Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Frankliniella fusca
(tobacco thrips)

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Datasheet

Frankliniella fusca (tobacco thrips)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Vector of Plant Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Frankliniella fusca
  • Preferred Common Name
  • tobacco thrips
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Frankliniella fusca (Hinds, 1902)

Preferred Common Name

  • tobacco thrips

Other Scientific Names

  • Euthrips fuscus Hinds, 1902
  • Euthrips nicotianae Hinds, 1905
  • Frankliniella nicotianae Karny, 1912
  • Physopus fuscus Trybom, 1910
  • Physopus nicotianae (Hinds)
  • Scirtothrips owreyi Watson, 1924

International Common Names

  • English: thrips, tobacco
  • French: thrips du tabac

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Blasenfuss, Tabak-; Tabak-Blasenfuss

EPPO code

  • FRANFU (Frankliniella fusca)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Thysanoptera
  •                         Family: Thripidae
  •                             Genus: Frankliniella
  •                                 Species: Frankliniella fusca

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

JapanPresent2011Nakao et al. (2011)

Europe

NetherlandsPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Mantel and van de Vrie (1988)

North America

CanadaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Jacot-Guillarmod, 1973
-AlbertaPresentChiasson (1986)
-OntarioPresentCABI (Undated a)
CubaPresentPérez et al. (2004)
MartiniquePresentBournier (1993)
MexicoPresentCABI (Undated a)
Puerto RicoPresentCABI (Undated a)
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a)
-AlabamaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-ArkansasPresentScott et al. (1989)
-ConnecticutPresentCABI (Undated a)
-FloridaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-GeorgiaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-HawaiiPresentCABI (Undated a)
-IllinoisPresentCABI (Undated a)
-IndianaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-IowaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-KansasPresentCABI (Undated a)
-LouisianaPresentBurris et al. (1989)
-MarylandPresentCABI (Undated a)
-MassachusettsPresentCABI (Undated a)
-MichiganPresentCABI (Undated a)
-MississippiPresentFarlow et al. (1988)
-MissouriPresentCABI (Undated a)
-NebraskaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-New JerseyPresentCABI (Undated a)
-New YorkPresentCABI (Undated a)
-North CarolinaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-OklahomaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-PennsylvaniaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-South CarolinaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-South DakotaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-TennesseePresentCABI (Undated a)
-TexasPresentCABI (Undated a)
-UtahPresentCABI (Undated a)
-VirginiaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-WashingtonPresentCABI (Undated a)
-WisconsinPresentCABI (Undated a)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Fruit / discoloration
Fruit / external feeding
Fruit / malformed skin
Growing point / dead heart
Growing point / discoloration
Growing point / distortion
Growing point / external feeding
Inflorescence / discoloration (non-graminaceous plants)
Inflorescence / distortion (non-graminaceous plants)
Inflorescence / external feeding
Inflorescence / twisting and distortion
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / distortion
Vegetative organs / internal feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Thripinema fuscum Parasite Adults

References

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Bag S, Schwartz HF, Cramer CS, Havey MJ, Pappu HR, 2015. Iris yellow spot virus (Tospovirus: Bunyaviridae): from obscurity to research priority. Molecular Plant Pathology, 16(3):224-237. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1364-3703

Beaudoin ALP, Kennedy GG, 2012. Management of winter weeds affects Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) dispersal. Environmental Entomology, 41(2):362-369. http://esa.publisher.ingentaconnect.com/content/esa/envent/2012/00000041/00000002/art00020;jsessionid=64pfc60b4i3f6.alexandra

Bing JW, Dicke FF, Guthrie WD, 1990. Genetics of resistance in maize to a complex of three species of thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 83(2):621-624

Borror DJ, Triplehorn CA, Johnson NF, 1989. An introduction to the study of insects. Sixth edition. Philadelphia, USA: Saunders College Publishing

Bournier A, 1993. ThysanoptFres de Martinique et de Guadeloupe. Zoology (Journal of Pure and Applied Zoology), 3(3):227-240

Brown SL, Todd JW, Culbreath AK, Kuo CG, 1996. Effect of selected cultural practices on incidence of tomato spotted wilt virus and populations of thrips vectors in peanuts. International Symposium on Tospoviruses and Thrips of Floral and Vegetable Crops, Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, Taichung, Taiwan, 7-10 November 1995. Acta Horticulturae, 431:491-498

