Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Flemingia lineata
(wild hops)

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Datasheet

Flemingia lineata (wild hops)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 May 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Flemingia lineata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • wild hops
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Flemingia lineata is a fast-growing shrub, native to South-East Asia, India, China, and Australia, that has been commercialized as an ornamental plant, and is also planted for green manure and soil erosion cont...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Flemingia lineata (L.) Aiton

Preferred Common Name

  • wild hops

Other Scientific Names

  • Flemingia lineata var. glutinosa Prain
  • Flemingia lineata var. lineata
  • Flemingia lineata var. papuana White
  • Flemingia macrophylla var. nana Sasaki
  • Hedysarum lineatum L.
  • Moghania lineata (L.) Kuntze

International Common Names

  • Spanish: malva de ciénaga
  • Chinese: xi ye qian jin ba

EPPO code

  • FLELI (Flemingia lineata)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Flemingia lineata is a fast-growing shrub, native to South-East Asia, India, China, and Australia, that has been commercialized as an ornamental plant, and is also planted for green manure and soil erosion control. Currently, it is listed as invasive only in Cuba (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012), and is naturalized in the Dominican Republic and Haiti (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012).  However, the closely related species Flemingia strobilifera is an aggressive invader of ruderal areas on islands in the Pacific and the West Indies where it grows forming dense stands that compete with native vegetation, so F. lineata is of concern as being potentially invasive.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Faboideae
  •                                 Genus: Flemingia
  •                                     Species: Flemingia lineata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The Fabaceae are one of the largest families of flowering plants. The genus Flemingia is included within the subfamily Faboideae, and comprises 32 species of shrubs, subshrubs, and (rarely) herbs native to tropical Asia, Africa, and Oceania (ILDIS, 2016).  The species Flemingia lineata comprises two infraspecific taxa: Flemingia lineata var. glutinosa and Flemingialineata var. lineata (ILDIS, 2016).

Description

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Flemingia lineata is an erect, multi-branched shrub. Branchlets cylindric and pubescent when young, becoming glabrous or subglabrous. Leaves digitately 3-foliolate; stipules lanceolate, 0.6-1 cm, apex long mucronate, usually persistent; petiole 0.7-3 cm, wingless, pubescent; leaflets thinly leathery; terminal leaflet obovate to obovate-oblong, 2-5.5 × 0.8-2 cm, basal veins 3, lateral veins 3 or 4 pairs, base cuneate, apex obtuse; lateral leaflets smaller, obliquely elliptic, sessile or subsessile. Panicles axillary or terminal; inflorescence axis 2.5-6.5 cm; bracts linear, small, persistent. Flowers 5-7 mm. Calyx pubescent; lobes lanceolate, longer than tube. Corolla longer than calyx; standard almost orbicular, clawed, auriculate; wings oblong, clawed, one with auricle; keel almost semiorbicular, clawed, with inconspicuous auricle on one side, apex mucronate. Legume 8-12 × 5-8 mm, villous with 2 black seeds, 2 mm in diameter (Flora of China, 2016).

Plant Type

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Seed propagated
Shrub

Distribution

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Flemingia lineata is native to South-East Asia, India, China, and Australia (Flora of China, 2016; ILDIS, 2016). It has been introduced and naturalized in Cuba and Hispaniola (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 19 May 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

CambodiaPresentNativeILDIS (2015)
ChinaPresentCABI (2020)Present, based on regional distribution
-GuangxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2016)
-YunnanPresentNativeILDIS (2015)
IndiaPresentNativeILDIS (2015)
-Andhra PradeshPresentNativeILDIS (2015)
-AssamPresentNativeILDIS (2015)
-BiharPresentNativeILDIS (2015)
-GoaPresentNativeILDIS (2015)
-GujaratPresentNativeILDIS (2015)
-HaryanaPresentNativeILDIS (2015)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentNativeILDIS (2015)
-KarnatakaPresentNativeILDIS (2015)
-KeralaPresentNativeILDIS (2015)
-Madhya PradeshPresentNativeILDIS (2015)
-MaharashtraPresentNativeILDIS (2015)
-ManipurPresentNativeILDIS (2015)
-MeghalayaPresentNativeILDIS (2015)
-NagalandPresentNativeILDIS (2015)
-OdishaPresentNativeILDIS (2015)
-PuducherryPresentNativeILDIS (2015)
-PunjabPresentNativeILDIS (2015)
-RajasthanPresentNativeILDIS (2015)
-Tamil NaduPresentNativeILDIS (2015)
-TripuraPresentNativeILDIS (2015)
-Uttar PradeshPresentNativeILDIS (2015)
-West BengalPresentNativeILDIS (2015)
IndonesiaPresentNativeILDIS (2015)
-Irian JayaPresentNativeILDIS (2015)
-JavaPresentNativeILDIS (2015)
-Lesser Sunda IslandsPresentNativeILDIS (2015)Bali
-SulawesiPresentNativeILDIS (2015)
LaosPresentNativeILDIS (2015)
MalaysiaPresentNativeILDIS (2015)
MyanmarPresentNativeILDIS (2015)
PhilippinesPresentNativeILDIS (2015)
Sri LankaPresentNativeILDIS (2015)
ThailandPresentNativeILDIS (2015)
VietnamPresentNativeILDIS (2015)

