Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Acacia glauca
(wild dividivi)

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Datasheet

Acacia glauca (wild dividivi)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 13 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Acacia glauca
  • Preferred Common Name
  • wild dividivi
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Acacia glauca (referred to as Acaciella glauca in Australia and elsewhere) is a shrub or small tree from the Caribbean that has naturalized outside its native range. It is a prolific producer of long-l...

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1. flowering branch
2. pod
3. seed
TitleLine artwork
Caption1. flowering branch 2. pod 3. seed
CopyrightPROSEA Foundation
1. flowering branch
2. pod
3. seed
Line artwork1. flowering branch 2. pod 3. seedPROSEA Foundation

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Acacia glauca (L.) Moench

Preferred Common Name

  • wild dividivi

Other Scientific Names

  • Acacia curassavica (Killip) Stehle
  • Acacia villosa (Swartz) Willd.
  • Acaciella curassavica Killip
  • Acaciella glauca (L.) L. Rico
  • Acaciella villosa (Swartz) Britton & Rose
  • Leucaena glauca (L.) Benth.
  • Mimosa glauca L.

International Common Names

  • English: redwood
  • French: amourette
  • Chinese: hui he huan

Local Common Names

  • Caribbean: watapana
  • Indonesia/Java: mlanding merah; mlanding sabrang
  • Indonesia/Nusa Tenggara: petes merah
  • Malaysia: mata galinja

Summary of Invasiveness

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Acacia glauca (referred to as Acaciella glauca in Australia and elsewhere) is a shrub or small tree from the Caribbean that has naturalized outside its native range. It is a prolific producer of long-lived seeds and has relatively unpalatable foliage. It is rather similar in appearance and uses to the highly valued but also occasionally invasive Leucaena leucocephala, both of which have been introduced as potential fodder trees and also for fuel, erosion control and other environmental services. However, there have been fewer introductions of A. glauca than L. leucocephala but it has become naturalized and is reported as invasive in many parts of East and South-East Asia, Australia and some Pacific and Indian Ocean islands. Also, considering the similarities to L. leucocephala, it is possible that it could become more invasive in the future where already present, and further introductions are not recommended, especially to continental Africa where it is not yet reported. 

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Mimosoideae
  •                                 Genus: Acacia
  •                                     Species: Acacia glauca

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Acacia glauca is a species in the legume family Fabaceae, in the subfamily Mimosoideae and the tribe Acacieae. However, notwithstanding the clear confusion introduced below regarding synonymy, it appears that A. glauca is a ‘good’ species with agreed limits, although it is possible that in which genus it is placed may yet change again with new insights revealed by molecular taxonomy and the continuing debate on the relative ranks and naming of Acacia subgenera.

A. glauca (L.) Moench is the accepted name in the Plant List (2013) and is accepted here. However, USDA-ARS (2015) and Csurhes and Navie (2010) in Australia use Acaciella glauca (L.) Rico as the given name, with Acacia glauca (L.) Moench as one of its synonyms, and as such, in Australia and the USA, Acaciella glauca is the name usually used. Acacia curassavica (and Acaciella curassavica) are accepted synonyms (e.g. Rico Arce and Bachman, 2006).

A. glauca is often confused with other closely related species such as A. villosa and A. angustissima which are similar in habit, environmental adaptation and productivity (Csurhes and Navie, 2010). A. villosa (Sw.) Willd. is also mentioned as a synonym by some sources, though the Plant List (2013) and Rico Arce and Bachman (2006) treat them as distinct species, which is accepted here. A. villosa has synonyms that include Acaciella villosa (Sw.) Britton & Rose and Mimosa villosa Sw. However, there are a number of references in the literature that treat A. villosa and A. glauca as the same species (e.g. Bässler, 1998).

However, extreme caution should be taken when looking at the literature associated with this binomial, especially regarding synonyms reported in various other databases. Care should also be taken with the naming authority, as A. glauca (L.) Willd. is also taken as a synonym of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (ILDIS, 2014; The Plant List, 2013), although it could also be confused as a synonym of A. glauca (L.) Moench. Thus, the use of A. glauca with no indication of naming authority as a synonym for L. leucocephala is a cause of great taxonomic confusion.

Leucaena glauca (L.) Benth is also taken as a synonym of A. glauca (L.) Moench by PIER (2015), and as a synonym of Acaciella glauca (L.) L. Rico by USDA-ARS (2015). However, Leucaena glauca with three other authorities (Benth; (Willd.) Benth; and (sensu L. 1763) Benth) are cited by ILDIS (2014) as synonyms of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit.

