Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Fomitopsis pinicola
(brown crumbly rot)

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Datasheet

Fomitopsis pinicola (brown crumbly rot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Fomitopsis pinicola
  • Preferred Common Name
  • brown crumbly rot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
  •         Class: Agaricomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Basidiocarp of F. pinicola.
TitleBasidiocarp
CaptionBasidiocarp of F. pinicola.
CopyrightRimvydas Vasiliauskas
Basidiocarp of F. pinicola.
BasidiocarpBasidiocarp of F. pinicola.Rimvydas Vasiliauskas

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Fomitopsis pinicola (Sw.) P. Karst. 1881

Preferred Common Name

  • brown crumbly rot

Other Scientific Names

  • Boletus marginatus Pers. 1794
  • Boletus pinicola Sw. 1810
  • Boletus ungulatus Schaeff. 1774
  • Fomes marginatus (Pers.) Fr. 1849
  • Fomes pinicola (Sw.) Fr. 1849
  • Fomes ungulatus (Schaeff.) Sacc. 1879
  • Polyporus marginatus (Pers.) Fr. 1821
  • Polyporus pinicola (Sw.) Fr. 1821
  • Ungulina marginata (Pers.) Pat. 1900

International Common Names

  • English: brown cubical heart rot of fir; brown rot of conifers; pinicola conk; red belt fungus; root rot conifers
  • Spanish: podredumbre de las raices del pino
  • French: pourridie des racines du pin
  • Russian: okaymlennyi trutovik

Local Common Names

  • Czech Republic: troudnatec pasovany
  • Finland: kantokaapa
  • Germany: Braunfäule: Buche; Rotrandiger Baumschwamm
  • Japan: tsugasarunokoshikake
  • Lithuania: raudonkraste pintaine
  • Norway: rodrandkjuke
  • Poland: pniarek obrzezony
  • Slovakia: troudnatec pasovany
  • Sweden: klibbticka

EPPO code

  • FOMEPI (Fomitopsis pinicola)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
  •                 Class: Agaricomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Agaricomycetidae
  •                         Order: Polyporales
  •                             Family: Fomitopsidaceae
  •                                 Genus: Fomitopsis
  •                                     Species: Fomitopsis pinicola

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ArmeniaWidespreadNative Not invasive Teterevnikova-Babayan, 1971
AzerbaijanWidespreadNative Not invasive Hüseyin and Selcuk, 2001
ChinaPresentNative Not invasive Dai, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-GansuPresentNative Not invasive Teng, 1939
-HainanPresentNative Not invasive Teng, 1939
-JilinWidespreadNative Not invasive Dai, 1996
-LiaoningWidespreadNative Not invasive Dai, 1996
-SichuanPresentNative Not invasive Teng, 1939
-YunnanPresentNative Not invasive Teng, 1939; Liu et al., 2000; CABI/EPPO, 2002
IndiaPresentNative Not invasive Bakshi, 1971
-Jammu and KashmirPresentSanjeev and Sharma, 2008
IranPresentNative Not invasive Saber, 1972; Soleimani, 1976
IsraelPresentNative Not invasive Avizohar-Hershenzon and Jaquenoud, 1983
JapanPresentNative Not invasive Ito, 1955; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-HokkaidoPresentNative Not invasive Yamaguchi et al., 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2002
KazakhstanWidespreadNative Not invasive Schwarzman, 1964
NepalPresentNative Not invasive Ryvarden and Gilbertson, 1993
PakistanPresentNative Not invasive Ahmad, 1972
PhilippinesPresentNative Not invasive Quiniones, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2002
TaiwanPresentNative Not invasive Shih, 1987
ThailandPresentNative Not invasive Ryvarden and Gilbertson, 1993
TurkeyPresentNative Not invasive Niemelõ & Uotila, 1977; Pilat, 1932; Lohwag, 1957
UzbekistanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002

Africa

EgyptWidespreadNative Not invasive Mourad, 1986
MoroccoWidespreadNative Not invasive Malencon, 1955

