Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Fraxinus pennsylvanica
(downy ash)

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Datasheet

Fraxinus pennsylvanica (downy ash)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Threatened Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Fraxinus pennsylvanica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • downy ash
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Fraxinus pennsylvanica (downy ash); habit. USA.
TitleHabit
CaptionFraxinus pennsylvanica (downy ash); habit. USA.
Copyright©Robert Vidéki/Doronicum Kft./Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Fraxinus pennsylvanica (downy ash); habit. USA.
HabitFraxinus pennsylvanica (downy ash); habit. USA.©Robert Vidéki/Doronicum Kft./Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Fraxinus pennsylvanica (downy ash); habit. USA.
TitleHabit
CaptionFraxinus pennsylvanica (downy ash); habit. USA.
Copyright©Robert Vidéki/Doronicum Kft./Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Fraxinus pennsylvanica (downy ash); habit. USA.
HabitFraxinus pennsylvanica (downy ash); habit. USA.©Robert Vidéki/Doronicum Kft./Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Fraxinus pennsylvanica (downy ash); habit. Downy (or green) ash is a species of riparian or low seep areas. Alzada, Montana, USA. September 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionFraxinus pennsylvanica (downy ash); habit. Downy (or green) ash is a species of riparian or low seep areas. Alzada, Montana, USA. September 2009.
Copyright©Prof Matt Lavin-2016/Bozeman, Montana, USA - CC BY-SA 2.0
Fraxinus pennsylvanica (downy ash); habit. Downy (or green) ash is a species of riparian or low seep areas. Alzada, Montana, USA. September 2009.
HabitFraxinus pennsylvanica (downy ash); habit. Downy (or green) ash is a species of riparian or low seep areas. Alzada, Montana, USA. September 2009.©Prof Matt Lavin-2016/Bozeman, Montana, USA - CC BY-SA 2.0
Fraxinus pennsylvanica (downy ash); habit. Downy (or green) ash is a species of riparian or low seep areas. Alzada, Montana, USA. September 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionFraxinus pennsylvanica (downy ash); habit. Downy (or green) ash is a species of riparian or low seep areas. Alzada, Montana, USA. September 2009.
Copyright©Prof Matt Lavin-2016/Bozeman, Montana, USA - CC BY-SA 2.0
Fraxinus pennsylvanica (downy ash); habit. Downy (or green) ash is a species of riparian or low seep areas. Alzada, Montana, USA. September 2009.
HabitFraxinus pennsylvanica (downy ash); habit. Downy (or green) ash is a species of riparian or low seep areas. Alzada, Montana, USA. September 2009.©Prof Matt Lavin-2016/Bozeman, Montana, USA - CC BY-SA 2.0
Fraxinus pennsylvanica (downy ash); fresh leaf. (Note scale, in inches). USA.
TitleFresh leaf
CaptionFraxinus pennsylvanica (downy ash); fresh leaf. (Note scale, in inches). USA.
Copyright©Keith Kanoti/Maine Forest Service/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Fraxinus pennsylvanica (downy ash); fresh leaf. (Note scale, in inches). USA.
Fresh leafFraxinus pennsylvanica (downy ash); fresh leaf. (Note scale, in inches). USA.©Keith Kanoti/Maine Forest Service/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Fraxinus pennsylvanica (downy ash); habit, showing bark and trunk. nr Nebraska City, USA. May 2009.
TitleBark
CaptionFraxinus pennsylvanica (downy ash); habit, showing bark and trunk. nr Nebraska City, USA. May 2009.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by MONGO/via wikipedia - CC 0
Fraxinus pennsylvanica (downy ash); habit, showing bark and trunk. nr Nebraska City, USA. May 2009.
BarkFraxinus pennsylvanica (downy ash); habit, showing bark and trunk. nr Nebraska City, USA. May 2009.Public Domain - Released by MONGO/via wikipedia - CC 0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall

Preferred Common Name

  • downy ash

Other Scientific Names

  • Fraxinus lanceolata Borkh.
  • Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. lanceolata (Borkh.) Sarg.
  • Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. subintegerrima (Vahl) Fernald
  • Fraxinus pubescens Lam.
  • Fraxinus viridis F. Michx.