The Plant List (2013) also states that Acaciella glauca (L.) L. Rico is “the accepted name of a species in the genus Acaciella (family Leguminosae). The record derives from Tropicos (data supplied on 2012-04-18) which reports it as an accepted name (record 50319064) with original publication details: Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 63(2): 210 2006”…, but also adds that “A cross-taxon basionym link was ignored while processing this record, see Mimosa glauca L.”.

Mimosa glauca L. (1753) is taken as a synonym of A. glauca (L.) Moench by ILDIS (2014), but the same database differentiates Mimosa glauca sensu L. (1963), including it as a synonym of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. During work on the revision of the taxonomical limits of Leucaena by the global authority on the genus, Hughes (1997) stated that “The adoption of both L. glauca and Mimosa glauca as type species is rejected in order to prevent synonymy with the genus Acacia.”

Description

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A. glauca is an erect shrub or small tree, often only 1.5-2.5 m tall but growing to 5-6 m and even up to 8 m where conditions permit, often with an open crown and dark red bark. Trees are unarmed, branches terete, pubescent, sparsely pubescent to glabrous, stipules linear-lanceolate and 2-3 mm long, younger twigs more strigose. Leaves are bipinnately or sometimes tripinnately compound, 4.5–15 cm long, borne on glabrous or sparingly strigose petioles 2–5.5 cm long. They are composed of (2-)5-6(-10) pairs of pinnae 3-6(-9) cm long, rachis 8-12 cm long, glandless, each with 10-30 pairs leaflets that are each 4-8(-10) mm long and 1-3 mm wide, opposite, broadly oblong, oblong-lanceolate or oblong-ovate, obtuse at their apex and obtusely asymmetrical at the base, subglabrous or lightly pubescent. Leaflets are glabrous on both surfaces or occasionally shortly strigose below. Leaflet venation is reticulate, visible only on the paler undersides, the midvein is near the middle, bilaterally slightly asymmetric. The stipules are linear, 2–5 mm long and caduceus, margin ciliate, on petioles 2 cm long, normally eglandular. Inflorescence a short, sometimes subcapitate, 20-40-flowered white and slightly fragrant raceme of oblong to subglobose heads, 2-6 together in upper axils, on peduncles 1-2 cm long, pedicels to 1 mm long. Flowers are 5-merous, bisexual, white turning yellowish, calyx campanulate, 0.5-1 mm long, 5-lobed; corolla is white, tubular, 5-lobed, 2-4 mm long; stamens prominent and numerous (100 or more), initially white turning yellow, 6-7 mm long; ovary stipitate with 5 mm long style. The flat, thin fruit is an oblong pod (1.5-)5-7(-10) cm long and 1-2 cm wide, glossy brown, (1-)3-6(-8) seeded, often irregularly constricted, villous, tapered to a stipitate base, obtuse and apiculate at apex. Seeds are brown, oval, about 3-5 mm long and 3 mm wide (based on World Agroforestry Centre (2009) and other descriptions).

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Tree
Vegetatively propagated
Woody

Distribution

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The native range of A. glauca includes the southern Caribbean islands and northern South America, though the exact limits are debated and likely further confused by disagreements regarding taxonomy and nomenclature.

USDA-ARS (2015) gives the following as native range countries (from south to north): Venezuela, Curaçao (Netherlands Antilles), St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Martinique, Guadeloupe, Montserrat, and Barbados to the east. USDA-NRCS (2015) does not record it in Puerto Rico, the US Virgin Islands nor the USA (including Hawaii). According to Jukema and Danimihardja (1997), the native range includes southern Central America and many West Indian islands, noting it to be especially frequent on Curaçao and Barbados. GBIF (2015) includes records in this region from the Netherlands Antilles, Montserrat and Anguilla. ILDIS (2014) states it is native to only Jamaica and some unspecified Caribbean islands. Smith (1985), cited in PIER (2015), gave the native range as Curaçao, Bonaire and some of the Lesser Antilles as far north as Guadeloupe. Howard (1988), cited by the Missouri Botanical Garden (2015), reports records from the Leeward and Windward Islands and the Netherlands Antilles. The Missouri Botanical Garden (2015) also includes a record for Panama.

