Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ficus religiosa
(sacred fig tree)

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Datasheet

Ficus religiosa (sacred fig tree)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 06 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ficus religiosa
  • Preferred Common Name
  • sacred fig tree
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • F. religiosa is a fast-growing, small tree or strangling climber that is tolerant of various climate zones and soil types, can reportedly live to over 3000 years, and has a smothering growth habit as it often b...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleTree
Caption
Copyright©Li Jiyuan
Tree©Li Jiyuan
1. Foliage
2. Fruit
3. Branchlet with fruits
4. Bottom of a fruit
TitleLine artwork
Caption1. Foliage 2. Fruit 3. Branchlet with fruits 4. Bottom of a fruit
CopyrightHe Ping
1. Foliage
2. Fruit
3. Branchlet with fruits
4. Bottom of a fruit
Line artwork1. Foliage 2. Fruit 3. Branchlet with fruits 4. Bottom of a fruitHe Ping

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ficus religiosa L.

Preferred Common Name

  • sacred fig tree

Other Scientific Names

  • Ficus caudata Stokes
  • Ficus rhynchophylla Steudel
  • Ficus superstitiosa Link
  • Urostigma affine Miq.
  • Urostigma religiosum (L.) Gasp.

International Common Names

  • English: bo tree; bodhi; botree fig; peepul tree; pipal tree; sacred fig; sacred tree
  • Spanish: higuera de agua
  • French: arbre bo; arbre de Dieu; figuier des pagodes
  • Chinese: pu ti shu; putishu

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: figueira-dos-pagodes; figueira-religiosa
  • Cuba: alamo
  • Dominican Republic: alamo; higuillo
  • Germany: Bobaum; heiliger Feigenbaum; indischer Pepulbaum; Pepulbaum
  • Haiti: laurel
  • India: arachu; arasu; ashathwa; ashvallia pipla; ashvatha pipla; bodh tree; jari; peepal; pipal; pipal tree; pipul
  • Israel: ficus kadosh
  • Italy: fico del diavolo
  • Myanmar: bawdi-nyaung; lagat; mai-nyawng; pipal
  • Puerto Rico: alamo; botree
  • Sweden: tempelfikus

EPPO code

  • FIURE (Ficus religiosa)

Trade name

  • pipal tree

Summary of Invasiveness

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F. religiosa is a fast-growing, small tree or strangling climber that is tolerant of various climate zones and soil types, can reportedly live to over 3000 years, and has a smothering growth habit as it often begins life as an epiphyte (Rojo et al., 1999; Starr et al., 2003; Mabberly, 2008; PIER, 2014). It can reproduce by cuttings or by seed, but requires a species-specific pollinator wasp in order to produce viable seeds. The species is listed as “environmental weed, naturalised, weed” in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012), is considered a species with a high risk of introduction and was included in the American Lands Alliance’s list of worst US invasive plant species (PIER, 2014). It is listed as ‘potentially invasive’ in Cuba (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012), is known to be invasive to some parts of the Pacific, has naturalized beyond its native range, and is known to be weedy elsewhere (Randall, 2012; PIER, 2014). 

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Urticales
  •                         Family: Moraceae
  •                             Genus: Ficus
  •                                 Species: Ficus religiosa

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Often called the mulberry family, Moraceae consists of about 40 genera and 1000 species of trees, shrubs, lianas, or rarely herbs, nearly all with milky sap, and mainly of tropical or subtropical origin (University of Hawaii, 2014). The milky sap of various Moraceae species contain ‘heart poisons’ that are used as dart poisons in some cultures; other plant parts such as leaves and fruit juices have also been reported to cause allergic and toxic reactions in humans and livestock (Frohn and Pfa¨nder, 2005). Many genera of this family are well-known as food crops and include Artocarpus, the tropical food staple breadfruit and jackfruit genus, Ficus, the fig genus, and Morus, the mulberry genus.

Ficus is a large genus of about 800-1000 tree and shrub species native to the tropics and subtropics that are often cultivated beyond their native range for their fig fruits or as ornamentals. Members of this genus are difficult to distinguish by their flowers, but can be differentiated by habit, whether they are banyans or not, by leaf shape, and by their fruits (Whistler, 2000).

The species F. religiosa is distinguished by the broadly ovate leaves with long petioles and extremely long and caudate apex (Flora of Nicaragua, 2014). Its species name derives from its status as a sacred plant to the Hindus and Buddhists, under which Buddha is believed to have sat in meditation and received enlightenment (Rojo et al., 1999; PIER, 2014).

