several field crops in Estonia and their toxicity towards Bacillus stearothermophilus. Agronomy Research [International Conference on Development of Environmentally Friendly Plant Protection, Pühajärve, Estonia, 5-7th September 2006.], 4(Special Issue):273-280. http://www.emu.ee/~agronomy/

Milevoj L, 2002. Three decades of maize fusarium diseases (Fusarium spp.) estimation. (Tri desetletja spremljanja fuzarioz (Fusarium spp.) pri koruzi.) In: Novi izzivi v poljedelstvu 2002. Zbornik simpozija, Ljubljana, Slovenia 5-6 decembra 2002. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Slovensko Agronomsko Drustvo (SAD), 78-82

Mueller, B. D., Groves, C. L., Holtz, D., Deutsch, A., Smith, D. L., 2018. First report of Fusarium culmorum causing Fusarium head blight of wheat in Wisconsin. Plant Disease, 102(5), 1028. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-08-17-1220-PDN

Patil PJ, Padule DN, Suryawanshi JS, Pinjari SS, 2008. Fungi associated with mouldy seeds of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] cv. CSH-9 in Western Maharashtra. International Journal of Plant Protection, 1(2):84-87

Prade CA, Matsumura AT, Ott AP, Porto ML, 2007. Diversity of soil fungi in agroforestry citrus orchards with different management in Roca Sales, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. (Diversidade de fungos do solo em sistemas agroflorestais de Citrus com diferentes tipos de manejo no município de Roca Sales, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.) Biociências, 15(1):73-81. http://revistaseletronicas.pucrs.br/ojs/index.php/fabio/article/viewFile/256/1745

Ramakrishna N, Lacey J, Smith JE, 1991. Effect of surface sterilization, fumigation and gamma irradiation on the microflora and germination of barley seeds. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 13(1):47-54; 15 ref

Riccioni L, Orzali L, 2011. Activity of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia, Cheel) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris, Linnaeus.) essential oils against some pathogenic seed borne fungi. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 23(6):43-47. http://www.jeoronline.com/

Rojas M E, Perea A EI, Pineda V YA, 2003. Fusarium spp. on Trialeurodes vaporariorum from tobacco and kidney beans of García Rovira, Santander, Colombia. (Fusarium spp. en Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) de tabaco y fríjol en García Rovira, Santander, Colombia.) Revista Colombiana de Entomología, 29(2):165-168

Scauflaire J, Gourgue M, Foucart G, Renard F, Vandeputte F, Munaut F, 2013. Fusarium miscanthi and other Fusarium species as causal agents of Miscanthus × giganteus rhizome rot. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 137(1):1-3. http://rd.springer.com/journal/10658

Sharma RB, Som Kumar, 2007. Occurrence of vegetable rots in market. Advances in Plant Sciences, 20(1):305-306

Sheraliev ASh, Bukharov KV, 2001. Fusarium species infecting agricultural and weed plants in Uzbekistan. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 35(2):44-47

Snyder WC, Hansen HN, 1945. The species concept in Fusarium with reference to Discolor and other sections. American Journal of Botany, 32:657-666

Strausbaugh CA, Windes JM, 2006. Influence of subsoiling on direct-seeded cereals in southeastern Idaho. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 28(4):596-608. http://pubs.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/tcjpp/plant.html

UK, CAB International, 1984. Fusarium culmorum. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, (December (Edition 2)), Map 440.

