Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide







  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Fusarium
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Sordariomycetes
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Gibberella stalk rot (Gibberella zeae); symptoms - evidence of scab (Fusarium graminearum) on a head of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum).
CaptionGibberella stalk rot (Gibberella zeae); symptoms - evidence of scab (Fusarium graminearum) on a head of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum).
Copyright©Howard F. Schwartz/Colorado State University/ - CC BY 3.0 US
Gibberella stalk rot (Gibberella zeae); symptoms - evidence of scab (Fusarium graminearum) on a head of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum).
SymptomsGibberella stalk rot (Gibberella zeae); symptoms - evidence of scab (Fusarium graminearum) on a head of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum).©Howard F. Schwartz/Colorado State University/ - CC BY 3.0 US
Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Panama disease of banana); symptoms.
CaptionFusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Panama disease of banana); symptoms.
Copyright©Michael Rutherford
Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Panama disease of banana); symptoms.
SymptomsFusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Panama disease of banana); symptoms.©Michael Rutherford


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Fusarium

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Sordariomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Hypocreomycetidae
  •                         Order: Hypocreales
  •                             Family: Nectriaceae
  •                                 Genus: Fusarium

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 09 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes




-Himachal PradeshPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-West BengalPresent



North America

-British ColumbiaPresent
Puerto RicoPresent
United StatesPresent


-South AustraliaPresent, Widespread
-VictoriaPresent, Widespread
-Western AustraliaPresent, Widespread
New ZealandPresent

South America

-Espirito SantoPresent

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacillus subtilis Antagonist
Gliocladium virens Antagonist
Pseudomonas fluorescens Antagonist


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Greathead DJ; Greathead AH, 1992. Biological control of insect pests by insect parasitoids and predators: the BIOCAT database. Biocontrol News and Information, 13(4):61N-68N.

Distribution References

Abdel-Hafez S I I, Ismail M A, Hussein N A, Abdel-Hameed N A, 2012. Fusaria and other fungi taxa associated with rhizosphere and rhizoplane of lentil and sesame at different growth stages. Acta Mycologica. 47 (1), 35-48. DOI:10.5586/am.2012.005

Alaei H, Molaei S, Mahmoodi S B, Saberi-Riseh R, 2017. New anastomosis group F (AG-F) of binucleate Rhizoctonia causing root and stem rot of Pistacia vera. Journal of Crop Protection. 6 (1), 1-13. DOI:10.18869/

Albañil Juárez J A, Mariscal Amaro L A, Martínez Martínez T O, Anaya López J L, Cisneros López H C, Pérez Ramírez H A, 2015. Regional study of phytopathogens associated to the pepper wilting in Guanajuato, Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Agrícolas. 6 (Especial 11), 2191-2197.

Altınok H H, 2013. Fusarium species isolated from common weeds in eggplant fields and symptomless hosts of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melongenae in Turkey. Journal of Phytopathology. 161 (5), 335-340. DOI:10.1111/jph.12074

Amarasinghe C C, Tittlemier S A, Fernando W G D, 2015. Nivalenol-producing Fusarium cerealis associated with fusarium head blight in winter wheat in Manitoba, Canada. Plant Pathology. 64 (4), 988-995. DOI:10.1111/ppa.12329

Amein T, 2006. Soil-borne pathogens infecting sugar beet in Southern Sweden. Plant Pathology Journal (Faisalabad). 5 (3), 356-361.

Aqeel Haider, Abid Riaz, Abdul Sattar, Muhammad Farooq, 2014. Incidence of Chir pine (Pinus roxburghii) nursery diseases in Murree hills and their in vitro management. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology. 26 (2), 265-269.

Backhouse D, Abubakar A A, Burgess L W, Dennis J I, Hollaway G J, Wildermuth G B, Wallwork H, Henry F J, 2004. Survey of Fusarium species associated with crown rot of wheat and barley in eastern Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology. 33 (2), 255-261. DOI:10.1071/AP04010

Beev G, Denev S, Pavlov D, 2011. Occurrence and distribution of Fusarium species in wheat grain. Agricultural Science and Technology. 3 (2), 165-168.

