Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Fomes fomentarius
(hoof fungus)

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Datasheet

Fomes fomentarius (hoof fungus)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Fomes fomentarius
  • Preferred Common Name
  • hoof fungus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
  •         Class: Agaricomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Basidiocarps of F. fomentarius on birch (Betula sp.) in Finland.
TitleBasidiocarps
CaptionBasidiocarps of F. fomentarius on birch (Betula sp.) in Finland.
CopyrightTakehiro Yamaguchi
Basidiocarps of F. fomentarius on birch (Betula sp.) in Finland.
BasidiocarpsBasidiocarps of F. fomentarius on birch (Betula sp.) in Finland.Takehiro Yamaguchi
Basidiocarps of F. fomentarius on a fallen hardwood log in north-east China.
TitleBasidiocarps
CaptionBasidiocarps of F. fomentarius on a fallen hardwood log in north-east China.
CopyrightTakehiro Yamaguchi
Basidiocarps of F. fomentarius on a fallen hardwood log in north-east China.
BasidiocarpsBasidiocarps of F. fomentarius on a fallen hardwood log in north-east China.Takehiro Yamaguchi
Basidiocarps of F. fomentarius on a fallen hardwood log in north-east China.
TitleBasidiocarps
CaptionBasidiocarps of F. fomentarius on a fallen hardwood log in north-east China.
CopyrightTakehiro Yamaguchi
Basidiocarps of F. fomentarius on a fallen hardwood log in north-east China.
BasidiocarpsBasidiocarps of F. fomentarius on a fallen hardwood log in north-east China.Takehiro Yamaguchi
Newly formed basidiocarps of F. fomentarius on a birch (Betula sp.) log in Canada.
TitleNewly formed basidiocarps
CaptionNewly formed basidiocarps of F. fomentarius on a birch (Betula sp.) log in Canada.
CopyrightTakehiro Yamaguchi
Newly formed basidiocarps of F. fomentarius on a birch (Betula sp.) log in Canada.
Newly formed basidiocarpsNewly formed basidiocarps of F. fomentarius on a birch (Betula sp.) log in Canada.Takehiro Yamaguchi
Vertical section from basidiocarp of F. fomentarius; tube layers are indistinctly stratified.
TitleSectioned basidiocarp
CaptionVertical section from basidiocarp of F. fomentarius; tube layers are indistinctly stratified.
CopyrightTakehiro Yamaguchi
Vertical section from basidiocarp of F. fomentarius; tube layers are indistinctly stratified.
Sectioned basidiocarpVertical section from basidiocarp of F. fomentarius; tube layers are indistinctly stratified.Takehiro Yamaguchi
Broken stems and decayed wood of maple (Acer mono) decayed by F. fomentarius.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionBroken stems and decayed wood of maple (Acer mono) decayed by F. fomentarius.
CopyrightTakehiro Yamaguchi
Broken stems and decayed wood of maple (Acer mono) decayed by F. fomentarius.
SymptomsBroken stems and decayed wood of maple (Acer mono) decayed by F. fomentarius.Takehiro Yamaguchi
Basidiospores of F. fomentarius.
TitleBasidiospores
CaptionBasidiospores of F. fomentarius.
CopyrightTakehiro Yamaguchi
Basidiospores of F. fomentarius.
BasidiosporesBasidiospores of F. fomentarius.Takehiro Yamaguchi

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Fomes fomentarius (L.) J.J. Kickx

Preferred Common Name

  • hoof fungus

Other Scientific Names

  • Agaricus fomentarius (L.) Lam.
  • Boletus fomentarius L.
  • Elfvingia fomentaria (L.) Murrill
  • Elfvingiella fomentaria (L.) Murrill
  • Ochroporus fomentarius (L.) J. Schröt.
  • Placodes fomentarius (L.) Quél.
  • Polyporus fomentarius (L.) Fr.
  • Pyropolyporus fomentarius (L.) Teng
  • Scindalma fomentarium (L.) Kuntze
  • Ungulina fomentaria (L.) Pat.