Wilcoxson RD, Miles MR, 1995. Fungi associated with discolored barley kernels in Minnesota. International Journal of Tropical Plant Diseases, 13(1):97-105; 19 ref

Xu XM, Parry DW, Nicholson P, Thomsett MA, Simpson D, Edwards SG, Cooke BM, Doohan FM, Brennan JM, Moretti A, Tocco G, Mule G, Hornok L, Giczey G, Tatnell J, 2005. Predominance and association of pathogenic fungi causing Fusarium ear blight in wheat in four European countries. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 112(2):143-154. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100265

Zhao GuiHua, Shi LiYan, Yang HuaiGuang, Meng QingLan, Min XiangHong, 2008. Isolation and identification of endophytic fungi in poplars. Journal of Nanjing Forestry University (Natural Sciences Edition), 32(2):76-78. http://njlydxxb.periodicals.net.cn/default.html

Zhao YanJu, 2001. Study on the causal organisms of wheat fusarium blight and its pathogenicity in eastern Qinghai. Plant Protection, 27(3):17-19

Zhukovsky A, 2006. Winter triticale diseases in Belarus. (Choroby pszenzyta ozimego w Biaorusi.) Progress in Plant Protection, 46(2):719-722. http://www.ior.poznan.pl/wydaw/Wyd-PO.htm

Distribution References

Abdel-Hafez S I I, Ismail M A, Hussein N A, Abdel-Hameed N A, 2012. Fusaria and other fungi taxa associated with rhizosphere and rhizoplane of lentil and sesame at different growth stages. Acta Mycologica. 47 (1), 35-48. DOI:10.5586/am.2012.005

Aboagye-Nuamah F, Offei S K, Cornelius E W, Bancroft R D, 2005. Severity of spoilage storage rots of white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir.). Annals of Applied Biology. 147 (2), 183-190. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=aab DOI:10.1111/j.1744-7348.2005.00028.x

Agustí-Brisach C, Raya-Ortega M C, Trapero C, Roca L F, Luque F, López-Moral A, Fuentes M, Trapero A, 2018. First report of Fusarium pseudograminearum causing crown rot of wheat in Europe. Plant Disease. 102 (8), 1670. DOI:10.1094/pdis-11-17-1840-pdn

Armengol J, Vicent A, Sales R, García-Jiménez J, Rodríguez J M, 2001. First report of basal rot of leek caused by Fusarium culmorum in Spain. Plant Disease. 85 (6), 679. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.6.679C

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services., Singapore: Plant Health Centre Agri-food & Veterinary Authority.

Backhouse D, Abubakar A A, Burgess L W, Dennis J I, Hollaway G J, Wildermuth G B, Wallwork H, Henry F J, 2004. Survey of Fusarium species associated with crown rot of wheat and barley in eastern Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology. 33 (2), 255-261. DOI:10.1071/AP04010

Battilani P, Racca P, Rossi V, 2000. Rational arrangement of a network for disease survey on a regional scale. Bulletin OEPP. 30 (1), 51-57. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2338.2000.tb00851.x

Bayraktar H, Dolar F S, 2011. Molecular identification and genetic diversity of Fusarium species associated with onion fields in Turkey. Journal of Phytopathology. 159 (1), 28-34. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0434.2010.01715.x

Beev G, Denev S, Pavlov D, 2011. Occurrence and distribution of Fusarium species in wheat grain. Agricultural Science and Technology. 3 (2), 165-168. http://tru.uni-sz.bg/ascitech/2_2011/PQS_02.pdf

Bentley A R, Cromey M G, Farrokhi-Nejad R, Leslie J F, Summerell B A, Burgess L W, 2006. Fusarium crown and root rot pathogens associated with wheat and grass stem bases on the South Island of New Zealand. Australasian Plant Pathology. 35 (5), 495-502. DOI:10.1071/AP06053

Bourdages J V, Marchand S, Rioux S, Belzile F J, 2006. Diversity and prevalence of Fusarium species from Quebec barley fields. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 28 (3), 419-425. http://pubs.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/tcjpp/plant.html

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Cao ChunMei, Zhang JianPing, Xu LiMin, Bai QuanJiang, Zhang QingPing, Zhao CunHu, 2001. The type, quantity and distribution of wheat root disease in Bayenaoer Meng, Inner Mongolia. Acta Agriculturae Boreali-Sinica. 16 (2), 123-126.