Description

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Trees, 15-25 m tall, d.b.h. 30-50 cm, epiphytic when young, crown wide when mature. Bark gray, smooth or longitudinally ± fissured. Branchlets grayish brown, sparsely pubescent when young. Stipules ovate, small, apex acute. Petiole slender, as long as or longer than leaf blade, articulate; leaf blade triangular-ovate, 9-17 x 8-12 cm, leathery, abaxially green, adaxially dark green and shiny, base broadly cuneate to ± cordate, margin entire or undulate, apex acute to caudate with a 2-5 cm cauda; basal lateral veins 2, secondary veins 5-7 on each side of midvein. Figs axillary on leafy branchlets, paired or solitary, red when mature, globose to depressed globose, 1-1.5 cm in diameter, smooth; peduncle 4-9 mm; involucral bracts ovate. Male, gall, and female flowers within same fig. Male flowers: few, near apical pore, sessile; calyx 2- or 3-lobed, margin revolute; stamen 1; filament short. Gall flowers: pedicellate; calyx 3- or 4-lobed; ovary globose, smooth; style short; stigma enlarged, 2-lobed. Female flowers: sessile; calyx 4-lobed, broadly lanceolate; ovary globose, smooth; style thin; stigma narrow. [Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014]

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Tree
Vegetatively propagated
Vine / climber
Woody

Distribution

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F. religiosa is native to Indo-China and the Indian subcontinent from the Himalayan foothills to southwestern China, northern Thailand and Vietnam, but has also been introduced and cultivated elsewhere (Rojo et al., 1999; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014). It is now present in a number of islands in the Caribbean and Pacific. 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentNativeFlora of Pakistan, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014
BhutanPresent Natural Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014
ChinaFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; Flora of Pakistan, 2014; PIER, 2014
-FujianPresent only in captivity/cultivation Planted Planted
-GuangdongPresent only in captivity/cultivationMissouri Botanical Garden, 2014Planted
-GuangxiPresent only in captivity/cultivation Planted Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014
-Hong KongPresent only in captivity/cultivation Planted PIER, 2014Planted
-YunnanPresentNativeRojo et al., 1999; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014
IndiaPresentNativePlanted, NaturalRojo et al., 1999; Starr et al., 2003; Orwa et al., 2009; Flora of Pakistan, 2014
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresent only in captivity/cultivation Planted Planted
-Andhra PradeshPresent only in captivity/cultivation Planted Planted
-Arunachal PradeshPresent only in captivity/cultivation Planted Planted
-AssamPresent only in captivity/cultivation Planted Planted
-BiharPresent only in captivity/cultivation Planted Planted
-DelhiPresentNative Natural Natural
-GujaratPresentNativePlanted, NaturalNatural and planted
-Indian PunjabPresentNativePlanted, NaturalNatural and planted
-KarnatakaPresentNativePlanted, NaturalNatural and planted
-KeralaPresentPlanted, Natural
-Madhya PradeshPresentNativePlanted, NaturalNatural and planted
-MaharashtraPresentNative Natural Natural
-OdishaPresentNative Natural Natural
-RajasthanPresentNativePlanted, NaturalNatural and planted
-SikkimPresentNativePlanted, NaturalNatural and planted
-Tamil NaduPresentNative Natural Natural
-Uttar PradeshPresentNativePlanted, NaturalNatural and planted
-West BengalPresentNative Natural Natural
IsraelPresentIntroducedGalil and Eisikowitch, 1968; Starr et al., 2003; Orwa et al., 2009
JapanPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2014
LaosPresentNative Natural Natural
MyanmarPresent only in captivity/cultivationPlanted, NaturalKress et al., 2003; Flora of Pakistan, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014
NepalPresentNativeRojo et al., 1999; Orwa et al., 2009
PakistanPresentNativePlanted, NaturalFlora of Pakistan, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014Natural and planted
PhilippinesWidespreadIntroducedMadulid, 1995; Pelser et al., 2014Introduced at an early date and now widespread
SingaporePresentIntroducedChong et al., 2009; Randall, 2012; PIER, 2014Naturalised
Sri LankaPresentIntroduced288 BCRojo et al., 1999; Starr et al., 2003; Mabberly, 2008; Flora of Pakistan, 2014
ThailandPresentNativeRojo et al., 1999; Orwa et al., 2009
VietnamPresentNativeRojo et al., 1999; USDA-ARS, 2014