Brunt AA, Crabtree K, Dallwitz MJ, Gibbs AJ, Watson L (eds), 1996. Viruses of plants. Descriptions and lists from the VIDE database. Wallingford, UK: CAB INTERNATIONAL, 1484 pp

Burris E, Leonard BR, White CA, Graves JB, Scott W, 1995. Evaluation of fipronil and imidacloprid (Gaucho 480 and Admire 2F) applied in-furrow in cotton. 1995 Proceedings Beltwide Cotton Conferences, San Antonio, TX, USA, January 4-7, 1995: Volume 2., 918-920

Burris E, Ratchford KJ, Pavloff AM, Boquet DJ, Williams BR, Rogers RL, 1989. Thrips on seedling cotton: related problems and control. Bulletin - Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station, 811:19 pp

Campbell WV, Emery DA, Wynne JC, Batts RW, 1976. Interaction of peanut variety and insecticide. Peanut Science, 3(2):75-77

Campbell WV, Wynne JC, 1985. Influence of the insect-resistant peanut cultivar NC 6 on performance of soil insecticides. Journal of Economic Entomology, 78(1):113-116

Chahal GS, Jordan DL, Eure PM, Brandenburg RL, 2014. Compatibility of acephate with herbicides applied postemergence in peanut. Peanut Science, 41(1):58-64. http://www.peanutscience.com/doi/abs/10.3146/PS12-3R1.1

Chamberlin JR, Todd JW, Beshear RJ, Culbreath AK, Demski JW, 1992. Overwintering hosts and wingform of thrips, Frankliniella spp., in Georgia (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): implications for management of spotted wilt disease. Environmental Entomology, 21(1):121-128

Chiasson H, 1986. A synopsis of the Thysanoptera (Thrips) of Canada. McGill University Macdonald College Lyman Entomological Museum and Research Laboratory, Memoir, 17:i-vi, 1-153

Cho K, Eckel CS, Walgenbach JF, Kennedy GG, 1995. Comparison of colored sticky traps for monitoring thrips populations (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in staked tomato fields. Journal of Entomological Science, 30(2):176-190

Cho K, Eckel CS, Walgenbach JF, Kennedy GG, 1995. Overwintering of thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in North Carolina. Environmental Entomology, 24(1):58-67

Colyer PD, Micinski S, Vernon PR, 1991. Effect of thrips infestation on the development of cotton seedling diseases. Plant Disease, 75(4):380-382; 10 ref

Culbreath AK, Srinivasan R, 2011. Epidemiology of spotted wilt disease of peanut caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus in the southeastern U.S. Virus Research [Plant viruses and virus vectors: exploiting agricultural and natural ecosystems. Proceedings of an International Conference on "Plant Viruses and Virus Vectors: Exploiting Agricultural and Natural Ecosystems", Cornell University, New York, USA, 20-24 June 2010.], 159(2):101-109. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01681702

Culbreath AK, Todd JW, Brown SL, 2003. Epidemiology and management of tomato spotted wilt in peanut. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 41:53-75

Eckel CS, Cho KiJong, Walgenbach JF, Kennedy GG, Moyer JW, 1996. Variation in thrips species composition in field crops and implications for tomato spotted wilt epidemiology in North Carolina. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 78(1):19-29; 33 ref

Faircloth JC, Bradley JR Jr, Duyn JWvan, 2002. Effect of insecticide treatments and environmental factors on thrips populations, plant growth and yield of cotton. Journal of Entomological Science, 37(4):308-316

Farlow RA, Zummo LA, Zummo GR, 1988. Counter systemic insecticides-nematicide use in cotton. Proceedings, Beltwide Cotton Production Conference, New Orleans, 3-8 January 1988 Memphis, USA; National Cotton Council of America, 88-90

Funderburk J, Stavisky J, Tipping C, Gorbet D, Momol T, Berger R, 2002. Infection of Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in peanut by the parasitic nematode Thripinema fuscum (Tylenchidae: Allantonematidae). Environmental Entomology, 31(3):558-563

Funderburk JE, Gorbet DW, Teare ID, Stavisky J, 1998. Thrips injury can reduce peanut yield and quality under conditions of multiple stress. Agronomy Journal, 90(4):563-566; 14 ref