North America

CanadaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002
-AlbertaWidespreadNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986
-British ColumbiaPresentNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-ManitobaWidespreadNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986
-New BrunswickWidespreadNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986
-Newfoundland and LabradorWidespreadNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986
-Northwest TerritoriesWidespreadNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986
-Nova ScotiaWidespreadNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986
-OntarioWidespreadNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986
-Prince Edward IslandWidespreadNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986
-QuebecPresentNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-SaskatchewanWidespreadNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986
-Yukon TerritoryWidespreadNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986
MexicoPresentNative Not invasive Ruiz and Rodriguez Pinzón Picaseno, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002
USAPresentNative Not invasive CABI/EPPO, 2002
-AlaskaPresentNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-ArizonaPresentNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-CaliforniaPresentNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-ColoradoPresentNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-ConnecticutPresentNative Not invasive Farr et al., 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-IdahoPresentNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-IllinoisPresentNative Not invasive West, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-MainePresentNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-MassachusettsWidespreadNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986
-MichiganPresentNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-MinnesotaPresentNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-MissouriWidespreadNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986
-MontanaPresentNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-NevadaPresentNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986
-New HampshirePresentNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-New MexicoPresentNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-New YorkPresentNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-North CarolinaPresentNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-OhioWidespreadNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986
-OregonPresentNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-PennsylvaniaPresentNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-South DakotaPresentNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-TennesseePresentNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-UtahPresentNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-VermontPresentNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-VirginiaPresentNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-WashingtonPresentNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-West VirginiaPresentNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-WisconsinPresentNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-WyomingPresentNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002

Central America and Caribbean

GuatemalaPresentNative Not invasive Ryvarden and Gilbertson, 1993

South America

BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AcreWidespreadNative Not invasive Dai, 1996

Europe

AustriaPresentNative Not invasive Ryvarden and Gilbertson, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002
BelarusPresentNative Not invasive Ryvarden and Gilbertson, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002
BulgariaWidespreadNative Not invasive Ryvarden and Gilbertson, 1993
Czech RepublicPresentNative Not invasive Kotlaba, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2002
DenmarkWidespreadNative Not invasive Ryvarden and Gilbertson, 1993
EstoniaPresentNative Not invasive Ryvarden and Gilbertson, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002
FinlandPresentNative Not invasive Ryvarden and Gilbertson, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002
FranceWidespreadNative Not invasive Ryvarden and Gilbertson, 1993
GermanyPresentNative Not invasive Jahn, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2002
GreecePresentNative Not invasive Zervakis et al., 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2002
HungaryWidespreadNative Not invasive Ryvarden and Gilbertson, 1993
ItalyWidespreadNative Not invasive Govi, 1969; Bernicchia, 1990
LatviaWidespreadNative Not invasive Ryvarden and Gilbertson, 1993
LithuaniaPresentNative Not invasive Mazelaitis, 1976; Gricius and Matelis, 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2002
NetherlandsWidespreadNative Not invasive Ryvarden and Gilbertson, 1993
NorwayPresentNative Not invasive Ryvarden and Gilbertson, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002
PolandPresentNative Not invasive Ryvarden and Gilbertson, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002
RomaniaWidespreadNative Not invasive Ryvarden and Gilbertson, 1993
Russian FederationPresentNativeCABI/EPPO, 2002
-Central RussiaWidespreadNative Not invasive Storozhenko, 2000
-Northern RussiaWidespreadNative Not invasive Stepanova-Kartavenko, 1967
-Russian Far EastWidespreadNative Not invasive Lyubarskyi & Vasilyeva, 1975
-SiberiaPresentNativeCABI/EPPO, 2002
-Southern RussiaPresentNative Not invasive Nechaev, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2002
-Western SiberiaWidespreadNative Not invasive Mukhin, 1993
SerbiaPresentLazarev et al., 2005
SlovakiaWidespreadNative Not invasive Kotlaba, 1984
SpainWidespreadNative Not invasive Ryvarden and Gilbertson, 1993
SwedenPresentNative Not invasive Ryvarden and Gilbertson, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002
SwitzerlandPresentNative Not invasive Breitenbach and Kranzlin, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2002
UKPresentNative Not invasive Ryvarden and Gilbertson, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2002
UkraineWidespreadNative Not invasive Ryvarden and Gilbertson, 1993
Yugoslavia (former)PresentNative Not invasive Ryvarden and Gilbertson, 1993

Oceania

AustraliaWidespreadNative Not invasive Gilbertson and Ryvarden, 1986
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentMiyazaki et al., 2007

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cold lands / tundra Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Deserts Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Freshwater Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Marine Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Stems / dead heart
Stems / dead heart
Stems / discoloration
Stems / discoloration
Stems / internal discoloration
Stems / internal discoloration
Stems / lodging; broken stems
Stems / lodging; broken stems
Stems / mycelium present
Stems / mycelium present
Stems / rot
Stems / rot
Whole plant / dead heart
Whole plant / dead heart
Whole plant / discoloration
Whole plant / discoloration
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback
Whole plant / uprooted or toppled
Whole plant / uprooted or toppled

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Wood hyphae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

References

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Ahmad S, 1972. Basidiomycetes of West Pakistan. Lahore, Pakistan: Biological Society of Pakistan.