Bourdages J V, Marchand S, Rioux S, Belzile F J, 2006. Diversity and prevalence of Fusarium species from Quebec barley fields. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 28 (3), 419-425.

Bretag T W, Cunnington J H, 2005. First report of spring black stem and leaf spot in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) caused by Phoma pinodella in Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology. 34 (4), 619-620. DOI:10.1071/AP05072

Bua B, Okello C, 2011. Isolation and identification of cassava root rot disease causal pathogens from Lira district, Uganda. In: 10th African Crop Science Conference Proceedings, Maputo, Mozambique, 10-13 October 2011 [10th African Crop Science Conference Proceedings, Maputo, Mozambique, 10-13 October 2011.], [ed. by Tenywa J S, Taulya G, Kawube G, Kawuki R, Namugwanya M, Santos L]. Kampala, Uganda: African Crop Science Society. 183-186.

Carrillo D, Cruz L F, Kendra P E, Narvaez T I, Montgomery W S, Monterroso A, Grave C de, Cooperband M F, 2016. Distribution, pest status and fungal associates of Euwallacea nr. fornicatus in Florida avocado groves. Insects. 7 (4), 55. DOI:10.3390/insects7040055

Chatterton S, Bowness R, Harding M W, 2015. First report of root rot of field pea caused by Aphanomyces euteiches in Alberta, Canada. Plant Disease. 99 (2), 288-289. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-14-0905-PDN

Cheng Y Q, Ming Y T, Yang B W, Liu T, Liu J F, 2017. First report of Alternaria alternata causing hybrid hazel (Corylus heterophylla × C. avellana) fruit drop in China. Plant Disease. 101 (2), 382-383. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-16-1079-PDN

Cochard B, Crovadore J, Bovigny P Y, Chablais R, Lefort F, 2015. First reports of Cryptostroma corticale causing sooty bark disease in Acer sp. in Canton Geneva, Switzerland. New Disease Reports. 8. DOI:10.5197/j.2044-0588.2015.031.008

El-Gariani N K, El-Rayani A M, Edongali E A, 2007. Distribution of phythopathogenic fungi on the coastal region of Libya and their relationships with date cultivars. Acta Horticulturae. 449-455.

El-Nagerabi S A F, Elshafie A E, 2000. Composition of mycoflora and aflatoxins in lupine seeds from the Sudan. Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 39 (2), 257-262.

Eskalen A, Gonzalez A, Wang D H, Twizeyimana M, Mayorquin J S, Lynch S C, 2012. First report of a Fusarium sp. and its vector Tea Shot Hole Borer (Euwallacea fornicatus) causing Fusarium dieback on avocado in California. Plant Disease. 96 (7), 1070. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-03-12-0276-PDN

Fattahi B, Rahanandeh H, Chavoshi S, Zamanizadeh H R, Bayat H, Moshayedi M, 2014. Report primary of Fusarium proliferatum and Fusarium solani agents of Dianthus caryophyllus wilting in Markazi province in Iran. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences (JBES). 4 (1), 143-148.

Fernandez M R, Jefferson P G, 2004. Fungal populations in roots and crowns of common and durum wheat in Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 26 (3), 325-334.

Foster K, You MingPei, Nietschke B, Edwards N, Barbetti M J, 2017. Soilborne root disease pathogen complexes drive widespread decline of subterranean clover pastures across diverse climatic zones. Crop & Pasture Science. 68 (1), 33-44. DOI:10.1071/cp16098

Gao J, Wang Y, Guan Y M, Chen C Q, 2014. Fusarium cerealis, a new pathogen causing ginseng (Panax ginseng) root rot in China. Plant Disease. 98 (10), 1433. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-03-14-0328-PDN

García-Jiménez J, Armengol J, Sales R, Jordá C, Bruton B D, 2000. Fungal pathogens associated with melon collapse in Spain. Bulletin OEPP. 30 (2), 169-173. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2338.2000.tb00873.x

Greathead D J, Greathead A H, 1992. Biological control of insect pests by insect parasitoids and predators: the BIOCAT database. Biocontrol News and Information. 13 (4), 61N-68N.