In view of the available data and issues regarding the taxonomy, a broad native range is assumed for the purposes of this datasheet, including all Caribbean islands and countries in the region where it has been reported by at least one source. It is also likely to be present in other mainland Central American countries, and may even be native there.

The species has been quite widely introduced, and is now present in many countries in South, East and South-East Asia, notably India, China (Fujian and Guangdong), Thailand, Indonesia (Java and West Timor) and the Philippines, as well as Australia (coastal Queensland from the tip of the Cape York Peninsula to north of Rockhampton) (AVH, 2015). It has also been introduced to Mauritius in the Indian Ocean and some Pacific islands, including the Cook Islands and Fiji. In the Cook Islands, A. glauca is reported as spreading and forming dense thickets (Space and Flynn, 2002; Haysom and Murphy, 2003); it is well established on the island of Mauke, and possibly also present on Mitiaro, in the southern island group (McCormack, 2007).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentIntroduced Not invasive PIER, 2015
-FujianPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
IndiaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2015
IndonesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015
-JavaPresentIntroduced Invasive Planted PIER, 2015
-Nusa TenggaraPresentIntroducedAVH, 2015West Timor
PhilippinesPresentIntroduced Invasive Planted PIER, 2015
ThailandPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015

Africa

MauritiusPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015

North America

MexicoPresentNativeGBIF, 2015

Central America and Caribbean

AnguillaPresentNativeGBIF, 2015
BarbadosPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2015
CuraçaoPresentNative Natural USDA-ARS, 2015
GuadeloupePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
JamaicaPresentNative Natural ILDIS, 2014
MartiniquePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
MontserratPresentNativeGBIF, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015
Netherlands AntillesPresentNativeGBIF, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015Curacao, Bonaire
PanamaPresentNative Natural Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015

South America

ColombiaPresentNativeGBIF, 2015
VenezuelaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced Invasive AVH, 2015
Cook IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive McCormack, 2007
FijiPresentIntroduced Not invasive PIER, 2015
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroducedGBIF, 2015

History of Introduction and Spread

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A. glauca was introduced to Indonesia in 1920, initially planted in Java as an alternative nurse species to L. leucocephala in teak (Tectona grandis) plantations, to rehabilitate degraded land and to stabilize terrace ridges. It was also introduced to the Philippines around the same time (Jukema and Danimihardja, 1997).

The earliest herbarium record from Fiji is dated 1954 (GBIF, 2015), and 1957 for Queensland, Australia (Csurhes and Navie, 2010), though it may have been introduced there well before that date. Information is not forthcoming regarding dates of other introductions, though it is known to have formed part of introduction trials of potentially valuable agroforestry species that were widely established, especially in the 1980s, and it thus may have been introduced to other countries around this time. For example, Csurhes and Navie (2010) report that it was widely planted in Queensland in the 1970s and 1980s, encompassing 27 sites between 1975 and 1991 (where it was planted under the name Acacia angustissima) to investigate its potential as cattle forage, though trials concluded that it had limited fodder value and that its weed potential probably outweighed any benefits likely to be gained. However, notwithstanding this conclusion, these experimental plots appear to be the origin of current invasions in the area where the species has escaped from cultivation.

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Indonesia 1920 Forestry (pathway cause) Yes Jukema et al. (1997)

Risk of Introduction

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It is likely, noting the potential value of this species and its similarities to the now pantropical L. leucocephala, that it could well be intentionally introduced as an agroforestry species to other countries where it is not yet recorded, especially in Africa. It could pose a significant threat to rangeland ecosystems in northern Australia (Csurhes and Navie, 2010) if intentionally introduced or spread there by accident.

Habitat

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A. glauca grows in a variety of habitats in it native range, but is more common in degraded forests and forest edges, wastelands and other disturbed areas. Where introduced, it is grown as an agroforestry and nurse species and is therefore commonly found in agricultural and managed forest areas. In Queensland, Australia, A. glauca is reported from a variety of soil types and habitats, from the coastal wet tropics to semi-arid inland environments, often in disturbed vegetation along roadsides; naturalized populations have also been reported from open woodlands, grasslands and riversides (Csurhes and Navie, 2010).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Natural
Rail / roadsides Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Natural
Natural grasslands Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Riverbanks Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Coastal areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number of A. glauca is 2n = 26 (Jukema and Danimihardja, 1997).

