Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Fusarium culmorum
(culm rot: cereals)

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Datasheet

Fusarium culmorum (culm rot: cereals)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 05 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Fusarium culmorum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • culm rot: cereals
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Sordariomycetes
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Fusarium culmorum (W.G. Sm.) Sacc.

Preferred Common Name

  • culm rot: cereals

Other Scientific Names

  • Fusarium culmorum f. 1 Wollenw.
  • Fusarium culmorum var. leteius Sherb.
  • Fusarium culmorum var. majus Wollenw.
  • Fusarium roseum Link, pro parte
  • Fusarium roseum cv. 'Culmorum' Snyder, Hansen & Oswald
  • Fusarium roseum f.sp. cerealis cv. 'Culmorum' Snyder, Hansen & Oswald
  • Fusisporium culmorum W.G. Sm.

International Common Names

  • English: foot rot: cereals; partial: cereals ear sterility; root rot: cereals; seedling blight: cereals
  • Spanish: fusariosis; marras de nascencia
  • French: brulure de l'epi des cereales; brulure des panicules des cereales; fusariose basale de l'asperge; fusariose de la tige du mais; fusariose des cereales; pourridie fusarien des legumineuses; pourriture de la tige du mais; pourriture fusarienne de la pomme de terre; pourriture fusarienne du mais

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Fusskrankheit: Getreide; Fusskrankheit: Spargel; Mykotoxinbildner (Trichothecene); Partielle: Getreide Taubaehrigkeit; Stengelgrundfaeule: Getreide

EPPO code

  • FUSACU (Fusarium culmorum)
  • FUSARO (Fusarium roseum)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Sordariomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Hypocreomycetidae
  •                         Order: Hypocreales
  •                             Family: Nectriaceae
  •                                 Genus: Fusarium
  •                                     Species: Fusarium culmorum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresent, Few occurrencesHerb IMI (Undated)
EthiopiaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
GhanaPresentAboagye-Nuamah et al. (2005)
KenyaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
LibyaPresent, Few occurrencesUK, CAB International (1984); Herb IMI (Undated)
MalawiPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
MoroccoPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
NigeriaPresentEzekiel et al. (2008)
South AfricaPresent, Few occurrencesUK, CAB International (1984); Herb IMI (Undated)
TanzaniaPresent, Few occurrencesUK, CAB International (1984); Herb IMI (Undated)
TunisiaPresent, Few occurrencesUK, CAB International (1984); Herb IMI (Undated)
ZambiaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
ZimbabwePresent, Few occurrencesUK, CAB International (1984); Herb IMI (Undated)

Asia

ChinaPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-HebeiPresentLi et al. (2016)
-Inner MongoliaPresentCao ChunMei et al. (2001)
-JiangsuPresentZhao GuiHua et al. (2008)
-QinghaiPresentZhao YanJu (2001)
-ShandongPresentZhao GuiHua et al. (2008)
-SichuanPresentHuang XiaoHong and Ye HuaZhi (2005)
IndiaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
-MaharashtraPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
-Tamil NaduPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
-Uttar PradeshPresentSharma and Som Kumar (2007)
IranPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
IraqPresentUK, CAB International (1984); Herb IMI (Undated)
IsraelPresentUK, CAB International (1984); Herb IMI (Undated)
JapanPresentCABI (Undated a)
MalaysiaPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-SabahPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
PakistanPresentCABI (Undated a)
SingaporePresent, Few occurrencesAVA (2001)
SyriaPresent, Few occurrencesHerb IMI (Undated)
TurkeyPresentUK, CAB International (1984); Herb IMI (Undated)
UzbekistanPresentSheraliev and Bukharov (2001)