Guan Y M, Wei Y J, Cui L L, Zhang Y Y, 2016. First report of Gentiana scabra root rot caused by Fusarium commune in China. Plant Disease. 100 (6), 1234. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-15-1264-PDN

Guo M P, Chen K, Wang G Z, Bian Y B, 2016. First report of stipe rot disease on Morchella importuna caused by Fusarium incarnatum - F. equiseti species complex in China. Plant Disease. 100 (12), 2530. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-16-0633-PDN

Helal E M, Donia A R, El-Hamid M M A, Zakzouk E A, 2000. Abundance of insect and mite species in some citrus orchards. In: Acta Horticulturae [Proceedings of the international conference on integrated fruit production, Leuven, Belgium, 27 July-1 August 1998.], [ed. by Müller W, Polesny F, Verheyden C, Webster A D]. 443-453.

Hemida K A R, Ziedan E H E, El-Saman M G M, El-Naggar M A, Mostafa H M, 2017. Etiology of fungi associated with grapevine decline and their pathological potential. Arab Universities Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 25 (2), 355-365.

Hennion B, Lecomte P, Larignon P, Baudry A, Durpaire M P, Mouillon M, Tailleur J L, Dupuy O, 2003. First observations of a wood decay (Esca-like disease) on kiwifruit in France. Acta Horticulturae. 409-411.

Hilal A A, 2004. New diseases of ornamentals in Egypt: V: Cut flower plant: Gardenia. Egyptian Journal of Phytopathology. 32 (1/2), 145-146.

Hu J, Ren H Y, Gao T, Yang J Y, Li J, Zhang F G, Yang G W, 2018. First report of Fusarium patch on Festuca arundinacea caused by Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC 1) in China. Plant Disease. 102 (5), 1035-1036. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-17-1309-PDN

Jensen C E de, Snyder V, Roman F M, Ramos R, Sánchez L, Morales R, Torres B, Palmateer A J, 2006. Integrated management of Phytophthora root rot in avocado in Puerto Rico. Proceedings of the Interamerican Society for Tropical Horticulture. 92-96.

Kadam R M, Sumia Fatima, Mumtaz Baig, Kadam V B, 2012. A survey report of leaf spot diseases of certain medicinal plants of Maharashtra, India. International Journal of Plant Protection. 5 (1), 185-186.

Karampour F, Pejman H, 2007. Study on possible influence of pathogenic fungi on date bunch fading disorder in Iran. Acta Horticulturae. 431-439.

Kilama P, Dubois T, Coyne D, Niere B, Gold C S, Adipala E, 2007. Antagonism of Paecilomyces spp. isolated from banana (Musa spp.) roots and rhizosphere against Radopholus similis. Nematropica. 37 (2), 215-225.

Kůdela V, Krejzar V, Pánková I, 2010. Pseudomonas corrugata and Pseudomonas marginalis associated with the collapse of tomato plants in rockwool slab hydroponic culture. Plant Protection Science. 46 (1), 1-11.

Lehtıjärvı A, Doğmuș-Lehtıjärvı H T, Oskay F, 2014. Cylindrocladium buxicola is threatening the native Buxus sempervirens populations in Turkey - short communication. Plant Protection Science. 50 (4), 227-229.

Li YuehLing, Wu WenShi, 2002. A new seed-borne pathogen, Alternaria dianthicola, on dianthus in Taiwan. Plant Pathology Bulletin. 11 (3), 165-167.

Luque J, Martos S, Aroca A, Raposo R, Garcia-Figueres F, 2009. Symptoms and fungi associated with declining mature grapevine plants in northeast Spain. Journal of Plant Pathology. 91 (2), 381-390.