Africa

ChadPresentNativeOrwa et al., 2009
EgyptPresent only in captivity/cultivation Planted Flora of Pakistan, 2014Planted
LibyaPresentIntroducedFlora of Pakistan, 2014
MadagascarPresent only in captivity/cultivation Planted Planted

North America

MexicoPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014
USAPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009; Randall, 2012
-CaliforniaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedStarr et al., 2003Southern
-FloridaPresentIntroducedNadel et al., 1992; Starr et al., 2003; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; Randall, 2012
-HawaiiPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedStarr et al., 2003; Strohecker, 2013; PIER, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentFlora Mesoamericana, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014
CubaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; Oviedo et al., 2012
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
JamaicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
NicaraguaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana, 2014; Flora of Nicaragua, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014
PanamaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana, 2014
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced Not invasive Liogier and Martorell, 2000; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012Rare

South America

ColombiaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014
ParaguayPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana, 2014; Flora of Nicaragua, 2014; Paraguay Checklist, 2014
VenezuelaPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2014

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentRandall, 2012Naturalised
FijiPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014Cultivated
GuamPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014; Wagner et al., 2014
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentWagner et al., 2014Mariana Islands (Guam). Northern Mariana Islands (Tinian)
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014; Wagner et al., 2014Tinian I

History of Introduction and Spread

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F. religiosa is native to tropical Asia but has now been introduced and cultivated around the world, and in some cases it has become naturalized where its specialist pollinator wasp has also been introduced. Date of introduction to the West Indies is uncertain, but it may have occurred relatively recently. The species was not included in Bello’s work on the West Indies (1881; 1883), Urban’s work on the Lesser Antilles (1898-1928), or Britton’s work on Bermuda (1918), but specimens were collected in Trinidad and Tobago in 1861, Cuba in 1905, the Dominican Republic in 1921, and Haiti in 1923 (Smithsonian Herbarium collections). Elsewhere, the species was unintentionally introduced to Israel through horticulture and its specialist pollinator wasp was present in the country by the 1960s (Galil and Eisikowitch, 1968; DAISIE, 2014). It is said to have been introduced to Sri Lanka around 300 BC from a single plant brought from India (Rojo, 1999; Starr et al., 2003; Mabberly, 2008).

Risk of Introduction

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F. religiosa is listed as an “environmental weed, naturalised, weed” in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). A PIER risk assessment prepared for the species’ invasiveness in Hawaii gave it a high risk score of 7, indicating its likelihood to be a major pest, and the species was also included in the American Lands Alliance’s list of worst U.S. invasive plant species (PIER, 2014). It is known to be potentially invasive to Cuba (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012), invasive to some parts of the Pacific including Singapore and Hawaii (PIER, 2014), has naturalized beyond its native range, and is known to be weedy elsewhere (Randall, 2012; PIER, 2014). Planting of this species has been prohibited in Miami-Dade County, Florida (PIER, 2014). In Hawaii, the species is present but has not yet become invasive, although in 2013 its species-specific pollinator wasp had reportedly just been introduced to the islands (Starr et al., 2003; Strohecker, 2013). The species is fast-growing, tolerant of various climate zones and soil types, can reportedly live to over 3000 years, and has a smothering growth habit as it often begins life as an epiphyte (Rojo et al., 1999; Starr et al., 2003; Mabberly, 2008; PIER, 2014). It can reproduce by cuttings or by seed, but requires a species-specific pollinator wasp in order to produce viable seeds. Considering these characteristics and its known potential for invasiveness, but also its dependence on a specialist pollinator, the risk of introduction for this species is high in places where its specialist pollinator wasp is present.

Habitat

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F. religiosa occurs naturally in submontane forest, and is grown as an ornamental both within its native range and in places where it has been introduced. In the Middle East, the species is planted as an avenue or roadside tree and is held sacred and commonly planted by Hindus in India near temples (Flora of Pakistan, 2014). In the Philippines and in Nicaragua the species is cultivated in parks and along roadsides and pavements (Madulid, 1995; Flora of Nicaragua, 2014), while in Paraguay it occurs in forests at lower elevations (Paraguay Checklist, 2014). 

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Buildings Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Sporophytic count for this species is 26 (IPCN Chromosome Reports, 2014).

Associations

Each member of the Ficus genus has a symbiotic relationship with an agaonid wasp; just as each Ficus species requires a specific wasp in order to pollinate, the wasp will only lay eggs within its associated Ficus species (Starr et al., 2003; PIER, 2014). F. religiosa is associated with the wasp Blastophaga quadraticeps, which is now known to be present in a limited number of introduced places- Hawaii, Florida, and Israel (Starr et al., 2003; Strohecker, 2013; DAISIE, 2014).