Anselmi N; Nicolotti G, 1998. Biological control of Heterobasidion annosum in the forest by non-pathogenic wood-destroying fungi. Root and butt rots of forest trees: 9th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots, Carcans-Maubuisson, (France), 1-7 September, 1997., 421-428; [^italic~Les Colloques^roman~ No. 89]; 17 ref.

Aref'ev SP, 1991. Xylotrophic fungi the causal agents of Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour) rot in the central taiga region of the Irtysh river basin. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 25(5):419-425

Avizohar-Hershenzon Z; Jaquenoud M, 1983. Polypores in Israel. II. Polyporaceae. Israel Journal of Botany, 32:161-171.

Bakshi BK, 1971. Indian Polyporaceae (on trees and timber). Indian Polyporaceae (on trees and timber). New Delhin Council of Agricultural Research. India, 246 pp.

Bernicchia A, 1990. Poliporaceae s.l. in Italia. Ist. Patologia Vegetale. Università degli Studi di Bologna Ed.

Blanchette RA; Shaw CG, 1978. Associations among bacteria, yeasts, and basidiomycetes during wood decay. Phytopathology, 68(4):631-637

Bondartsev AS, 1953. The Polyporaceae of the European USSR and Caucasia. Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, Israel.

Brandeis TJ; Newton M; Filip GM; Cole EC, 2002. Cavity-nester habitat development in artificially made Douglas-fir snags. Journal of Wildlife Management, 66(3):625-633; 32 ref.

Breitenbach J; Kranzlin F, 1986. Fungi of Switzerland, Vol. 2. Non gilled fungi Heterobasidiomycetes, Aphyllophorales, Gasteromycetes. Lucerne, Switzerland; Verlag Mykologia, 412 pp.

Butin H, 1995. Tree diseases and disorders. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

CABI/EPPO, 2002. Fomitopsis pinicola. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 868. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Carranza J; Spnz JA, 1984. Wood decay fungi of Costa Rica. Mycotaxon, 19:151-166

Castello JD; Shaw CG; Furniss MM, 1976. Isolation of Cryptoporus volvatus and Fomes pinicola from Dendroctonus pseudotsugp. Phytopathology, 66(12):1431-1434

Cerny A, 1989. Parasitic Wood-Decay Fungi. Prague, Czech Republic: Statne Zemedelske Nakladetelstvo.

Cooke RC; Rayner ADM, 1984. Ecology of saprotrophic fungi. New York, USA; Longman, xiv + 415 pp.

Corner EJH, 1989. Ad Polyporaceae VI. The genus Trametes. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia, No. 97:197 pp.

Cunningham GH, 1950. Australian Polyporaceae in herbaria of Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and British Museum of Natural History. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 75:214-249.

Dai YC, 1996. Changbai wood-rotting fungi 7. A checklist of the polypores. Fungal Science, 11: 79-105.

David A; Rajchenberg M, 1985. Pore fungi from French Antilles and Guiana. Mycotaxon, 22:285-325.

Davidson RW; Campbell WA, 1943. Decay in merchantable Black Cherry on the Allegheny National Forest. Phytopathology 33 (965-85). [Allegheny Forest Exp. Sta.].

Demidova ZA, 1963. Basidiomycetes on wood in Ural Mountains. Trudy Instituta Biologii AN SSSR, 32:1-49.

Dilley MA; Covey RP Jr, 1980. Survey of wood decay and associated hymenomycetes in central Washington apple orchards. Plant disease, 64(6):560-561

Englerth GH, 1942. Decay of Western Hemlock in western Oregon and Washington. Bull. Yale Univ. Sch. For. No. 50 1942. pp. 53 + plates. [Bureau of Plant Industry, U.S.D.A.].

Englerth GH; Isaac LA, 1944. Decay of western hemlock following logging injury. Timberman, 45:34-35, 56.

Erkkila R; Niemelä T, 1986. Polypores in the parks and forests of the City of Helsinki. Karstenia, 26:1-40.

Farr DF; Bills GF; Chamuris GP; Rossman AY, 1989. Fungi on Plants and Plant Products in the United States. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, 1252 pp.

Farr WA; LaBau VJ; Laurent TH, 1976. Estimation of decay in old-growth western hemlock and Sitka spruce in southeast Alaska. USDA Forest Service Research Paper, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, No. PNW-204, 24 pp. + sum; 2 tab.; 25 ref.

Fedorov NI; Bobko IN, 1989. Armillaria root rot in Byelorussian forests. In: Morrison DJ, ed. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Root and Butt Rots, 1988 August 9-16, Vernon and Victoria BC. Victoria, Canada: Forestry Canada, 469-476.