International Common Names

  • English: common white wood rot; tinder conk; tinder fungus
  • Spanish: agárico de encina; hongo agarico Yesca
  • French: amadouvier
  • Chinese: mu-ti-ceng-kong-jun

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Blustschwamm; Feuerschwamm: Laubhoelzer; Wundschwamm; Zunderschwamm; Zunderschwamm: Rotbuche
  • Italy: fungo dell'esca
  • Japan: tsuri-gane-take
  • Netherlands: echte tonderzwam

EPPO code

  • FOMEFO (Fomes fomentarius)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
  •                 Class: Agaricomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Agaricomycetidae
  •                         Order: Polyporales
  •                             Family: Polyporaceae
  •                                 Genus: Fomes
  •                                     Species: Fomes fomentarius

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNative

Asia

AzerbaijanPresentNativeOriginal citation: Hüseyin and Selcuk (2001)
ChinaPresent, Localized
-GansuPresentNative
-GuangxiPresent
-HebeiPresentNative
-HeilongjiangPresentNative
-HubeiPresentNative
-Inner MongoliaPresentNative
-JilinPresentNative
-ShaanxiPresentNative
-SichuanPresentNative
-TibetPresentNative
-XinjiangPresentNative
IndiaPresentNative
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
IranPresentNative
JapanPresentNative
-HokkaidoPresent, WidespreadNative
-HonshuPresent, LocalizedNative
-KyushuPresent, Few occurrencesNative
-ShikokuPresent, Few occurrencesNative
PakistanPresentNative
TurkeyPresentOriginal citation: ÇImen and Ertugrul (2007)
UzbekistanPresentNative

Europe

AustriaPresentNative
BelarusPresentNative
BulgariaPresentNative
CroatiaPresent
CzechiaPresentNative
CzechoslovakiaPresentNative
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentNative
DenmarkPresentNative
EstoniaPresentNative
FinlandPresentNative
FrancePresentNative
GermanyPresentNative
GreecePresentNative
HungaryPresentNative
IrelandPresentNative
ItalyPresentNative
LatviaPresentNative
LithuaniaPresentNative
LuxembourgPresent
NetherlandsPresentNative
NorwayPresent, WidespreadNative
PolandPresentNative
PortugalPresentNative
RomaniaPresentNative
RussiaPresent, Few occurrences
-Central RussiaPresent
-Northern RussiaPresentNative
-Russian Far EastPresent
-Southern RussiaPresent
-Western SiberiaPresentNative
SerbiaPresentNative
Serbia and MontenegroPresent
SlovakiaPresentNative
SpainPresentNative
SwedenPresent, WidespreadNative
SwitzerlandPresentNative
UkrainePresentNative
United KingdomPresentNative

North America

CanadaPresent
-AlbertaPresentNative
-British ColumbiaPresent, WidespreadNative
-ManitobaPresentNative
-New BrunswickPresentNative
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentNative
-Northwest TerritoriesPresentNative
-Nova ScotiaPresentNative
-OntarioPresentNative
-Prince Edward IslandPresentNative
-QuebecPresentNative
-SaskatchewanPresentNative
United StatesPresent
-AlabamaPresent
-AlaskaPresentNative
-CaliforniaPresent
-ConnecticutPresentNative
-IdahoPresentNative
-IowaPresentNative
-MainePresentNative
-MarylandPresent
-MassachusettsPresentNative
-MichiganPresentNative
-MinnesotaPresentNative
-MontanaPresentNative
-New HampshirePresentNative
-New JerseyPresent
-New YorkPresentNative
-North CarolinaPresentNative
-North DakotaPresentNative
-OhioPresentNative
-OregonPresentNative
-PennsylvaniaPresentNative
-South DakotaPresentNative
-VermontPresentNative
-VirginiaPresentNative
-WashingtonPresentNative
-West VirginiaPresentNative
-WisconsinPresentNative

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedProtected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalCold lands / tundra Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalDeserts Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Freshwater Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Marine Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Stems / discoloration
Stems / discoloration
Stems / internal discoloration
Stems / internal discoloration
Stems / lodging; broken stems
Stems / lodging; broken stems
Stems / mycelium present
Stems / mycelium present
Stems / rot
Stems / rot

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches fungi/fruiting bodies; fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Wood fungi/hyphae Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

References

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Abdul Razaq; Saleem Shahzad, 2016. Additions to the Polyporales of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 48(1):387-391. http://www.pakbs.org/pjbot/PDFs/48(1)/50.pdf

Allen E; Morrison D; Wallis G, 1996. Common Tree Diseases of British Columbia. Victoria, Canada: Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service.