The species is also an important host plant for lac insects (Rojo et al., 1999; Orwa et al., 2009).

Environmental Requirements

F. religiosa is tolerant of various climate zones and soil types, can reportedly live to over 3000 years, and has a smothering growth habit as it often begins life as an epiphyte (Rojo et al., 1999; Starr et al., 2003; Mabberly, 2008; PIER, 2014). In Paraguay the species occurs in forests at lower elevations (Paraguay Checklist, 2014), and in China the species has been reported growing at 400-700 m (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). In India, it occurs both wild and cultivated up to 1500 m (Starr et al., 2003). 

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
30 5 10 1500

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 0
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 22 24
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 27 32
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 14 20

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall5005000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Summer
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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F. religiosa has been intentionally introduced around the world for use as an ornamental, and accidentally imported beyond its native range through horticulture to places including Israel and Hawaii (Whistler, 2000; Starr et al., 2003; DAISIE, 2014). Its ability to naturalize in introduced settings depends on whether its species-specialist pollinator wasp has also been introduced to the region; so far the species has only been reported to set viable seed in Florida, Israel, and, most recently, Maui Island of Hawaii (Galil and Eisikowitch, 1968; Starr et al., 2003; Strohecker, 2013; DAISIE, 2014). As it can reproduce by both seeds and cuttings, the species might be dispersed by birds that feed on the fruit, or by cattle and other foragers that eat its leaves and twigs (Rojo et al., 1999; Flora of Pakistan, 2014).

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

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F. religiosa often begins life as an epiphyte, but reportedly does not parasitize other plants and relies on them only for anchorage (Orwa et al., 2009). However, the species either splits its host plant from within (Rojo et al., 1999; Mabberly, 2008) or strangles it (Starr et al., 2003) as it matures into a tree. This is problematic to the environment in places where the species can become invasive, and means that it could also cause damage to local biodiversity in the event that the species begins to invade native ecosystems.

F. religiosa is reportedly invasive, potentially invasive, or weedy to parts of its native Asia as well as the Pacific, Cuba, and the USA (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; Randall, 2012; PIER, 2014). 

Social Impact

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The spread of the species has a positive cultural impact due to its status as a sacred plant to Buddhists and Hindus. It is frequently planted near to temples.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Competition - strangling
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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F. religiosa has been used as an ornamental, as invertebrate food for lac insects and silkworms, in folkloric medicine, and for materials and religious uses (USDA-ARS, 2014).

Various plant parts are used for religious purposes; the plant is considered sacred to Buddhists and Hindus, as Buddha is said to have become incarnate under the shade of an F. religsiosa tree, and Vishnu the Destroyer was born among its branches, resulting in its species name ‘religiosa’ and its common name 'sacred tree’ (Bircher and Bircher, 2000). The wood is made into spoons used in rituals and in sacrificial fires by Hindus, and the entire plant is commonly planted by Hindus in India near temples (Bircher and Bircher, 2000; Flora of Pakistan, 2014).

The fruits are commonly eaten by birds as food, while the leaves and twigs are lopped for cattle and goats (Rojo et al., 1999; Flora of Pakistan, 2014). In Puerto Rico the species is a rare ornamental and shade tree (Liogier and Martorell, 2000). It is grown as an ornamental in Mesoamerica (Flora Mesoamericana, 2014). The small figs have been eaten as a famine food, while its sap is used to make latex or rubber and its bark used in tanning (Orwa et al., 2009). The bark fibre was also formerly used in the manufacture of paper (Bircher and Bircher, 2000). The wood is used to make packing cases (Flora of Pakistan, 2014), as it is durable under water, and has also been reportedly used to make cheap boarding, yokes, and bowls (Orwa et al., 2009).

F. religiosa is also used medicinally; leaves and tender shoots are used as a purgative and for skin diseases, and the fruit is laxative, alterative and cooling (Flora of Pakistan, 2014). Rojo et al. (1999) also reports: “a decoction of the bark is used as skin wash to treat scabies, whereas the aerial roots are chewed by women to promote fertility. In India, an infusion of the bark is drunk as an antidiabetic and used externally against ulcers and skin diseases. The leaves and twigs are reputedly used against bites of venomous animals, as an astringent, antigonorrhoeal, laxative, aphrodisiac, and for the treatment of haemoptysis and fistula. Fresh sap from the leaves is used to cure diarrhoea, cholera and for wound healing.”