Fedorov NI; Poleshchuk YM, 1981. Conifer root rot studies in the USSR for the years 1976-1978. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 11:44-50.

Fedorov NI; Poleshchuk YuM, 1978. Biological protection of Norway spruce stumps from infection by root fungus basidiospores. Biologicheskie Nauki, No.9:117-121

Filip GM; Parks CA; Seidel KW; Lombard FF, 1987. Incidence of decay fungi in stumps of two thinned western larch stands in northeastern Oregon. Research Note - Pacific Northwest Research Station, USDA Forest Service Portland, Oregon, USA; USDA Forest Service, No. PNW-RN-468:5 pp.

Gabriel J; Vosahlo J; Baldrian P, 1996. Biosorption of cadmium to mycelial pellets of wood-rotting fungi. Biotechnology Techniques, 10:345-348.

Gilbertson RL; Ryvarden L, 1986. North American polypores. Vol. I. Abortiporus-Lindtneria. Oslo, Norway; Fungiflora A/S, 433 pp.

Govi G, 1969. Italian Polyporaceae. Part V. Monti e Boschi 20 (4), (55-64 + 2 plates).

Gricius A; Matelis A, 1996. Fungi of Lithuania VI: Aphyllophoraceae 2 (Aphyllophorales): Hymenochaetaceae, Fistulinaceae, Ganodermataceae, Polyporaceae. Lietuvos VI: Afiloforiec^hacek~iai 2 (Aphyllophorales): Hymenochaetaceae, Fistulinaceae, Ganodermataceae, Polyporaceae., 232 pp.; [(Mycota Lithuaniae VI)]; Many ref.

H÷gberg N; Holdenrieder O; Stenlid J, 1999. Population structure of the wood decay fungus Fomitopsis pinicola. Heredity, 83(3):354-360; 27 ref.

Hagle SK; Shaw CG, 1991. Avoiding and reducing losses from Armillaria root disease. In: Shaw CG, Kile GA, eds. Armillaria Root Disease. Agriculture Handbook No. 691. Washington, USA: USDA, Forest Service, 157-173

Harrington TC; Furniss MM; Shaw CG, 1981. Dissemination of hymenomycetes by Dendroctonus pseudotsugp (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Phytopathology, 71(5):551-554

Helton AW; Johnson JB; Dilbeck RD, 1988. Arthropods as carriers of fungal wood-rotting pathogens in pome and stone fruit orchards. Plant Disease, 72(12):1077

Hennon PE; DeMars DJ, 1997. Development of wood decay in wounded western hemlock and Sitka spruce in southeast Alaska. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 27(12):1971-1978; 35 ref.

Hirt RR; Eliason EJ, 1938. The development of decay in living trees inoculated with Fomes pinicola. Journal of Forestry, 36:705-709.

Hnseyin E; Selcuk F, 2001. The xylotroph's macromycetes on beech in Azerbaijani forests. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 25(6):401-406; 22 ref.

Hogberg N; Stenlid J; Karlsson JO, 1995. Genetic differentiation in Fomitopsis pinicola (Swartz: Fr.) Karst., studied by means of arbitrary primed PCR. Molecular Ecology, 4:675-680.

Holsten E; Hennon P; Tremmer L; Schultz M, 2001. Insects and Diseases of Alaskan forests. USDA Forest Service, Alaska Region, R10-TP-87.

Hood IA, 1992. An illustrated guide to fungi on wood in New Zealand. Auckland, New Zealand; Auckland University Press, 424 pp.

Hunt J; Krueger KW, 1962. Decay associated with thinning wounds in young-growth Western Hemlock and Douglas-Fir. J. For. 60 (5), (336-40). 7 refs.

Ito S, 1938. Mycological flora of Japan. Vol. 2. Basidiomycetes. No. 2. Uredinales - Melampsoraceae. Tokyo, Japan: Yokendo (in Japanese).

Jahn H, 1979. Pilze die an Holz wachsen. Herford, Germany.

Jankovsky L; Vßgner A; Apltauer J, 2002. The decomposition of wood mass under conditions of climax spruce stands and related mycoflora in the Krkonose Mountains. Journal of Forest Science, 48(2):70-79; 9 ref.

Johannesson H; Stenlid J, 1999. Molecular identification of wood-inhabiting fungi in an unmanaged Picea abies forest in Sweden. Forest Ecology and Management, 115(2/3):203-211; 26 ref.

Jonsell M; Nordlander G, 2002. Insects in polypore fungi as indicator species: a comparison between forest sites differing in amounts and continuity of dead wood. Forest Ecology and Management, 157(1/3):101-118; many ref.