Gitaitis RD, Walcott RR, Wells ML, Diaz Perez JC, Sanders FH, 2003. Transmission of Pantoea ananatis, causal agent of center rot of onion, by tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca. Plant Disease, 87(6):675-678; 39 ref

Graham CT, Jenkins JN, McCarty JCJr, 1995. Performance of GAUCHO seed treatment insecticide against early season cotton insect pests. 1995 Proceedings Beltwide Cotton Conferences, San Antonio, TX, USA, January 4-7, 1995: Volume 2., 917-918

Greenough DR, Black LL, Bond WP, 1990. Aluminum-surfaced mulch: an approach to control of tomato spotted wilt virus in solanaceous crops. Plant Disease, 74(10):805-808

Herbert DA Jr, Wilcut JW, Swann CW, 1991. Effects of various postemergence herbicide treatments and tobacco thrips (Frankliniella fusca) injury on peanut yields in Virginia. Peanut Science, 18(2):91-94

Hinds WE, 1902. Contribution to a monograph of the insects of the order Thysanoptera inhabiting North America. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 26:79-242

Hinds WE, 1905. A new tobacco thrips. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 18:197-200

Hobbs HA, Johnson RR, Story RN, Black LL, Kuo CG, 1996. Weed hosts and transmission of tomato spotted wilt virus in Louisiana. International Symposium on Tospoviruses and Thrips of Floral and Vegetable Crops, Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, Taichung, Taiwan, 7-10 November 1995. Acta Horticulturae, 431:291-297

Hurt CA, Brandenburg RL, Jordan DL, Kennedy GG, Bailey JE, 2005. Management of spotted wilt vectored by Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Virginia market-type peanut. Journal of Economic Entomology, 98(5):1435-1440. HTTP://www.esa.catchword.org

Jacobson AL, Kennedy GG, 2011. The effect of three rates of cyantraniliprole on the transmission of tomato spotted wilt virus by Frankliniella occidentalis and Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) to Capsicum annuum. Crop Protection, 30(4):512-515. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02612194

Jacobson AL, Kennedy GG, 2013. Effect of cyantraniliprole on feeding behavior and virus transmission of Frankliniella fusca and Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on Capsicum annuum. Crop Protection, 54:251-258. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02612194

Jones AK, McLeod P, Steinkraus D, 2009. Influence of cowpea planting date on tobacco thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) abundance, within plant distribution, and foliar injury. Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology, 26(1):41-46. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.3954/1523-5475-26.1.41

Karny H, 1912. Revision der von Serville aufgestellten Thysanopteren-Genera. Zoologische Annalen 4:321-344

Loebenstein G, Lawson RH, Brunt AA (eds. ), 1995. Virus and virus-like diseases of bulb and flower crops. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons

Lowry VK, Smith JW Jr, Mitchell FL, 1992. Life-fertility tables for Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) and F. occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on peanut. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 85(6):744-754

Lowry VK, Smith JW, Mitchell FL, Crumley CR, 1995. Thrips vectors responsible for the secondary spread of tomato spotted wilt virus in South Texas peanut. In: Parker BL, Skinner M, Lewis T, eds. Thrips Biology and Management. Proceedings of the 1993 International Conference on Thysanoptera: Towards Understanding Thrips Management, Burlington, Vermont, USA. NATO ASI Series A: Life Sciences, 276:167-170

Lynch RE, 1990. Resistance in peanut to major arthropod pests. Florida Entomologist, 73(3):422-445

Löser F, Wetzel T, 1983. Usefulness of the Berlese apparatus for examining leaf samples for the presence of aphids. Nachrichtenblatt für den Pflanzenschutz in der DDR, 37(6):131-132

Mantel WP, Vierbergen G, 1996. Additional species to the Dutch list of Thysanoptera and new intercepted Thysanoptera on imported plant material. In: Jenser G, ¦dám L, eds. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Thysanoptera. Folia Entomologia Hungarica, 57(suppl.): 91-96

Mantel WP, Vrie M van de, 1988. A contribution to the knowledge of Thysanoptera in ornamental and bulbous crops in the Netherlands. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 23(3-4):301-311

McLeod P, Rashid T, 2012. Impact of tobacco thrips on cowpea. Plant Health Progress, No.October:PHP-2012-1019-01-RS. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/php/elements/sum.aspx?id=10488&photo=5832