Arpin N; Favre-Bonvin J; Steglich W, 1974. Le Fomentariol: Nouvelle benzotropolone isolee de Fomes fomentarius. Phytochemistry, 13: 1949-1952.

Bakshi BK; Bagchee K, 1950. Principal diseases and decays of Oaks in India. Indian Phytopath. 3 (2), (124-36 + 3 plates). 17 refs.

Barsakoff B, 1939. The behaviour of the tinder fungus (Polyporus fomentarius L.) in Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). Lessowodska Missal 8 (105-14). Forstl. Rundsch. 12 (224). H.S.B.

Beg AR; Ahmad M, 1974. Diseases of Indian Horse Chestnut. Pakistan Journal of Forestry, 24(1):69-76

Boyce JS, 1938. Forest Pathology. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill.

Breitenbach J; Kranzlin F, 1986. Fungi of Switzerland, Vol. 2. Non gilled fungi Heterobasidiomycetes, Aphyllophorales, Gasteromycetes. Lucerne, Switzerland; Verlag Mykologia, 412 pp.

Brfo MBdel, 1998. Secondary diseases of chestnuts. Agricultura, Revista Agropecuaria, 67(796):928-930.

CABI/EPPO, 2002. Fomes fomentarius. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 867. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Cheng DS; Yanaguchi T; Wang ZJ; Pan XR, 2000. Genetic differentiation between two morphological types of Fomes fomentarius based on isozyme analysis. (in Chinese with English summary) Mycosystema, 19:81-86.

ÇImen I; Ertugrul BB, 2007. Determination of mycoflora in almond plantations under drought conditions in southeastern Anatolia project region, Turkey. Plant Pathology Journal (Faisalabad), 6(1):82-86. http://www.ansinet.org/ppj

Dai YC, 1996. Changbai wood-rotting fungi 7. A checklist of the polypores. Fungal Science, 11: 79-105.

Frassineti A; Bottacci A, 1997. The heterotrophic beech stand of Pietraporciana (near Siena). Stand structure and botanical composition. Monti e Boschi, 48(2):10-15; 12 ref.

FSldt J; Jonsell M; Nordlander G; Borg-Karlson AK, 1999. Volatiles of bracket fungi Fomitopsis pinicola and Fomes fomentarius and their functions as insect attractants. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 25(3):567-590; 47 ref.

Garshina TD, 1993. A wood destroying fungus. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), No. 4:26

Garsina TD, 1960. Diseases of Juglans regia on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus. [Bolezni greckogo oreha na Cernomorskom poberez'e Kavkaza.] Sborn. Rabot Lesn. Hoz. Vsesojuz. Nauc.-Issled. Inst. Lesovod. No. 43, (134-6).

Gilbertson RL; Ryvarden L, 1986. North American polypores. Vol. I. Abortiporus-Lindtneria. Oslo, Norway; Fungiflora A/S, 433 pp.

Gordienko PV, 1977. The biotope distribution of Fomes fomentarius in the conifer/hardwood forests of Sikhote-Alin. [Biotopicheskoe raspredelenie nastoyashchego trutovika v khvoino- shirokolistvennykh lesakh Sikhote-Alinya.] Lesovedenie, No. 6, 86-91; 10 ref.

Govi G, 1970. Italian Polyporaceae. Part VII. Monti e Boschi 21 (2), (43-50 + 3 plates).

Groot RC-De, 1968. Diurnal cycles of air-borne spores produced by forest fungi. Phytopathology 58 (9), (1223-9). [19 refs.].

Gßper J, 1996. Polypores associated with native woody host plants in urban areas of Slovakia. Czech Mycology, 49(2):129-145; 10 ref.

Hintikka V; Korhonen K, 1970. Effects of carbon dioxide on the growth of lignicolous and soil-inhabiting hymenomycetes. Commun. Inst. For. Fenn. 69 (5). pp. 29. [50 refs.].

Hiratsuka Y, 1987. Forest tree diseases of the prairie provinces. Information Report - Northern Forestry Centre, Canadian Forestry Service Canadian Forestry Service, No. NOR-X-286:142 pp.