Europe

AustriaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
BelarusPresentZhukovsky (2006)
BelgiumPresentUK, CAB International (1984); Scauflaire et al. (2013)
BulgariaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
CroatiaPresentIvić et al. (2009)
CyprusPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
CzechiaPresentŠafránková et al. (2007)
CzechoslovakiaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
DenmarkPresentUK, CAB International (1984); Herb IMI (Undated)
EstoniaPresentLõiveke (2006)
FinlandPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
FrancePresentUK, CAB International (1984); Herb IMI (Undated)
GermanyPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
GreecePresentUK, CAB International (1984); Herb IMI (Undated)
HungaryPresentCABI (Undated a)
IrelandPresentUK, CAB International (1984); Xu et al. (2005); Herb IMI (Undated)
ItalyPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
-SardiniaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
LatviaPresentCABI (Undated a)
LithuaniaPresentCABI (Undated a)
MaltaPresentUK, CAB International (1984); Herb IMI (Undated)
NetherlandsPresentUK, CAB International (1984); Herb IMI (Undated)
NorwayPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
PolandPresentUK, CAB International (1984); Herb IMI (Undated)
PortugalPresentUK, CAB International (1984); Herb IMI (Undated)
-AzoresPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
RomaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1984); Herb IMI (Undated)
RussiaPresentHerb IMI (Undated)
-Russia (Europe)PresentUK, CAB International (1984)
-SiberiaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
SlovakiaPresentCABI (Undated a)
SloveniaPresentMilevoj (2002)
SpainPresentUK, CAB International (1984); Herb IMI (Undated)
SwedenPresentUK, CAB International (1984); Herb IMI (Undated)
SwitzerlandPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
UkrainePresentCABI (Undated a)
United KingdomPresentUK, CAB International (1984); Herb IMI (Undated)
-Channel IslandsPresentUK, CAB International (1984); Herb IMI (Undated)

North America

BermudaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
CanadaPresentUK, CAB International (1984); Herb IMI (Undated)
-AlbertaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
-British ColumbiaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
-ManitobaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
-Nova ScotiaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
-OntarioPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
-Prince Edward IslandPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
-SaskatchewanPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
JamaicaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
MexicoPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
United StatesPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1984)
-CaliforniaPresentKoike et al. (2003)
-IdahoPresentStrausbaugh and Windes (2006)
-MinnesotaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-OregonPresentCABI (Undated a)
-WashingtonPresentCABI (Undated a)
-WisconsinPresentMueller et al. (2018)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1984); Herb IMI (Undated)
-New South WalesPresentUK, CAB International (1984); Herb IMI (Undated)
-QueenslandPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
-South AustraliaPresentBackhouse et al. (2004)
-TasmaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1984); Herb IMI (Undated)
-VictoriaPresentUK, CAB International (1984); Herb IMI (Undated)
-Western AustraliaPresentUK, CAB International (1984); Herb IMI (Undated)
New ZealandPresentUK, CAB International (1984); Herb IMI (Undated)

South America

ArgentinaPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
BrazilPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-Rio Grande do SulPresentPrade et al. (2007)
ChilePresentUK, CAB International (1984); Herb IMI (Undated)
ColombiaPresentRojas M. et al. (2003)
PeruPresentUK, CAB International (1984)
UruguayPresentUK, CAB International (1984)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Stems / rot

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aphelenchoides hamatus Parasite
Bacillus megaterium Pathogen
Clonostachys rosea Antagonist
Coniothyrium minitans Mycoparasite
Khuskia oryzae Antagonist
Pantoea agglomerans Antagonist
Trichoderma harzianum Antagonist

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

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?afránková I, Marková J, Vejrazka K, Hübschová J, Ehrenbergerová J, Vaculová K, 2007. Mycoflora of the spring barley grains especially Fusarium spp. (Mykoflóra zrn jecmene jarního se zamerením na druhy r. Fusarium.) Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, 55(1):165-171

Aboagye-Nuamah F, Offei SK, Cornelius EW, Bancroft RD, 2005. Severity of spoilage storage rots of white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir.). Annals of Applied Biology, 147(2):183-190. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=aab

Abramson D, Clear RM, Smith DM, 1993. Trichothecene production by Fusarium spp. isolated from Manitoba grain. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 15(3):147-152; 22 ref

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore

Backhouse D, Abubakar AA, Burgess LW, Dennis JI, Hollaway GJ, Wildermuth GB, Wallwork H, Henry FJ, 2004. Survey of Fusarium species associated with crown rot of wheat and barley in eastern Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology, 33(2):255-261

Booth C, 1971. The Genus Fusarium. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Cao ChunMei, Zhang JianPing, Xu LiMin, Bai QuanJiang, Zhang QingPing, Zhao CunHu, 2001. The type, quantity and distribution of wheat root disease in Bayenaoer Meng, Inner Mongolia. Acta Agriculturae Boreali-Sinica, 16(2):123-126; 5 ref