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage
  • Invertebrate food for lac/wax insects
  • Invertebrate food for silkworms

Drugs, stimulants, social uses

  • Religious

Environmental

  • Landscape improvement

General

  • Ornamental
  • Ritual uses
  • Sociocultural value

Human food and beverage

  • Fruits

Materials

  • Carved material
  • Fibre
  • Rubber/latex
  • Tanstuffs

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Wood Products

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Containers

  • Cases

Prevention and Control

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Preventing the pollinator wasp from entering non-native places is of utmost priority to prevent F. religiosa from becoming naturalized and potentially invasive to non-native places. In Hawaii, Starr et al. (2003) speculated that removal, or prohibiting the planting of the species, may be met with public opposition due to its status as a sacred plant. Chemical control has been used for Ficus species, as they are sensitive to triclopyr herbicides as a basal or stump treatment (Starr et al., 2003). Other Ficus species such as F. carica have been mechanically controlled by pulling seedlings and small, young trees; however, once established, the species can resprout from stumps or fragments after being cut down (DiTomaso et al., 2013). For this reason, grazing and burning are not effective methods either, and there are no reports of biological agents used to control the spread of the species (Starr et al., 2003; DiTomaso et al., 2013).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Bello D, 1883. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Segunda parte. Monoclamídeas.) Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, 12:103-130.

Bello Espinosa D, 1881. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Primera parte.) Anal. Soc. Española de Hist. Nat, 10:231-304.

Bircher AG; Bircher WH, 2000. Encyclopedia of fruit trees and edible flowering plants in Egypt and the subtropics. Cairo, Egypt: American University in Cairo Press, 596 pp.

Britton NL, 1918. Flora of Bermuda. New York, USA: Charles Scribner's Sons. 585 pp.

Chong KY; Tan HTW; Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species., Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp.

Dadwal VS; Jamaluddin, 1992. A leaf spot disease of Ficus religiosa and its control. Indian Forester, 118(8):599-600

DAISIE, 2014. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do

DiTomaso JM; Kyser GB; Oneto SR; Wilson RG; Orloff SB; Anderson LW; Wright SD; Roncoroni JA; Miller TL; Prather TS; Ransom C; Beck KG; Duncan C; Wilson KA; Mann JJ, 2013. Weed Control in Natural Areas in the Western United States. Davis, California, USA: Weed Research and Information Center, University of California, 544 pp.

Flora Mesoamericana, 2014. Flora Mesoamericana. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FM

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Nicaragua, 2014. Flora of Nicaragua, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=7

Flora of Pakistan, 2014. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

Frohne D; Pfander HJ, 2005. Poisonous plants: A handbook for doctors, pharmacists, toxicologists, biologists and veterinarians. 2nd Edition. Portland, OR, USA: Timber Press, 469 pp.

Galil J; Eisikowitch D, 1968. On the pollination ecology of Ficus religiosa in Israel. Phytomorphology, 18(3):356-363.

Galil J; Snitzer-Pasternak Y, 1970. Pollination in Ficus religiosa L. as connected with the structure and mode of action of the pollen pockets of Blastophaga quadraticeps Mayr. New Phytologist, 69:775-84.

Gamble JS, 1972. A manual of Indian timbers. Reprint. Dehra Dun, India: Bichen Singh and Mahendra Pal Singh.

Gupta RK, 1993. Multipurpose trees for agroforestry and wasteland utilisation. Multipurpose trees for agroforestry and wasteland utilisation., xv + 562 pp.; [18 pp. of ref + refs in text].

Hocking D, ed. , 1993. Trees for drylands. New Delhi, India: Oxford and IBH.

IPCN Chromosome Reports, 2014. Index to Plant Chromosome Numbers (IPCN), Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/IPCN

Kress WJ; Defilipps RA; Farr E; Kyi DYY, 2003. A checklist of the trees, shrubs, herbs, and climbers of Myanmar. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 45:1-590.

Liao JC, 1991. The taxonomic revisions of the family Moraceae in Taiwan. Taipei, Taiwan: Dept. of Forestry College of Agriculture National Taiwan Univesity.

Liogier HA; Martorell LF, 2000. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis, 2nd edition revised. San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, University of Puerto Rico, 382 pp.

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm
Check-list of the Trees,Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmarhttp://botany.si.edu/myanmar/checklistNames.cfm
Flora of Micronesiahttp://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/micronesia/index.htm

Contributors

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25/8/2014 Updated by:

Marianne Jennifer Datiles, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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