Hnseyin E; Selcuk F, 2001. The xylotroph's macromycetes on beech in Azerbaijani forests. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 25(6):401-406; 22 ref.

Igmandy Z, 1964. The wood-rotting polypores of Beech stands in Hungary. Erdesz. Faipari Egyetem tud. Kozl., Sopron (1), (99-107). 5 refs.

Imazeki R; Hongo T, 1989. Illustrations of mushrooms of Japan Vol. 2. (in Japanese). Kyoto, Japan: Hoikusha Publishing Co. Ltd.

Ingold CT, 1965. Fomes fomentarius on Beech in Kent. Trans. Brit. Mycol. Soc. 48 (1), (81-2). 3 refs.D.

Jonsell M; Nordlander G, 2002. Insects in polypore fungi as indicator species: a comparison between forest sites differing in amounts and continuity of dead wood. Forest Ecology and Management, 157(1/3):101-118; many ref.

Karpinski JJ, 1954. Fungi as the cause of the death of trees in the virgin forest of the Polish National Park of Bialowieza. [Wplyw grzybow jako przyczyna zamierania drzew w lesie naturalnym Bialowieskiego Parku Narodowego.] Roczn. Nauk lesn. No. 5 (137-60). (Prace Inst. Bad. Lesn. No. 122.).

Khalikova MM; Musamukhamedova YeB, 1989. New location of tinder fungi in Khorezm region. Uzbekiston Biologija Zhurnali, No. 1:37-38

Ko KwanSoo; Jung HackSung, 2002. Phylogenetic evaluation of Polyporus s. str. based on molecular sequences. Mycotaxon, 82:315-322; 26 ref.

Krimi Z; Mehdid S, 2001. Identification of wood-decay fungi infecting various forest trees. Bulletin OEPP, 31(1):114-115.

Krstic M, 1959. The extent of decay of Beech stems in Juzni Kucaj. [O obimu trulezi bukovih debala u Juznom Kucaju.] Sumarstvo 12 (1/2), (13-27). 6 refs.

Liovic B; Zupanic M, 2005. Forest pests in National Parks of Croatia and ecologically acceptable protective measures. (Stetocinje suma nacionalnih parkova Hrvatske i ekoloski prihvatljive mjere zastite.) Radovi - Sumarski Institut Jastrebarsko, 40(1):101-112.

Marinkovic P, 1953. Health condition of Beech forests at Zeljin. [O zdravstvenom stanju bukovih suma na Zeljinu.] Sumarstvo 6 (5), (443-56). 5 refs.

Mattheck C; Bethge K, 1992. Impulshammer zum Auffinden von Faulstellen in Baumen. Deutscher Gartenbau, 44: 2683-2685.

Meyer H, 1936. Spore formation and discharge in Fomes fomentarius. Phytopathology, 26:1155-1156.

Mikhalevich PK; Utenkova AP, 1972. Parasitism of Fomes fomentarius on Quercus petraea in the Belovezhskaya forest. Mikol. i Fitopat. 6 (1), (78-83). [Ru, 22 ref.].

Mukhin VA, 1979. Attributes of the ecological niches of the birch and the tinder fungi (trophic aspect). Ekologiya, No. 3, 83-85; 8 ref.

Nadvornaya LS; Nadvornyi VG, 1991. Biology of the tenebrionids Bolitophagus reticulatus L. and Uloma culinaris L. (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) in the forest-steppe zone of the Ukraine. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie, 70(2):349-354

Niloufari P, 1996. Research studies on infecting behaviour of Fomes fomentarius (L. ex Fr.) Fr. and its physical control in the wood yards of the Hyrcanian (Caspian) forests of Iran. Document - International Research Group on Wood Preservation, No. IRG/WP/96-10179:2 pp.; [Paper prepared for the 27th Annual Meeting, Guadeloupe, French West Indies, 19-24 May, 1996]; 14 ref.

Nobles MK, 1948. Studies in forest pathology. VI. Identification of cultures of wood-rotting fungi. Canad. J. Res. 26C (3), (281-431). 153 refs.