North America

CubaPresentIntroducedInvasiveOviedo Prieto et al. (2012)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedInvasiveAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
HaitiPresentIntroducedInvasiveAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentNativeILDIS (2015)
-QueenslandPresentNativeILDIS (2015)
Papua New GuineaPresentNativeILDIS (2015)

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of Flemingia lineata is moderate.  This species is not widely grown in the tropics, but it has been introduced in the West Indies where it has become invasive (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012). Like other Flemingia species that also behave as invasives, F. lineata has the potential to escape from cultivation and colonize new areas, principally disturbed sites and abandoned pastures near cultivation.

Habitat

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Flemingia lineata grows on mountain slopes, plains, roadsides and disturbed sites (Flora of China, 2016).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for Flemingia lineata is 2n = 22 (Flora of China, 2016).

Reproductive Biology and Phenology

In China, Flemingia lineata has been recorded flowering from December to February and fruiting from February to May (Flora of China, 2016).

Longevity

Flemingia lineata is a perennial fast-growing shrub (Flora of China, 2016).

Environmental Requirements

Flemingia lineata can be found growing at elevations from sea level up to 2000 m, in areas with precipitation ranging from 1100-2850 mm/year. It is adapted to poorly drained soils with waterlogging and acid soils with a high content of soluble aluminum (PROSEA, 2016).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 20 28

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall1100 mm2850 mmmm; lower/upper limits

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • other

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Flemingia lineata spreads by seeds.  Legumes are dehiscent and seeds are dispersed by wind and water, but also by humans (Flora of China, 2016). The species is planted as an ornamental (ILDIS, 2016), as green manure and for soil erosion control.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionUsed as green manure in Asia Yes
Escape from confinement or garden escapeNaturalized in areas near cultivation Yes Yes Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes ILDIS, 2016

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
WindSeeds dispersed by wind Yes Flora of China, 2016

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Impact

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Flemingia lineata is listed as invasive only in Cuba (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012), where it grows in disturbed areas and abandoned pastures. However, the closely related species Flemingia strobilifera is an aggressive invader of ruderal areas on islands in the Pacific and the West Indies where it grows forming dense stands that compete with native vegetation (Broome et al., 2007; ISSG, 2014; PIER, 2016), so F. lineata is of concern as being potentially invasive.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
Impact outcomes
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Flemingia lineata is planted as an ornamental, as a hedge plant and for green manure and soil erosion control. In Indonesia and Malaysia the leaves of many Flemingia species are used in traditional medicine (PROSEA, 2016).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Soil conservation

Materials

  • Green manure

Ornamental

  • garden plant

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Broome, R., Sabir, K., Carrington, S., 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. In: Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database , Barbados: University of the West Indies.http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

ILDIS, 2015. International Legume Database and Information Service. Reading, UK: School of Plant Sciences, University of Reading.http://www.ildis.org/

ILDIS, 2016. International Legume Database and Information Service. Reading, UK: School of Plant Sciences, University of Reading.http://www.ildis.org/

ISSG, 2014. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission.http://www.issg.org/database/welcome/

Oviedo Prieto, R., Herrera Oliver, P., Caluff, M. G., et al., 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

PIER, 2016. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PROSEA, 2016. Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Bogor, Indonesia: PROSEA Foundation.http://proseanet.org/prosea/eprosea.php

Contributors

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18/08/16: Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington, DC, USA

Distribution Maps

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