International Common Names

  • English: green ash; red ash; swamp ash; water ash
  • French: frêne rouge d'Amérique

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Esche, Amerikanische Grün-; Esche, Amerikanische Rot-; Esche, Grün-
  • Italy: frassino di Pensilvania
  • Netherlands: amerikaanse roode es
  • Sweden: rödask

EPPO code

  • FRXPE (Fraxinus pennsylvanica)
  • FRXPS (Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. subintegerrima)

Summary of Invasiveness

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The following summary is from Witt and Luke (2017):

Description

Medium-sized tree [12–25 (–45) m tall] with a trunk to 60 cm in diameter; deciduous (sheds most or all of its leaves at the end of the growing season), crown irregular to round, twigs grey to green-brown; root system shallow, wide and spreading.

Origin

USA.

Reason for Introduction

Fuelwood, timber and ornament.

Invades

Various habitats, including floodplain woodlands, mesic woodlands, riverbanks, swamps and abandoned fields.

Impacts

F. pennsylvanica was in 1948 planted as a fire break around commercial forestry plantations in the Mau Forest, Kenya. Seedlings, saplings and mature trees are now found in areas outside of these original plantings. In invaded areas, F. pennsylvanica, according to reports, “appears to affect community diversity, reducing species richness and abundance among the seedlings and saplings of trees of other species”.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Oleales
  •                         Family: Oleaceae
  •                             Genus: Fraxinus
  •                                 Species: Fraxinus pennsylvanica

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Africa

KenyaPresentIntroduced Invasive Witt and Luke, 2017

North America

CanadaPresent
-AlbertaUnconfirmed record Natural CAB Abstracts
-ManitobaPresent Natural
-New BrunswickPresent Natural
-Nova ScotiaPresent Natural
-OntarioPresent Natural
-QuebecUnconfirmed record Natural CAB Abstracts
-SaskatchewanPresent Natural
USAPresent
-AlabamaPresent Natural
-ArkansasPresent Natural
-ColoradoPresent Natural
-ConnecticutPresent Natural
-DelawarePresent Natural
-FloridaPresent Natural
-GeorgiaPresent Natural
-IllinoisUnconfirmed record Natural CAB Abstracts
-IndianaUnconfirmed record Natural CAB Abstracts
-IowaUnconfirmed record Natural CAB Abstracts
-KansasPresent Natural
-KentuckyPresent Natural
-LouisianaPresent Natural
-MainePresent Natural
-MarylandPresent Natural
-MassachusettsPresent Natural
-MichiganUnconfirmed record Natural
-MinnesotaUnconfirmed record Natural CAB Abstracts
-MississippiPresent Natural
-MissouriUnconfirmed recordCAB Abstracts
-MontanaPresent Natural
-NebraskaPresent Natural
-New HampshirePresent Natural
-New JerseyPresent Natural
-New YorkUnconfirmed record Natural CAB Abstracts
-North CarolinaPresent Natural
-North DakotaPresent Natural
-OhioPresent Natural
-OklahomaPresent Natural
-OregonPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent Natural
-Rhode IslandPresent Natural
-South CarolinaPresent Natural
-South DakotaPresent Natural
-TennesseePresent Natural
-TexasPresent Natural
-UtahUnconfirmed recordCAB Abstracts
-VermontPresent Natural
-VirginiaPresent Natural
-West VirginiaPresent Natural
-WisconsinUnconfirmed record Natural CAB Abstracts
-WyomingPresent Natural

Europe

Russian FederationUnconfirmed recordCAB Abstracts
SpainUnconfirmed recordCAB Abstracts

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 18 27
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) -18 13

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall3801520mm; lower/upper limits

References

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Burns RM, Honkala BH, 1990. Silvics of North America: 2. Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654. Washington DC, USA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. Also available on the Internet (individual authors noted) at: < target="_blank">http://willow.ncfes.umn.edu/fth_pub.htm>

Kennedy HE Jr, 1990. Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh., Green ash. In: Burns RM, Honkala BH, tech. coords. Silvics of North America: 2. Hardwoods. USDA Agriculture Handbook, No. 654. Washington DC, USA: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service

Poland TM, McCullough DG, 2006. Emerald ash borer: invasion of the urban forest and the threat to North America's ash resource. Journal of Forestry, 104(3):118-124. http://www.ingenta.com/journals/browse/saf/jof

Witt, A., Luke, Q., 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa, [ed. by Witt, A., Luke, Q.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI.vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 doi:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

Distribution Maps

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