Novkau MA; Galauko AI, 1979. Lignophilic fungi of oak plantations at the Zhornov forest experimental station. Vestsi Akademii Navuk BSSR, Biyalagichnykh Navuk, No.1:60-64

Nuss I, 1986. Zur Ökologie der Porlinge II. Bibliotheca Mycologica, 105:1-300.

Ouis D, 2003. Non-destructive techniques for detecting decay in standing trees. Arboric. J. 27:15-177.

Quraishi MA; Jamal SM, 1970. Fungi on Populus nigra Linn cv. T[h]evestina in West Pakistan. Pakistan J. For. 23 (3), (313-20). [8 refs.].

Ramesh Ch; Pattar MG, 2009. Biodegradation of pentachlorophenol by white rot fungi isolated from forests of Western Ghats of Karnataka India. Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy, 3(4):417-427. http://abap.co.in/sites/default/files/Paper-10.PDF

Rayner ADM; Boddy L, 1988. Fungal decomposition of wood. Its biology and ecology. Fungal decomposition of wood. Its biology and ecology., xiv + 587 pp.; many ref.

Rockett TR; Kramer CL, 1974. Periodicity and total spore production by lignicolous basidiomycetes. Mycologia, 66(5):817-829

Rosnev B; Stoichev G, 1985. Wood-destroying fungi in the Parangalitsa reserve. Gorskostopanska Nauka, 22(2):45-50

Rukke BA, 2002. Fungivorous beetles in basidiocarps of Fomes fomentarius respond differently to microhabitat variables. European Journal of Entomology, 99(1):43-52; 32 ref.

Ryvarden L, 1991. Genera of Polypores. Nomenclature and taxonomy. Oslo, Norway: Fungiflora.

Ryvarden L; Gilbertson RL, 1993. European polypores: Part 1: Abortiporus - Lindtneria. Oslo, Norway; Fungiflora A/S, 387 pp.

Scholian U, 1996. The tinder fungus (Fomes fomentarius) and its use. Schweizerische Zeitschrift fu^umlaut~r Forstwesen, 147(8):647-665; 57 ref.

Schwarze F, 1994. Wood rotting fungi: Fomes fomentarius (L.: Fr.) Fr. Hoof or tinder fungus. Mycologist, 8(1):32-34; 17 ref.

Schwarze FWMR; Engels J; Mattheck C, 2000. Fungal strategies of wood decay in trees. Fungal strategies of wood decay in trees, xv + 185 pp.; [Translation of an original German edition published in 1999 by Romberg Verlag, entitled ^italic~Holzzersetzende Pilze in Ba^umlaut~men Strategien der Holzzersetung^roman~.]; many ref.

Schwarze FWMR; Lonsdale D; Mattheck C, 1995. Detectability of wood decay caused by Ustulina deusta in comparison with other tree-decay fungi. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 25(6/7):327-341; 38 ref.

Sinclair WA; Lyon HH; Johnson WT, 1987. Diseases of trees and shrubs. Ithaca, New York, USA: Cornell University Press, 574 pp.

Stalpers JA, 1978. Identification of wood-inhabiting Aphyllophorales in pure culture. Studies in Mycology, 166:1-248.

Stillwell MA, 1966. A growth inhibitor produced by Cryptosporiopsis sp., an imperfect fungus isolated from Yellow Birch, Betula alleghaniensis Britt. Repr. from Canad. J. Bot. 44 (3), (259-67 + 13 photos). [9 refs.].

Suvorov PA, 1967. Biological characteristics of Fomes fomentarius, found on Spruce and Birch. Canad. J. Bot. 45 (10), (1853-7). [9 refs.].

Tsuneda I; Kennedy LL, 1980. Basidiospore germination and substrate preference in Fomes fomentarius and Fomitopsis cajanderi. Mycologia, 72(1):204-208

Vanik K, 1970. The occurrence of wood-destroying fungi on beech in the region of Zvolen. Zborn. Ved. Prac Lesn. Fak. VSLD, Zvolen, 12(1):91-108

Wall RE, 1971. Variation in decay in Aspen stands as affected by their clonal growth pattern. Canad. J. For. Res. 1 (3), (141-6). [En, fr, 14 ref.].

Zhao JD; Zhang XQ, 1992. The polypores of China. Bibliotheca Mycologica Berlin, Germany; J. Cramer, 145:524 pp.