CMI, 1968. Fusarium culmorum. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 440. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Ezekiel CN, Odebode AC, Fapohunda SO, 2008. Zearalenone production by naturally occurring Fusarium species on maize, wheat and soybeans from Nigeria. Journal of Biological & Environmental Sciences, 2(6):77-82. http://jbes.uludag.edu.tr

Horoszkiewicz-Janka J, Jajor E, 2007. An influence of the selected bioproducts used as barley seed dressings on fungi establishment. (Wpyw wybranych biopreparatów do zaprawiania jeczmienia na zasiedlenie ziarna przez grzyby.) Journal of Research and Applications in Agricultural Engineering, 52(3):61-66

Huang XiaoHong, Ye HuaZhi, 2005. The population structure of Fusarium spp. from wheat in Sichuan. Southwest China Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 18(3):281-285

IMI Herbarium, 1900-. Herbarium specimen. International Mycological Institute (now CABI Bioscience) Herbarium. Egham, UK: CABI Bioscience

Ivic D, Domijan AM, Peraica M, Milicevic T, Cvjetkovic B, 2009. Fusarium spp. contamination of wheat, maize, soybean, and pea grain in Croatia. Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, 60(4):435-442. http://versita.metapress.com/content/37873r17h44n84n7/fulltext.pdf

Koch E, Löffler I, 2009. Partial characterization of the antimicrobial activity of Streptomyces antimycoticus FZB53. Journal of Phytopathology, 157(4):235-242. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/jph

Koike ST, Gordon TR, Aegerter BJ, 2003. Root and basal rot of leek caused by Fusarium culmorum in California. Plant Disease, 87(5):601

Li HL, He XL, Ding SL, Yuan HX, Chen LL, 2016. First report of Fusarium culmorum causing crown rot of wheat in China. Plant Disease, 100(12):2532. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Lõiveke H, 2006. Incidence of Fusarium spp. on several field crops in Estonia and their toxicity towards Bacillus stearothermophilus. Agronomy Research [International Conference on Development of Environmentally Friendly Plant Protection, Pühajärve, Estonia, 5-7th September 2006.], 4(Special Issue):273-280. http://www.emu.ee/~agronomy/

Milevoj L, 2002. Three decades of maize fusarium diseases (Fusarium spp.) estimation. (Tri desetletja spremljanja fuzarioz (Fusarium spp.) pri koruzi.) In: Novi izzivi v poljedelstvu 2002. Zbornik simpozija, Ljubljana, Slovenia 5-6 decembra 2002. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Slovensko Agronomsko Drustvo (SAD), 78-82

Mueller, B. D., Groves, C. L., Holtz, D., Deutsch, A., Smith, D. L., 2018. First report of Fusarium culmorum causing Fusarium head blight of wheat in Wisconsin. Plant Disease, 102(5), 1028. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-08-17-1220-PDN

Patil PJ, Padule DN, Suryawanshi JS, Pinjari SS, 2008. Fungi associated with mouldy seeds of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] cv. CSH-9 in Western Maharashtra. International Journal of Plant Protection, 1(2):84-87

Prade CA, Matsumura AT, Ott AP, Porto ML, 2007. Diversity of soil fungi in agroforestry citrus orchards with different management in Roca Sales, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. (Diversidade de fungos do solo em sistemas agroflorestais de Citrus com diferentes tipos de manejo no município de Roca Sales, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.) Biociências, 15(1):73-81. http://revistaseletronicas.pucrs.br/ojs/index.php/fabio/article/viewFile/256/1745

Ramakrishna N, Lacey J, Smith JE, 1991. Effect of surface sterilization, fumigation and gamma irradiation on the microflora and germination of barley seeds. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 13(1):47-54; 15 ref

Riccioni L, Orzali L, 2011. Activity of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia, Cheel) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris, Linnaeus.) essential oils against some pathogenic seed borne fungi. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 23(6):43-47. http://www.jeoronline.com/

Rojas M E, Perea A EI, Pineda V YA, 2003. Fusarium spp. on Trialeurodes vaporariorum from tobacco and kidney beans of García Rovira, Santander, Colombia. (Fusarium spp. en Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) de tabaco y fríjol en García Rovira, Santander, Colombia.) Revista Colombiana de Entomología, 29(2):165-168

Scauflaire J, Gourgue M, Foucart G, Renard F, Vandeputte F, Munaut F, 2013. Fusarium miscanthi and other Fusarium species as causal agents of Miscanthus × giganteus rhizome rot. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 137(1):1-3. http://rd.springer.com/journal/10658

