Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Fraxinus americana
(white ash)



Fraxinus americana (white ash)


  • Last modified
  • 25 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Threatened Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Fraxinus americana
  • Preferred Common Name
  • white ash
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Fraxinus americana L.

Preferred Common Name

  • white ash

Other Scientific Names

  • Fraxinus biltmoreana Beadle

International Common Names

  • Spanish: fresno americano
  • French: frene blanc d'Amerique

Local Common Names

  • Cuba: fresno blanco
  • Germany: Amerikanische Weiss- Esche
  • Italy: frassino bianco americano
  • Netherlands: es, Amerikaanse
  • Sweden: ask, vit-
  • USA: Biltmore ash; Biltmore white ash

EPPO code

  • FRXAM (Fraxinus americana)
  • FRXBI (Fraxinus biltmoreana)

Trade name

  • white ash

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Oleales
  •                         Family: Oleaceae
  •                             Genus: Fraxinus
  •                                 Species: Fraxinus americana

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Dec 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Planted Reference Notes




Serbia and MontenegroPresent
SlovakiaPresentIntroducedFirst reported: 1804. First reported in wild: 1986

North America

-New BrunswickPresent
-Nova ScotiaPresent
-Prince Edward IslandPresent
United StatesPresent
-New HampshirePresent
-New JerseyPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-Rhode IslandPresent
-South CarolinaPresent
-West VirginiaPresent



Habitat List

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Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
48 28 50 1050

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -46
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 3 18
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 18 28
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) -14 12


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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration02number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall7601520mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • medium

Uses List

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  • Agroforestry
  • Revegetation
  • Shade and shelter


  • Ornamental


  • Carved material
  • Miscellaneous materials
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Wood Products

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Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Carpentry/joinery (exterior/interior)
  • For light construction
  • Wall panelling


Wood-based materials

  • Laminated veneer lumber
  • Laminated wood


  • Industrial and domestic woodware
  • Sports equipment
  • Tool handles
  • Turnery


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Brisson J; Bergeron Y; Bouchard A, 1988. Secondary succession on mesic sites in the Upper St. Lawrence Region, Quebec, Canada. [Les successions secondaires sur sites mesiques dans le Haut-Saint-Laurent, Quebec, Canada.] Canadian Journal of Botany, 66(6):1192-1203; 50 ref.

Burns RM; Honkala BH, 1990. Silvics of North America: 2. Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654. Washington DC, USA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. Also available on the Internet (individual authors noted) at: < target="_blank">>

Cho DS; Boerner REJ, 1991. Structure, dynamics and composition of Sears Woods and Carmean Woods State Nature Preserves, north-central Ohio (USA). Castanea, 56:77-89.

Hicks RR Jr, 1998. Ecology and management of central hardwood forests. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons.

Hix DM; Lorimer CG, 1991. Early stand development on former oak sites in southwestern Wisconsin. Forest Ecology and Management, 42(3-4):169-193; 42 ref.

Liebhold A; Gottschalk KW; Muzika RM; Montgomery ME; Young R; O'Day K; Kelley B, 1995. Suitability of North American tree species to the gypsy moth: a summary of field and laboratory tests. USDA-Forest Service, Northeast Forest Experiment Station. General Technical Report NE-211.

Little EL Jr, 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). USDA Forest Service, Agriculture Handbook No. 541; Washington, DC: USA.

Lorimer CG, 1983. A test of the accuracy of shade-tolerance classifications based on physiognomic and reproductive traits. Canadian Journal of Botany, 61(6):1595-1598; 16 ref.

Luken JO; Hinton AC; Baker DG, 1991. Assessment of frequent cutting as a plant-community management technique in power-line corridors. Environmental Management, 15(3):381-388

Mauffette Y; Lechowicz MJ; Jobin L, 1984. Host preferences of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), in southern Quebec. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 13(1):53-60; 47 ref.

Muller MJ, 1982. Selected climatic data for a global set of standard stations for vegetation science. The Hague, Netherlands: Dr. W. Junk Publishers.

Mullins EJ; McKnight TS, 1981. Canadian woods: their properties and uses (3rd edn.). Toronto, ON, Canada: University of Toronto Press.

Oviedo Prieto R; Herrera Oliver P; Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.

Parker GR; Leopold DJ; Eichenberger JK, 1985. Tree dynamics in an old-growth, deciduous forest. Forest Ecology and Management, 11(1-2):31-57; 70 ref.

Poland TM; McCullough DG, 2006. Emerald ash borer: invasion of the urban forest and the threat to North America's ash resource. Journal of Forestry, 104(3):118-124.

Runkle JR, Denslow JS (ed. ), Spies TA, 1990. Gap dynamics in an Ohio Acer-Fagus forest and speculations on the geography of disturbance. Canopy gaps in forest ecosystems. A symposium held in Columbus, Ohio, August 1987. Canadian-Journal-of-Forest-Research, 20(5):632-641; 77 ref.

Schlesinger RC, 1990. In: Burns RM, Honkala BH, eds. Silvics of North America. Vol. 2: Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook No. 654, USDA-Forest Service, Washington DC, USA, 333-338.

Sinclair WA; Griffiths HM, 1994. Ash yellows and its relationship to dieback and decline of ash. Annual Review of Phytopathology Palo Alto, USA; Annual Reviews Inc, 32:49-60

Sinclair WA; Griffiths HM; Davies RE, 1996. Ash yellows and lilac witches'-broom: phytoplasmal diseases of concern in forestry and horticulture. Plant Disease, 80(5):468-475; 49 ref.

Sîrbu C; Oprea A; Eliás P Jr; Ferus P, 2011. New contribution to the study of alien Flora in Romania. Journal of Plant Development, 18:121-134.

von Althen FW, 1970. Hardwood plantations of southern Ontario. Canadian Forest Service, Information Report O-X-2, Ottawa, Canada.

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, Undated. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chen F, Zheng X, Zhao X, Chen F, 2019. First report of Lasiodiplodia theobromae causing stem canker of Fraxinus americana. Plant Disease. 103 (12), 3276-3277. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-19-0892-PDN

Keča N, Bodles W J A, Woodward S, Karadžić D, Bojović S, 2006. Molecular-based identification and phylogeny of Armillaria species from Serbia and Montenegro. Forest Pathology. 36 (1), 41-57. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0329.2006.00434.x

Mohammed E, Ülgentürk S, Uygun N, Garonna A P, Szentkiralayi F, Fent M, Hayat M, 2016. The distribution, host plants and natural enemies of white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni-Tozzetti) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), in Ankara Province. Munis Entomology & Zoology. 11 (2), 650-656.

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435.

Sîrbu C, Oprea A, Eliáš P Jr, Ferus P, 2011. New contribution to the study of alien Flora in Romania. Journal of Plant Development. 121-134.

Distribution Maps

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