Reproductive Biology

A. glauca reproduces by seed and can also regenerate via root suckers.

Physiology and Phenology

A. glauca is a fast growing, nitrogen-fixing leguminous tree that coppices profusely when cut. It has a superficial, spreading root system and regularly produces root suckers. It is reported to be one of the fastest growing legumes on very poor soils in the tropics, and can grow to 3 m tall and 3 cm in diameter in the first year. A. glauca is known to be a prolific seed producer, although recruitment tends to occur most readily when competition from other plants is low (Cook et al., 2005; Csurhes and Navie, 2010).

Under ideal conditions in its native range, individual plants may start flowering within the first year following germination, and flowering can occur continuously throughout the year. Normally, flowering and fruiting occur from January and February in its native range (Rico Arce and Bachman, 2006). In Queensland, Australia, flowering is reported from April to December, with fruiting from May to November (Csurhes and Navie, 2010). Where introduced in China, it is reported to flower and fruit from July to November (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015).

The ability of A. glauca to tolerate repeated coppicing, in combination with prolific seed production, rapid growth and low palatability to ruminant livestock, has allowed the species to become weedy both in its native and introduced ranges, commonly forming thickets along roadsides and on free-draining rangelands (Cook et al., 2005; Csurhes and Navie, 2010).

Environmental Requirements

A. glauca is a truly tropical species, and grows best with annual temperatures of 25-30ºC. It is commonly found in humid areas, and can tolerate very humid regions with annual rainfall up to 4000 mm. Although it is reported to grow well in areas in its native range where rainfall is as low as 500 mm per year and with a dry season of up to six months, it is not known to have naturalized in regions with such dry climatic conditions. In Indonesia the optimum rainfall is around 1200 mm per year.

It is commonly found growing on limestone, but also on non-calcareous and slightly acidic soils. It grows better than L. leucocephala on very poor soils and has been cultivated on a wide range of soils, including slightly alkaline vertisols (Cook et al., 2005). In Queensland, Australia, cultivated and naturalized specimens have been found growing in a variety of habitats and soil types, including sandy soils, clay loams and alluvial soils (Csurhes and Navie, 2010).

A. glauca grows from sea level to 500 m in its native range (Rico Arce and Bachman 2006), and to at least 1200 m where introduced.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
20 30 0 0

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 5
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 26 31
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 24 36
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 12 30

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration06number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall5004000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • shallow

Notes on Natural Enemies

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A. glauca appears to be relatively free of pests and diseases. No reports have been found that identify any natural enemies.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Although no definitive studies appear to be available, it may be considered that seeds are dispersed by gravity, possibly aided to a small extent by insect and rodent dispersal. Water, especially floodwater following rain, is also likely to be an important means of longer range dispersal. The light mature pods may be blown short distances from the parent tree by wind,

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Experience with species closely related to A. glauca with similar hard-coated seeds indicates that seeds may be eaten by livestock, wild mammals or birds and then germinate after passing intact through the animals’ digestive systems; such seeds can survive for many years in the soil.

Accidental Introduction

Short distance dispersal of seeds could also occur in mud packs formed on animals’ hooves or on vehicles during wet periods (Csurhes and Navie, 2010; Queensland Government, 2011). When a single A. glauca plant was found growing in a crop of centro (Centrosema sp.) at a research station in Queensland in 1964, it was considered to have been introduced into the country as a contaminant in the centro seed (Csurhes and Navie, 2010).

Intentional Introduction

A. glauca has been introduced internationally as a valuable agroforestry species, similar to L. leucocephala. It is also widely planted as an ornamental throughout the Tropics.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop production Yes
Digestion and excretion Yes
Disturbance Yes
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes
Flooding and other natural disasters Yes
Forestry Yes Yes
Habitat restoration and improvement Yes Yes
HitchhikerMud containing seeds can attach to vehicles or animals Yes
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Land vehicles Yes
Livestock Yes
Plants or parts of plantsoccurs as a seed contaminant Yes Yes
Water Yes
Wind Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
True seeds (inc. grain) Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Biodiversity

A. glauca has been reported as an environmental weed in several countries including Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines, Australia (notably Queensland), the Cook Islands and Mauritius. It forms dense thickets in parts of Queensland and in the Cook Islands, crowding out native species. The species is listed as a weed known to have an impact on rangeland biodiversity in Queensland (Martin et al., 2006), and is a Class 1 declared plant in Queensland and a Category 1 species in the Far North Queensland list of regional priority weeds (as Acaciella glauca) (Csurhes and Navie, 2010). There are few other records regarding the exact nature of impacts specific to A. glauca, though it could be assumed that they would be similar to those for the closely related L. leucocephala