Sharma RB, Som Kumar, 2007. Occurrence of vegetable rots in market. Advances in Plant Sciences, 20(1):305-306

Sheraliev ASh, Bukharov KV, 2001. Fusarium species infecting agricultural and weed plants in Uzbekistan. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 35(2):44-47

Snyder WC, Hansen HN, 1945. The species concept in Fusarium with reference to Discolor and other sections. American Journal of Botany, 32:657-666

Strausbaugh CA, Windes JM, 2006. Influence of subsoiling on direct-seeded cereals in southeastern Idaho. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 28(4):596-608. http://pubs.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/tcjpp/plant.html

UK, CAB International, 1984. Fusarium culmorum. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, (December (Edition 2)), Map 440.

Wilcoxson RD, Miles MR, 1995. Fungi associated with discolored barley kernels in Minnesota. International Journal of Tropical Plant Diseases, 13(1):97-105; 19 ref

Xu XM, Parry DW, Nicholson P, Thomsett MA, Simpson D, Edwards SG, Cooke BM, Doohan FM, Brennan JM, Moretti A, Tocco G, Mule G, Hornok L, Giczey G, Tatnell J, 2005. Predominance and association of pathogenic fungi causing Fusarium ear blight in wheat in four European countries. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 112(2):143-154. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100265

Zhao GuiHua, Shi LiYan, Yang HuaiGuang, Meng QingLan, Min XiangHong, 2008. Isolation and identification of endophytic fungi in poplars. Journal of Nanjing Forestry University (Natural Sciences Edition), 32(2):76-78. http://njlydxxb.periodicals.net.cn/default.html

Zhao YanJu, 2001. Study on the causal organisms of wheat fusarium blight and its pathogenicity in eastern Qinghai. Plant Protection, 27(3):17-19

Zhukovsky A, 2006. Winter triticale diseases in Belarus. (Choroby pszenzyta ozimego w Biaorusi.) Progress in Plant Protection, 46(2):719-722. http://www.ior.poznan.pl/wydaw/Wyd-PO.htm

Distribution References

Aboagye-Nuamah F, Offei S K, Cornelius E W, Bancroft R D, 2005. Severity of spoilage storage rots of white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir.). Annals of Applied Biology. 147 (2), 183-190. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/servlet/useragent?func=showIssues&code=aab DOI:10.1111/j.1744-7348.2005.00028.x

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services., Singapore: Plant Health Centre Agri-food & Veterinary Authority.

Backhouse D, Abubakar A A, Burgess L W, Dennis J I, Hollaway G J, Wildermuth G B, Wallwork H, Henry F J, 2004. Survey of Fusarium species associated with crown rot of wheat and barley in eastern Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology. 33 (2), 255-261. DOI:10.1071/AP04010

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Cao ChunMei, Zhang JianPing, Xu LiMin, Bai QuanJiang, Zhang QingPing, Zhao CunHu, 2001. The type, quantity and distribution of wheat root disease in Bayenaoer Meng, Inner Mongolia. Acta Agriculturae Boreali-Sinica. 16 (2), 123-126.

Ezekiel C N, Odebode A C, Fapohunda S O, 2008. Zearalenone production by naturally occurring Fusarium species on maize, wheat and soybeans from Nigeria. Journal of Biological & Environmental Sciences. 2 (6), 77-82. http://jbes.uludag.edu.tr

Herb IMI, Undated. Specimen record from the collection in the Herb IMI Database., Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.herbimi.info/herbimi/home.htm

Huang XiaoHong, Ye HuaZhi, 2005. The population structure of Fusarium spp. from wheat in Sichuan. Southwest China Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 18 (3), 281-285.

Ivić D, Domijan A M, Peraica M, Miličević T, Cvjetković B, 2009. Fusarium spp. contamination of wheat, maize, soybean, and pea grain in Croatia. Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. 60 (4), 435-442. http://versita.metapress.com/content/37873r17h44n84n7/fulltext.pdf DOI:10.2478/10004-1254-60-2009-1963

Koike S T, Gordon T R, Aegerter B J, 2003. Root and basal rot of leek caused by Fusarium culmorum in California. Plant Disease. 87 (5), 601. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2003.87.5.601C

Li H L, He X L, Ding S L, Yuan H X, Chen L L, 2016. First report of Fusarium culmorum causing crown rot of wheat in China. Plant Disease. 100 (12), 2532. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-16-0723-PDN

Lõiveke H, 2006. Incidence of Fusarium spp. on several field crops in Estonia and their toxicity towards Bacillus stearothermophilus. Agronomy Research. 4 (Special Issue), 273-280.