Minton NA, Csinos AS, Lynch RE, Brenneman TB, 1991. Effects of two cropping and two tillage systems and pesticides on peanut pest management. Peanut Science, 18(1):41-46

Moulton D, 1948. The genus Frankliniella Karny, with keys for the determination of species (Thysanoptera). Revista de Entomologia, 19:55-114

Mound LA, Kibby G, 1998. Thysanoptera: An Identification Guide. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Mound LA, Teulon DAJ, 1995. Thysanoptera as phytophagous opportunists. In: Parker BL, Skinner M, Lewis T, eds. Thrips biology and management. Proceedings of the 1993 International Conference on Thysanoptera. London, USA; Plenum Publishing Co. Ltd, 3-17

Naidu RA, Deom CM, Sherwood JL, 2001. First report of Frankliniella fusca as a vector of Impatiens necrotic spot tospovirus. Plant Disease, 85(11):1211

Nakao S, Chikamori C, Okajima S, Narai Y, Murai T, 2011. A new record of the tobacco thrips Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) from Japan. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 46(2):131-134. http://www.springerlink.com/content/026322k33rmgg747/

Olatinwo RO, Prabha T, Paz JO, Riley DG, Hoogenboom G, 2011. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model: application in prediction of TSWV-vectors populations. Journal of Applied Entomology, 135(1/2):81-90. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0418

Paliwal YC, 1976. Some characteristics of the thrip vector relationship of tomato spotted wilt virus in Canada. Canadian Journal of Botany, 54(5/6):402-405

Palmer JM, Mound LA, Heaume GJ du, 1989. CIE guides to insects of importance to man. 2. Thysanoptera. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Pérez I, Blanco E, Rodríguez ÂM, 2004. Species of genus Frankliniella Karny in Cuba. Results of dangerous species survey of thrips detection between 1998-2000. (Especies del género Frankliniella Karny en Cuba. Resultados de la encuesta de detección de especies peligrosas de trips en el período 1998-2000.) Fitosanidad, 8(3):19-23

Reisig DD, Herbert DA, Malone S, 2012. Impact of neonicotinoid seed treatments on thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and soybean yield in Virginia and North Carolina. Journal of Economic Entomology, 105(3):884-889. http://esa.publisher.ingentaconnect.com/content/esa/jee/2012/00000105/00000003/art00018

Riley DG, Joseph SV, Srinivasan R, 2012. Reflective mulch and acibenzolar-S-methyl treatments relative to thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and tomato spotted wilt virus incidence in tomato. Journal of Economic Entomology, 105(4):1302-1310. http://esa.publisher.ingentaconnect.com/content/esa/jee/2012/00000105/00000004/art00026

Riley DG, Sparks AN Jr, Chitturi A, 2014. Current status of thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Vidalia onions in Georgia. Florida Entomologist [Annual Meeting of the Florida Entomological Society, Naples, Florida, USA, 16 July 2013.], 97(2):355-361. http://www.fcla.edu/FlaEnt/

Rummel DR, Quisenberry JE, 1979. Influence of thrips injury on leaf development and yield of various cotton genotypes. Journal of Economic Entomology, 72(5):706-709

Sakimura K, 1962. The present status of thrips-borne viruses. In: Maramorosch K, ed. Biological Transmission of Disease Agents. New York, USA: Academic Press, 33-40

Scott SJ, McLeod PJ, Montgomery FW, Hander CA, 1989. Influence of reflective mulch on incidence of thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae: Phlpothripidae) in staked tomatoes. Journal of Entomological Science, 24(4):422-427

Sims KR, Funderburk JE, Reitz SR, Boucias DG, 2009. The impact of a parasitic nematode, Thripinema fuscum, on the feeding behavior and vector competence of Frankliniella fusca. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 132(2):200-208. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/eea

Srinivasan R, Sundaraj S, Pappu HR, Diffie S, Riley DG, Gitaitis RD, 2012. Transmission of Iris yellow spot virus by Frankliniella fusca and Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 105(1):40-47. http://docserver.ingentaconnect.com/deliver/connect/esa/00220493/v105n1/s6.pdf?expires=1328870742&id=0000&titleid=10264&checksum=EAC96EE814BC5FC3C3D63944456EDBA1

Stannard LJ, 1968. The thrips, or Thysanoptera, of Illinois. Bulletin, Illinois Natural History Survey, 29(4):215-552

Stewart SD, Akin, DS, Reed J, Bacheler J, Catchot A, Cook D, Gore J, Greene J, Herbert A, Jackson RE, Kerns DL, Leonard BR, Lorenz GM, Micinski S, Reisig D, Roberts P, Studebaker G, Tindall K, Toews M, 2013.