Çepnİ E, Tunalı B, Gürel F, 2013. Genetic diversity and mating types of Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium graminearum originating from different agro-ecological regions in Turkey. Journal of Basic Microbiology. 53 (8), 686-694. DOI:10.1002/jobm.201200066

Erol F Y, Tunalı B, 2009. Determination of root and crown rot diseases in tomato growing area of Samsun Province. Acta Horticulturae. 65-69. http://www.actahort.org

Ezekiel C N, Odebode A C, Fapohunda S O, 2008. Zearalenone production by naturally occurring Fusarium species on maize, wheat and soybeans from Nigeria. Journal of Biological & Environmental Sciences. 2 (6), 77-82. http://jbes.uludag.edu.tr

Fernandez M R, 2007. Fusarium populations in roots of oilseed and pulse crops grown in eastern Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 87 (4), 945-952.

Fernandez M R, Basnyat P, Zentner R P, 2007. Response of wheat root pathogens to crop management in eastern Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 87 (4), 953-963.

Fernandez M R, Holzgang G, 2009. Fungal populations in subcrown internodes and crowns of oat crops in Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 89 (3), 549-557. http://article.pubs.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/RPAS/rpv?hm=HInit&calyLang=eng&journal=cjps&volume=89&afpf=CJPS08091.pdf

Fernandez M R, Jefferson P G, 2004. Fungal populations in roots and crowns of common and durum wheat in Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 26 (3), 325-334. http://pubs.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/tcjpp/plant.html

Gargouri S, Bernier L, Hajlaoui M R, Mohamed Marrakchi, 2003. Genetic variability and population structure of the wheat foot rot fungus, Fusarium culmorum, in Tunisia. European Journal of Plant Pathology. 109 (8), 807-815. DOI:10.1023/A:1026137817723

Haleem R A, Abdullah S K, Jubrael J M S, 2013. Occurrence and distribution of fungi associated with grapevine decline in Kurdistan region-Iraq. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America. 4 (3), 336-348. DOI:10.5251/abjna.2013.4.3.336.348

Hatami N, Zadeh H R Z, Aminaee M M, Zohdi H, 2012. Fusarium rot in cucumber greenhouses of Jiroft region. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 45 (3), 325-338. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/gapp20 DOI:10.1080/03235408.2011.587261

Herb IMI, Undated. Specimen record from the collection in the Herb IMI Database., Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.herbimi.info/herbimi/home.htm

Huang XiaoHong, Ye HuaZhi, 2005. The population structure of Fusarium spp. from wheat in Sichuan. Southwest China Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 18 (3), 281-285.

Ivić D, Domijan A M, Peraica M, Miličević T, Cvjetković B, 2009. Fusarium spp. contamination of wheat, maize, soybean, and pea grain in Croatia. Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. 60 (4), 435-442. http://versita.metapress.com/content/37873r17h44n84n7/fulltext.pdf DOI:10.2478/10004-1254-60-2009-1963

Kammoun L G, Gargouri S, Hajlaoui M R, Marrakchi M, 2009. Occurrence and distribution of Microdochium and Fusarium species isolated from durum wheat in Northern Tunisia and detection of mycotoxins in naturally infested grain. Journal of Phytopathology. 157 (9), 546-551. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0434.2008.01522.x

Koike S T, Gordon T R, Aegerter B J, 2003. Root and basal rot of leek caused by Fusarium culmorum in California. Plant Disease. 87 (5), 601. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2003.87.5.601C

Li H L, He X L, Ding S L, Yuan H X, Chen L L, 2016. First report of Fusarium culmorum causing crown rot of wheat in China. Plant Disease. 100 (12), 2532. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-16-0723-PDN

Lõiveke H, 2006. Incidence of Fusarium spp. on several field crops in Estonia and their toxicity towards Bacillus stearothermophilus. Agronomy Research. 4 (Special Issue), 273-280.