Milevoj L, 2002. Three decades of maize fusarium diseases (Fusarium spp.) estimation. (Tri desetletja spremljanja fuzarioz (Fusarium spp.) pri koruzi.). In: Novi izzivi v poljedelstvu 2002. Zbornik simpozija, Ljubljana, Slovenia 5-6 decembra 2002. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Slovensko Agronomsko Drustvo (SAD). 78-82.

Mueller B D, Groves C L, Holtz D, Deutsch A, Smith D L, 2018. First report of Fusarium culmorum causing Fusarium head blight of wheat in Wisconsin. Plant Disease. 102 (5), 1028. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-17-1220-PDN

Prade C A, Matsumura A T, Ott A P, Porto M L, 2007. Diversity of soil fungi in agroforestry citrus orchards with different management in Roca Sales, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. (Diversidade de fungos do solo em sistemas agroflorestais de Citrus com diferentes tipos de manejo no município de Roca Sales, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.). Biociências. 15 (1), 73-81. http://revistaseletronicas.pucrs.br/ojs/index.php/fabio/article/viewFile/256/1745

Rojas M E, Perea A E I, Pineda V Y A, 2003. Fusarium spp. on Trialeurodes vaporariorum from tobacco and kidney beans of García Rovira, Santander, Colombia. (Fusarium spp. en Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) de tabaco y fríjol en García Rovira, Santander, Colombia.). Revista Colombiana de Entomología. 29 (2), 165-168.

Šafránková I, Marková J, Vejražka K, Hübschová J, Ehrenbergerová J, Vaculová K, 2007. Mycoflora of the spring barley grains especially Fusarium spp. (Mykoflóra zrn ječmene jarního se zaměřením na druhy r. Fusarium.). Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis. 55 (1), 165-171.

Scauflaire J, Gourgue M, Foucart G, Renard F, Vandeputte F, Munaut F, 2013. Fusarium miscanthi and other Fusarium species as causal agents of Miscanthus × giganteus rhizome rot. European Journal of Plant Pathology. 137 (1), 1-3. http://rd.springer.com/journal/10658 DOI:10.1007/s10658-013-0220-9

Sharma R B, Som Kumar, 2007. Occurrence of vegetable rots in market. Advances in Plant Sciences. 20 (1), 305-306.

Sheraliev A Sh, Bukharov K V, 2001. Fusarium species infecting agricultural and weed plants in Uzbekistan. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya. 35 (2), 44-47.

Strausbaugh C A, Windes J M, 2006. Influence of subsoiling on direct-seeded cereals in southeastern Idaho. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 28 (4), 596-608. http://pubs.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/tcjpp/plant.html

UK, CAB International, 1984. Fusarium culmorum. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases. Map 440.

Xu X M, Parry D W, Nicholson P, Thomsett M A, Simpson D, Edwards S G, Cooke B M, Doohan F M, Brennan J M, Moretti A, Tocco G, Mule G, Hornok L, Giczey G, Tatnell J, 2005. Predominance and association of pathogenic fungi causing Fusarium ear blight in wheat in four European countries. European Journal of Plant Pathology. 112 (2), 143-154. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100265 DOI:10.1007/s10658-005-2446-7

Zhao GuiHua, Shi LiYan, Yang HuaiGuang, Meng QingLan, Min XiangHong, 2008. Isolation and identification of endophytic fungi in poplars. Journal of Nanjing Forestry University (Natural Sciences Edition). 32 (2), 76-78. http://njlydxxb.periodicals.net.cn/default.html

Zhao YanJu, 2001. Study on the causal organisms of wheat fusarium blight and its pathogenicity in eastern Qinghai. Plant Protection. 27 (3), 17-19.

Zhukovsky A, 2006. Winter triticale diseases in Belarus. (Choroby pszenżyta ozimego w Białorusi.). Progress in Plant Protection. 46 (2), 719-722. http://www.ior.poznan.pl/wydaw/Wyd-PO.htm

Distribution Maps

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