Tappan WB, Gorbet DW, 1981. Economics of tobacco thrips control with systemic pesticides on florunner peanuts in Florida. Journal of Economic Entomology, 74(3):283-286

Tipping C, Nguyen KB, Funderburk JE, Smart GCJr, 1998. Thripinema fuscum n. sp. (Tylenchida: Allantonematidae), a parasite of the tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera). Journal of Nematology, 30(2):232-236; 12 ref

Toews MD, Tubbs RS, Wann DQ, Sullivan D, 2010. Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) mitigation in seedling cotton using strip tillage and winter cover crops. Pest Management Science, 66(10):1089-1095. http://www.interscience.wiley.com/pestmanagementscience

Trybom F, 1910. Physapoda. In Schultze, Zoologische und anthropologische Ergebnisse einer Forschungsreise im westlichen und zentralen Südafrika, (1903-1905). Denkschriften der Medizinisch-naturwissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft zu Jena, 16:147-174

Ullman DE, Sherwood TL, German MD, 1997. Thrips as vectors of plant pathogens. In: Lewis T, ed. Thrips as Crop Pests. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Vierbergen G, 1992. Interceptions of species of the genus Frankliniella in the Netherlands (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Proceedings of the section Experimental and Applied Entomology of the Netherlands Entomological Society, 3:175-180

Vierbergen G, 1995. The genus Frankliniella in the Netherlands, with a key to the species (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Entomologische Berichten, 55(12):185-192; 24 ref

Walker WF, 1974. Responses of selected Thysanoptera to colored surfaces. Environmental Entomology, 3(2):295-304

Watson JR, 1924. Additions to the Thysanoptera of Florida (Thysanoptera) - XII. Florida Entomologist, 8(3-4):50-52

Wijkamp I, 1995. Virus-vector relationship in the transmission of tospoviruses. Den Haag, Netherlands: CIP-Data Koninklijke Bibliotheek

Distribution References

Bournier A, 1993. (ThysanoptFres de Martinique et de Guadeloupe). In: Zoology (Journal of Pure and Applied Zoology), 3 (3) 227-240.

Burris E, Ratchford K J, Pavloff A M, Boquet D J, Williams B R, Rogers R L, 1989. Thrips on seedling cotton: related problems and control. In: Bulletin - Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station, 19 pp.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chiasson H, 1986. A synopsis of the Thysanoptera (Thrips) of Canada., 17 (i-vi) McGill University Macdonald College Lyman Entomological Museum and Research Laboratory. 1-153.

Farlow R A, Zummo L A, Zummo G R, 1988. Counter systemic insecticides-nematicide use in cotton. In: Proceedings, Beltwide Cotton Production Conference, New Orleans, 3-8 January 1988. [Proceedings, Beltwide Cotton Production Conference, New Orleans, 3-8 January 1988.], Memphis, USA: National Cotton Council of America. 88-90.

Nakao S, Chikamori C, Okajima S, Narai Y, Murai T, 2011. A new record of the tobacco thrips Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) from Japan. Applied Entomology and Zoology. 46 (2), 131-134. http://www.springerlink.com/content/026322k33rmgg747/ DOI:10.1007/s13355-010-0020-z

Pérez I, Blanco E, Rodríguez Á M, 2004. Species of genus Frankliniella Karny in Cuba. Results of dangerous species survey of thrips detection between 1998-2000. (Especies del género Frankliniella Karny en Cuba. Resultados de la encuesta de detección de especies peligrosas de trips en el período 1998-2000.). Fitosanidad. 8 (3), 19-23.

Scott S J, McLeod P J, Montgomery F W, Hander C A, 1989. Influence of reflective mulch on incidence of thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae: Phlaeothripidae) in staked tomatoes. Journal of Entomological Science. 24 (4), 422-427.

Distribution Maps

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