Madania A, Altawil M, Naffaa W, Volker P H, Hawat M, 2013. Morphological and molecular characterization of Fusarium isolated from maize in Syria. Journal of Phytopathology. 161 (7/8), 452-458. DOI:10.1111/jph.12085

Mali A M, Patil V B, Ade A B, Chavan N S, Kamble S S, 2015. First report of Fusarium sp. FIESC_17 on Cucumis trigonus in India. Plant Disease. 99 (9), 1274. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-14-0881-PDN

Mali A M, Patil V B, Pise N M, Ade A B, 2016. First report of leaf spot caused by Fusarium sp. NFCCI 2882 on Angiopteris evecta: a king fern from Western Ghats, India. Plant Disease. 100 (3), 646. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-15-0427-PDN

Merzoug A, Belabid L, Youcef-Benkada M, Benfreha F, Bayaa B, 2014. Pea Fusarium wilt races in western Algeria. Plant Protection Science. 50 (2), 70-77.

Mohammadi H, Banihashemi Z, Gramaje D, Armengol J, 2013. Fungal pathogens associated with grapevine trunk diseases in Iran. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology. 15 (1), 137-150.

Moharam M H A, Farrag E S H, Mohamed M D A, 2013. Pathogenic fungi in garlic seed cloves and first report of Fusarium proliferatum causing cloves rot of stored bulbs in upper Egypt. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 46 (17), 2096-2103. DOI:10.1080/03235408.2013.785122

Mondello V, Piccolo S lo, Conigliaro G, Alfonzo A, Torta L, Burruano S, 2013. First report of Neofusiccoccum vitifusiforme and presence of other Botryosphaeriaceae species associated with Botryosphaeria dieback of grapevine in Sicily (Italy). Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 52 (2), 388-396.

Moreira S I, Dutra D da C, Rodrigues A C, Oliveira J R de, Dhingra O D, Pereira O L, 2013. Fungi and bacteria associated with post-harvest rot of ginger rhizomes in Espírito Santo, Brazil. Tropical Plant Pathology. 38 (3), 218-226.

Mouhanna A M, Nasrallah A, Langen G, Schlösser E, 2002. Surveys for beet necrotic yellow vein virus (the cause of rhizomania), other viruses, and soilborne fungi infecting sugar beet in Syria. Journal of Phytopathology. 150 (11/12), 657-662. DOI:10.1046/j.1439-0434.2002.00813.x

Muthomi J W, Musyimi S L, Wagacha J M, Narla R D, 2012. Occurrence of fusarium species and associated T2-toxin in Kenyan wheat. Agricultural Sciences. 3 (1), 24-34. DOI:10.4236/as.2012.31005

Muthomi J W, Riungu G M, Ndung'u J K, Narla R D, 2007. Occurrence of wheat head blight and Fusarium species infecting wheat. In: 8th African Crop Science Society Conference, El-Minia, Egypt, 27-31 October 2007 [8th African Crop Science Society Conference, El-Minia, Egypt, 27-31 October 2007.], [ed. by Ahmed K Z]. El-Minia, Egypt: African Crop Science Society. 863-867.

Naim Uddin, 2007. Survey of airspora in a potato field in West Bengal and their impact on the crop. Journal of Mycopathological Research. 45 (1), 15-22.

Nikolić M, Savić I, Obradović A, Srdić J, Stanković G, Stevanović M, Stanković S, 2020. First report of Aspergillus parasiticus on barley grain in Serbia. Plant Disease. 104 (3), 987-987. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-19-1364-PDN

Nurul Farah A K, Masratulhawa Mohd, Nik Mohd I M N, Latiffah Zakaria, 2016. Saprophytic and potentially pathogenic Fusarium species from peat soil in Perak and Pahang. Tropical Life Sciences Research. 27 (1), 1-20.

Pancaldi D, Tonti S, Prodi A, Salomoni D, Prà M dal, Nipoti P, Alberti I, Pisi A, 2010. Survey of the main causal agents of fusarium head blight of durum wheat around Bologna, northern Italy. Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 49 (2), 258-266.

Patel Harikrushana, Suthar Ramchandra, Shah K R, 2014. Study of wilt producing Fusarium sp. from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 3 (8), 854-858.,%20et%20al.pdf

Pavlović S, Ristić D, Vučurović I, Stevanović M, Stojanović S, Kuzmanović S, Starović M, 2016. Morphology, pathogenicity and molecular identification of Fusarium spp. associated with anise seeds in Serbia. Notulae Botanicae, Horti Agrobotanici, Cluj-Napoca. 44 (2), 411-417.