Jonsson M, 2002. Dispersal ecology of insects inhabiting wood-decaying fungi. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae - Silvestria, No.241:1xiv + 27 pp.; Many ref.

K÷rner I; Faix O; Wienhaus O, 1992. Attempts to determine brown-rot breakdown of Scots pine wood with the aid of FTIR spectroscopy. Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff, 50(9):363-367; 13 ref.

Kaila L; Martikainen P; Punttila P; Yakovlev E, 1994. Saproxylic beetles (Coleoptera) on dead birch trunks decayed by different polypore species. Annales Zoologici Fennici, 31:97-107.

Kallio T, 1970. Aerial distribution of the root-rot fungus Fomes annosus (Fr.) Cooke in Finland. Acta. For. fenn. No. 107 pp. 55 [131 refs.].

Kapich AN; Geling NG; Kartelishev AV; Lobanok AG, 1992. Prostaglandin biosynthesis catalysed by enzymes of wood-decomposing basidiomycetes. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, 322:604-606.

Kawai M, 1970. Studies on milk-clotting enzymes produced by Basidiomycetes. II. Some properties of Basidiomycete milk-clotting enzymes. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, 34:164-169.

Kawai M; Mukai N, 1970. Studies on milk-clotting enzymes produced by Basidiomycetes. I. Screening tests of Basidiomycetes for the production of milk-clotting enzymes. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, 34:159-163.

Keller AC; Maillard MP; Hostettmann K, 1996. Antimicrobial steroids from the fungus Fomitopsis pinicola. Phytochemistry, 41(4):1041-1046; 18 ref.

Kotiranta H; Niemelä T, 1981. Composition of the polypore communities of four forest areas in southern Central Finland. Karstenia, 21:31-48.

Kotlaba F, 1984. Zemepisne rozsireni a ekologie chorosu (Polyporales s.l.) v Ceskoslovensku. [Geographical distribution and ecology of polypores (Polyporales s.l.) in Czechoslovakia]. Academia, Praha, 194 pp. (In Czech, English summary).

Larsen MJ; Jurgensen MF; Harvey p, 1978. N2 fixation associated with wood decayed by some common fungi in western Montana. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 8(3):341-345

Lazarev V; Radulovic Z; Milanovic S, 2005. Interactions of polysporous cultures of antagonistic fungus Peniophora gigantea (Fr.) Massee and some decay fungi of spruce from "Stara Planina". Glasnik ?umarskog Fakulteta, Univerzitet u Beogradu, No.91:163-177. http://user.sezampro.yu/~sf.bg

Liu PeiGui; Doi Y; Wang XiangHua; Wang QingBin, 2000. The Hypocreaceae of China III. Some fungicolous species of the genus Hypocrea. Mycosystema, 19(3):317-327; 28 ref.

Lohwag K, 1957. Mykologische Eindrucke aus der Turkei. Zeitschrift fur Pilzkunde, 23:135-136.

Lowe JL, 1963. A synopsis of Poria and similar fungi from the tropical regions of the world. Mycologia 55 (4), (453-86). 16 refs.

Lyubarskii LV; Vasilyeva LN, 1975. Wood-destroying fungi of the Far East. Izdatelstvo "Nauka", Novosibirsk. 164 pp.

Malencon G, 1955. Prodrome d’une flore mycologique du Moyen-Atlas. Bull. Soc. Mycol. France, 71:265-311.

Mazelaitis J, 1976. Aphyllophorales of Lithuania. Vilnius, Lithuania: Mokslas.

Miyazaki Y; Hiraide M; Shibuya H, 2007. Molecular cloning of functional genes for high growth-temperature and salt tolerance of the basidiomycete Fomitopsis pinicola isolated in a mangrove forest in Micronesia. Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 71(1):273-278. http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/browse/bbb/-char/en

Mizuno T; Hayashi K; Iwasaki Y; Shitano A; Arakawa M; Shinkai K; Shimizu M; Tanaka M, 1981. Studies on the host-mediated antitumor polysaccharides. IV. Fractionation, structural investigation and antitumor activity of heterogalactans isolated from the fruit bodies of Ganoderma applanatum and Fomitopsis pinicola. Bull. Shizuoka Univ. Fac. Agric., 31:65-82.

Mizuno T; Iwasaki Y; Satoh H; Usui T; Shinkai K, 1982. Studies on the host-mediated antitumor polysaccharides. V. Chemical structure and antitumor activity of a water-soluble glucan isolated from Tsugasarunokoshikake, the fruit body of Fomitopsis pinicola. Bull. Shizuoka Univ. Fac. Agric., 32:29-40.

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