Distribution References

Abdul Razaq, Saleem Shahzad, 2016. Additions to the Polyporales of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 48 (1), 387-391. http://www.pakbs.org/pjbot/PDFs/48(1)/50.pdf

Allen E A, Morrison D J, Wallis G W, 1996. Common tree diseases of British Columbia. Victoria, Canada: Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre. x + 178 pp.

Bakshi B K, Bagchee K, 1950. Principal diseases and decays of Oaks in India. Indian Phytopathology. 3 (2), 124-36.

Barsakoff B, 1939. The behaviour of the tinder fungus (Polyporus fomentarius L.) in Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). Lesowodska Missal. 105-14.

Beg A R, Ahmad M, 1974. Diseases of Indian Horse Chestnut. Pakistan Journal of Forestry. 24 (1), 69-76.

CABI, EPPO, 2002. Fomes fomentarius. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 867. DOI:10.1079/DMPD/20066500867

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Dai YuCheng, 1996. Changbai wood-rotting fungi 7. A checklist of the polypores. Fungal Science. 11 (3/4), 79-105.

Frassineti A, Bottacci A, 1997. The heterotrophic beech stand of Pietraporciana (near Siena). Stand structure and botanical composition. (La faggeta eterotopica di Pietraporciana (Sarteano, Siena). Aspetti strutturali e floristici.). Monti e Boschi. 48 (2), 10-15.

Garshina T D, 1993. A wood destroying fungus. Zashchita Rasteniĭ (Moskva). 26.

Garsina T D, 1960. Diseases of Juglans regia on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus. (Bolezni greckogo oreha na Cernomorskom poberez'e Kavkaza.). Sbornik Rabot po Lesnomu khozyaistvu. Vsesoyuznyi Nauchno-Issledovatel'skii Institut Lesovodstva. 134-6.

Gilbertson R L, Ryvarden L, 1986. North American polypores. Vol. I. Abortiporus-Lindtneria. Oslo, Norway: Fungiflora A/S. 433 pp.

Gordienko P V, 1977. The biotope distribution of Fomes fomentarius in the conifer/hardwood forests of Sikhote-Alin. (Biotopicheskoe raspredelenie nastoyashchego trutovika v khvoino- shirokolistvennykh lesakh Sikhote-Alinya.). Lesovedenie. 86-91.

Govi G, 1970. Italian Polyporaceae. Part VII. Monti e Boschi. 21 (2), 43-50.

Hiratsuka Y, 1987. Forest tree diseases of the prairie provinces. Information Report - Northern Forestry Centre, Canadian Forestry Service. 142 pp.

Igmandy Z, 1964. The wood-rotting polypores of Beech stands in Hungary. Erdesz. Faipari Egyetem tud. Kozl., Sopron. 99-107.

Imazeki R, Hongo T, 1989. Illustrations of mushrooms of Japan (in Japanese)., 2 Kyoto, Japan: Hoikusha Publishing Co. Ltd.

Ingold C T, 1965. Fomes fomentarius on Beech in Kent. Transactions of the British Mycological Society. 48 (1), 81-2.

Karpinski J J, 1954. Fungi as the cause of the death of trees in the virgin forest of the Polish National Park of Bialowieza. (Wplyw grzybow jako przyczyna zamierania drzew w lesie naturalnym Bialowieskiego Parku Narodowego.). Rocznik nauk lesnych. 137-60.

Khalikova M M, Musamukhamedova Ye B, 1989. New location of tinder fungi in Khorezm region. Ubreve˜zbekiston Biologija Zhurnali. 37-38.

Krimi Z, Mehdid S, 2001. Identification of wood-decay fungi infecting various forest trees. Bulletin OEPP. 31 (1), 114-115.

Krstic M, 1959. The extent of decay of Beech stems in Juzni Kucaj. (O obimu trulezi bukovih debala u Juznom Kucaju.). Sumarstvo. 12 (1/2), 13-27.

Liović B, Županić M, 2005. Forest pests in National Parks of Croatia and ecologically acceptable protective measures. (Štetočinje šuma nacionalnih parkova Hrvatske i ekološki prihvatljive mjere zaštite.). Radovi - Šumarski Institut Jastrebarsko. 40 (1), 101-112.

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