Pavlović S, Stević T, Ristić D, Starović M, Aleksić G, Kuzmanović S, Stojanović S, 2015. The first report of Bipolaris/Drechlera sorociniana (Sacc in sorok.) on anise seeds in Serbia. In: Sixth International Scientific Agricultural Symposium "Agrosym 2015", Jahorina, Bosnia and Herzegovina, October 15-18, 2015. Book of Proceedings [Sixth International Scientific Agricultural Symposium "Agrosym 2015", Jahorina, Bosnia and Herzegovina, October 15-18, 2015. Book of Proceedings.], [ed. by Kovačevuć D]. Lukavica, Bosnia-Herzegovina: University of East Sarajevo. 1101-1105.

Pavlović S, Stojšin V, Stojanović S, Starović M, 2008. Mycopopulation in five important cultivated medicinal plants in Serbia. In: Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Southeast European Countries, (5th CMAPSEEC), Brno, Czech Republic, 2-5 September, 2008. Brno, Czech Republic: Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry in Brno. 101.

Pérez-Acevedo C E, Carrillo-Rodríguez J C, Chávez-Servia J L, Perales-Segovia C, Enríquez del Valle R, Villegas-Aparicio Y, 2017. Diagnosis of symptoms and pathogens associated with pepper wilt in Central Valleys of Oaxaca. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Agrícolas. 8 (2), 281-293.

Rahjoo V, Zad J, Javan-Nikkhah M, Gohari A M, Okhovvat S M, Bihamta M R, Razzaghian J, Klemsdal S S, 2008. Morphological and molecular identification of Fusarium isolated from maize ears in Iran. Journal of Plant Pathology. 90 (3), 463-468.

Raimondo M L, Carlucci A, 2018. Characterization and pathogenicity of Plectosphaerella spp. collected from basil and parsley in Italy. Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 57 (2), 284-295.

Renu Srivastava, Lal A A, 2009. Incidence of post-harvest fungal pathogens in guava and banana in Allahabad. Journal of Horticultural Sciences. 4 (1), 85-89.

Rivera V, Rengifo J, Khan M, Geiser D M, Mansfield M, Secor G, 2008. First report of a novel Fusarium species causing yellowing decline of sugar beet in Minnesota. Plant Disease. 92 (11), 1589. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-92-11-1589B

Sabaratnam S, DiCarlo A, Fitzpatrick S, Forge T, 2009. Cranberry dieback disorder: a new and emerging threat to cranberry production in British Columbia. Acta Horticulturae. 417-424.

Shen ChengMei, Hu YingChun, Sun HaiYan, Li Wei, Guo JianHua, Chen HuaiGu, 2012. Geographic distribution of trichothecene chemotypes of the Fusarium graminearum species complex in major winter wheat production areas of China. Plant Disease. 96 (8), 1172-1178. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-11-0974-RE

Shen RuiQing, Zhang Ping, Guo ChengJin, Zhang LiRong, Kang PingZhi, 2012. Study on fungi belonging to Fusarium Link in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. Plant Diseases and Pests. 3 (2), 6-8.

Sihen Getachew, Girma Adugna, Fikre Lemessa, Hindorf H, 2012. Coffee Wilt Disease (Gibberella xylarioides Heim and Saccas) in forest coffee systems of southwest and southeast Ethiopia. Plant Pathology Journal (Faisalabad). 11 (1), 10-17.

Singh B, Saxena S, Meshram V, Kumar M, 2016. Diplodia mutila as a new pathogen on water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes in Harike wetland. Journal of Biopesticides. 9 (2), 180-188.

Strausbaugh C A, Bradley C A, Koehn A C, Forster R L, 2004. Survey of root diseases of wheat and barley in southeastern Idaho. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 26 (2), 167-176.

Swati Dumbre, Damayanti Guldekar, Potdukhe S R, 2011. Survey of seed borne fungi of onion (Allium cepa L.) from various locations of Maharashtra. Journal of Soils and Crops. 21 (2), 221-224.