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

Uses

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Economic Value

A. glauca is very useful as a nurse crop and cover crop in forest plantations, as a fallow species and in agroforestry systems. A. glauca and closely related species have been evaluated in many tropical countries as potential dry season forage species. Most were found to be highly tolerant of repeated defoliation, but palatability varied from only low to moderate, the foliage containing some toxic compounds, such as polyphenolics and non-protein amino acids, that have antinutritional effects in ruminants. Despite this, A. glauca has become an important forage or source of green manure in some locations (Cook et al., 2005). For example, A. glauca is used as a forage species in West Timor, Indonesia (Jukema and Danimihardja, 1997). It has also been proposed as a protein supplement in countries where low quality forages predominate (Bamualim et al., 1991; McSweeney et al., 2005).

The wood from A. glauca is used as a fuel, and from larger branches and stems it is also used for making household tools. In East Java, Indonesia, as well as Yunnan, South China, the species has been identified as one of the best host plants for the lac insect (Kerria lacca) for the production of lac (Jukema and Danimihardja, 1997; Hu et al., 2003).

Social Benefit

Medicinal uses of A. glauca in its native range in the Caribbean include an infusion of the roots or leaves in vinegar to relieve sore throats and coughs. It is also widely planted in the tropics as an ornamental shrub or small tree (Jukema and Danimihardja, 1997).

Environmental Services

A. glauca is largely planted to rehabilitate degraded and denuded land, and to stabilize terrace ridges (Jukema and Danimihardja, 1997).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage
  • Invertebrate food

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Boundary, barrier or support
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Revegetation

Fuels

  • Fuelwood

Materials

  • Green manure
  • Lac
  • Mulches
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • garden plant

Wood Products

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Woodware

  • Industrial and domestic woodware
  • Tool handles

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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The general appearance and habit of A. glauca are similar to those of shrubby forms of L. leucocephala and, as such, the two species are sometimes confused. However, they can be distinguished most easily by comparing the pods, which are generally shorter and the ends more rounded in A. glauca. Additionally, the twigs of A. glauca often have a reddish colour.

A. villosa and A. angustissima are also similar to A. glauca in habit, environmental adaptation and productivity (Csurhes and Navie, 2010). However, A. glauca has glabrous leaflets with plane or partially involute margins, whereas A. villosa has densely pubescent leaflets with completely involute margins (Rico Arce and Bachman, 2006). Young stems of A. angustissima differ from those of A. glauca in being slightly grooved, finely hairy or hairless, and greenish rather than smooth, almost hairless and reddish (Queensland Government, 2011).

Prevention and Control

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Eradication

An eradication programme for A. glauca is on-going in parts of Queensland, Australia (Csurhes and Navie, 2010), though no information is provided on the methods that have been tested or those being employed.

Physical/Mechanical Control

As with many other trees, A. glauca resprouts vigorously after cutting and therefore at least the top of the root systems must be removed to ensure tree kill. Smaller seedlings can be pulled up by hand or dug up using a hoe or mattock that cuts the root some 10-15 cm below ground level. As a palatable species, grazing could be used as a means of control, as grazing by goats was found to control L. leucocephala in Hawaii (PIER, 2015).

Chemical Control

Noting the similarity with L. leucocephala, herbicides that have proved successful on the latter may be effective on A. glauca. Triclopyr applied to foliage, tebuthiuron applied to soil, or triclopyr ester, 2,4-D in diesel or to a lesser extent diesel alone applied as basal bark treatments were reported as effective by PIER (2015), who also noted that, in combination with mechanical cutting, treatment of cut stumps was effective with picloram and triclopyr ester but not with dicamba.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Further work on the taxonomical limits of this species and its relationships with other closely related species is required, including molecular and parallel morphological research.

References

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AVH, 2015. Australia's Virtual Herbarium. Canberra, ACT, Australia: Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria. http://avh.chah.org.au/

Backer CA; Brink RCB van den, 1963. Flora of Java. Vol. 1. Groningen, Netherlands: NVP Noordhoff.

Bamualim A; Kedang A; Field S, 1991. The effect of Gliricidia sepium and Acacia villosa supplements on the growth rate of Bali heifers (Bos sondaicus). Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports, 9:19-20.

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21/02/14    Original text for Invasive Species Compendium sections by:

Nick Pasiecznik, Consultant, France

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