Matny O N, Bates S T, Song ZeWei, 2017. Geographic distribution of Fusarium culmorum chemotypes associated with wheat crown rot in Iraq. Journal of Plant Protection Research. 57 (1), 43-49. DOI:10.1515/jppr-2017-0006

Miedaner T, Schilling A G, Geiger H H, 2001. Molecular genetic diversity and variation for aggressiveness in populations of Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum sampled from wheat fields in different countries. Journal of Phytopathology. 149 (11/12), 641-648. DOI:10.1046/j.1439-0434.2001.00687.x

Milevoj L, 2002. Three decades of maize fusarium diseases (Fusarium spp.) estimation. (Tri desetletja spremljanja fuzarioz (Fusarium spp.) pri koruzi.). In: Novi izzivi v poljedelstvu 2002. Zbornik simpozija, Ljubljana, Slovenia 5-6 decembra 2002. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Slovensko Agronomsko Drustvo (SAD). 78-82.

Mueller B D, Groves C L, Holtz D, Deutsch A, Smith D L, 2018. First report of Fusarium culmorum causing Fusarium head blight of wheat in Wisconsin. Plant Disease. 102 (5), 1028. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-17-1220-PDN

Muradov P Z, Shirinova G F, Asgerli L X, Allahverdiyev E, Gasimov C F, 2019. Species composition of fungi causing diseases in agricultural plants in agrarian sector of Azerbaijan. Journal of Applied and Natural Science. 11 (4), 785-790. DOI:10.31018/jans.v11i4.2168

Nedělník J, Moravcová H, Hajšlová J, Lancová K, Váňová M, Salava J, 2007. Fusarium spp. in wheat grain in the Czech Republic analysed by PCR method. Plant Protection Science. 43 (4), 135-137. http://www.cazv.cz

Orlikowski L B, Szkuta G, 2006. Phytophthora rot of some orchids - new disease in Poland. Phytopathologia Polonica. 57-61. http://www.au.poznan.pl/ptfit

Pancaldi D, Tonti S, Prodi A, Salomoni D, Prà M dal, Nipoti P, Alberti I, Pisi A, 2010. Survey of the main causal agents of fusarium head blight of durum wheat around Bologna, northern Italy. Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 49 (2), 258-266. http://www.fupress.com/pm/

Peters J C, Lees A K, Cullen D W, Sullivan L, Stroud G P, Cunnington A C, 2008. Characterization of Fusarium spp. responsible for causing dry rot of potato in Great Britain. Plant Pathology. 57 (2), 262-271. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2007.01777.x

Pettitt T, Xu XiangMing, Parry D, 2003. Association of Fusarium species in the wheat stem rot complex. European Journal of Plant Pathology. 109 (7), 769-774. DOI:10.1023/A:1026042711064

Prade C A, Matsumura A T, Ott A P, Porto M L, 2007. Diversity of soil fungi in agroforestry citrus orchards with different management in Roca Sales, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. (Diversidade de fungos do solo em sistemas agroflorestais de Citrus com diferentes tipos de manejo no município de Roca Sales, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.). Biociências. 15 (1), 73-81. http://revistaseletronicas.pucrs.br/ojs/index.php/fabio/article/viewFile/256/1745

Rivedal H M, Stone A G, Johnson K B, 2018. First report of Fusarium culmorum causing fruit rot of winter squash (Cucurbita maxima) in Oregon. Plant Disease. 102 (12), 2659-2660. DOI:10.1094/pdis-06-18-0922-pdn

Rojas M E, Perea A E I, Pineda V Y A, 2003. Fusarium spp. on Trialeurodes vaporariorum from tobacco and kidney beans of García Rovira, Santander, Colombia. (Fusarium spp. en Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) de tabaco y fríjol en García Rovira, Santander, Colombia.). Revista Colombiana de Entomología. 29 (2), 165-168.

Šafránková I, Marková J, Vejražka K, Hübschová J, Ehrenbergerová J, Vaculová K, 2007. Mycoflora of the spring barley grains especially Fusarium spp. (Mykoflóra zrn ječmene jarního se zaměřením na druhy r. Fusarium.). Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis. 55 (1), 165-171.

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