Tabuc C, Taranu I, Calin L, 2011. Survey of moulds and mycotoxin contamination of cereals in South-Eastern Romania in 2008-2010. Archiva Zootechnica. 14 (4), 25-38.

Tekeoğlu M, Özkılınç H, Tunalı B, Küsmenoğlu İ, Chen WeiDong, 2017. Molecular identification of Fusarium spp. causing wilt of chickpea and the first report of Fusarium redolens in Turkey. Mediterranean Agricultural Sciences. 30 (1), 27-33.

Thuy T T T, Chi N T M, Yen N T, Anh L T N, Te L L, Waele D de, 2013. Fungi associated with black pepper plants in Quang Tri province (Vietnam), and interaction between Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium solani. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 46 (4), 470-482. DOI:10.1080/03235408.2012.744621

Toit L J du, Derie M L, Hernandez-Perez P, 2005. Verticillium wilt in spinach seed production. Plant Disease. 89 (1), 4-11. DOI:10.1094/PD-89-0004

Tunali B, Nicol J M, Hodson D, Uçkun Z, Büyük O, Erdurmuș D, Hekİmhan H, Aktaș H, Akbudak M A, Bağcı S A, 2008. Root and crown rot fungi associated with spring, facultative, and winter wheat in Turkey. Plant Disease. 92 (9), 1299-1306. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-92-9-1299

Utkhede R, Mathur S, 2003. Fusarium fruit rot of greenhouse sweet peppers in Canada. Plant Disease. 87 (1), 100. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2003.87.1.100C

Vannini A, Contarini M, Faccoli M, Valle M dalla, Rodriguez C M, Mazzetto T, Guarneri D, Vettraino A M, Speranza S, 2017. First report of the ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus compactus and associated fungi in the Mediterranean maquis in Italy, and new host-pest associations. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin. 47 (1), 100-103. DOI:10.1111/epp.12358

Varga Z, Krautzer B, Graiss W, 2006. Comparative seed pathological investigations on cultivated grass species. In: 4th International Plant Protection Symposium at Debrecen University and 11th Trans-Tisza Plant Protection Forum, 18-19 October, 2006, Debrecen, Hungary. [ed. by Kövics G J, Dávid I]. Debrecen, Hungary: Debreceni Egyetem, Agrártudományi Centrum, Mezögazdaságtudományi Kar. 233-239.

Vargas L I R, Negron-Ortiz V, 2013. Root and soil-borne oomycetes (heterokontophyta) and fungi associated with the endangered conifer, Torreya taxifolia Arn. (Taxaceae) in Georgia and Florida, USA. Life: The Excitement of Biology. 1 (4), 202-223. DOI:10.9784/LEB1(4)RiveraVargas.03

Vipin Panwar, Ashok Aggarwal, Surinder Paul, Jitender Kumar, Saharan M S, 2016. Distribution dynamics of Fusarium spp. causing Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat at different geographical locations in India. South Asian Journal of Experimental Biology. 6 (5), 167-177.

Waipara N W, Smith L A, Gianotti A F, Wilkie J P, Winks C J, McKenzie E H C, 2005. A survey of fungal plant pathogens associated with weed infestations of barberry (Berberis spp.) in New Zealand and their biocontrol potential. Australasian Plant Pathology. 34 (3), 369-376. DOI:10.1071/AP05049

Wang Y, Lu B H, Yang L N, Gao J, 2015. First report of Fusarium armeniacum causing stem and root rot on Platycodon grandiflorus in Jilin Province, China. Plant Disease. 99 (11), 1644.

Wrather J A, Phipps B, Rothrock C S, 2002. Fungi associated with postemergence cotton seedling disease in Missouri. Plant Health Progress. 1-4.

Zarafi A B, Abdulkadir I D, 2013. The incidence and severity of Jatropha dieback disease in Zaria, Nigeria. Agricultural Journal. 8 (2), 83-88.

Zhu Li, Chen GuoQing, Zhao XiaoLong, Deng ChongLing, Hyde K D, Li HongYe, 2013. Fusarium spp. are responsible for shoot canker of kumquat in China. Journal of Phytopathology. 161 (1), 59-62. DOI:10.1111/jph.12019

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