Invasive Species Compendium

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Ficus pumila
(creeping fig)

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Datasheet

Ficus pumila (creeping fig)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ficus pumila
  • Preferred Common Name
  • creeping fig
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • F. pumila is a dense, rapid-growing, aggressively climbing species with adventitious roots and high tolerance for drought and shade, capable of growing on a wide range of soil types and pH values (

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ficus pumila L.

Preferred Common Name

  • creeping fig

Other Scientific Names

  • Ficus longipedicellata H. Perrier
  • Ficus repens HORT.
  • Ficus stipulata Thunb.

International Common Names

  • English: climbing fig; creeping rubber plant; fig ivy
  • Spanish: higuera trepadora
  • French: figuier rampant
  • Chinese: bi li; man tu luo

Local Common Names

  • Bangladesh: anoya wanch
  • Brazil: hera de China; mama de pared
  • China: ai yu tzu; kuei man tou; mu lien; mu man tou; pi li
  • Colombia: una
  • Cuba: ficus trepador; hiedra; jaguey trepador; yedra
  • Dominican Republic: yedra
  • Germany: Feigenbaum, Kletter-; Kletterfeige
  • Guatemala: una
  • India: jengto-jingo
  • Indonesia: karet rambat
  • Japan: o-itabi; o-itabi-kazura
  • Japan/Ryukyu Archipelago: chita
  • Lesser Antilles: lierre
  • Mexico: amate
  • Myanmar: kyauk-kat-nyaung-nwe
  • Puerto Rico: hiedra; paja de colchon; paz y justicia; yedra
  • Sweden: klatterfikus
  • Thailand: lin suea; madueo thao
  • Vietnam: by I(eej); c(aa)y; c(aa)y x(oo)p; mac pup; th(awf)n l(awf)n; trau cp; vay oc

EPPO code

  • FIUPU (Ficus pumila)

Summary of Invasiveness

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F. pumila is a dense, rapid-growing, aggressively climbing species with adventitious roots and high tolerance for drought and shade, capable of growing on a wide range of soil types and pH values (Gilman, 1999). It is listed as an “environmental weed, garden thug, naturalised, sleeper weed, weed” in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). Although it requires a specialist pollinator wasp to set seeds, it can also reproduce by vegetative fragmentation (HEAR, 2008; DAISIE, 2014). It is reported to be invasive to Cuba (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012) and potentially invasive in New Zealand (Randall, 2012). It has a history of repeated introductions beyond its native range and creates dense, smothering thickets that can significantly alter a habitat if allowed to establish itself (Starr et al., 2003; HEAR, 2008; PIER, 2014). The species is known to be poisonous to mammals (Wiersema and Leon, 1999; USDA-ARS, 2014). Although it received a low score of 2 in a risk assessment for its invasiveness in Hawaii (PIER, 2014), a separate risk assessment gave F. pumila a high risk score of 10 for Florida (HEAR, 2008). This species carries a high risk of introduction in places where its specialist pollinator wasp is present.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Urticales
  •                         Family: Moraceae
  •                             Genus: Ficus
  •                                 Species: Ficus pumila

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Often called the mulberry family, Moraceae consists of about 40 genera and 1000 species of trees, shrubs, lianas, or rarely herbs, nearly all with milky sap, and mainly of tropical or subtropical origin (Whistler, 2000; University of Hawaii, 2014). The milky sap of various Moraceae species contain ‘heart poisons’ that are used as dart poisons in some cultures; other plant parts such as leaves and fruit juices have also been reported to cause allergic and toxic reactions in humans and livestock (Frohne and Pfa¨nder, 2005). Many genera of this family are well-known as food crops.

Ficus is a large genus of about 800-1000 tree and shrub species native to the tropics and subtropics that are often cultivated beyond their native range for their fig fruits or as ornamentals. Members of this genus are difficult to distinguish by their flowers, but can be differentiated by habit, whether they are banyans or not, by leaf shape, and by their fruits (Whistler, 2000).

Unlike many other members of the genus that grow to be large trees, F. pumila is a climber vine-like species that produces an adhesive latex, allowing it to climb and spread vigorously along walls and other plants (Rojo et al., 1999). The species name F. pumila derives from the Latin word ‘pumila’ meaning ‘dwarf’ (Quattrocchi, 2012), presumably due to its creeping habit that creates a low, dense ground cover only one or two inches high (Gilman, 1999). Cultivars include ‘minima’, which has slender, small leaves, ‘quercifolia’, with tiny lobed leaves, somewhat like miniature oak leaves, and ‘variegata’, which has leaves with creamy white markings (Gilman, 1999).

Description

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The juvenile phase of this plant is morphologically different from the adult phase. Juvenile plant attaining several metres in length, much branched, climbing by means of adventitious roots; stems flattened; leaves 1.5-2.5 cm long, ovate to oblong, retuse at the apex, very closely spaced. Adult plant developing into a much branched liana, with adventitious roots, attaining 10 m in length; produces abundant white latex when wounded. Stems flattened, striate, tomentose, glabrescent when mature, with short pendulous branches. Leaves alternate, simple, 4-7 × 2.2-4 cm, oblong, oblanceolate, ovate, or elliptical, the apex obtuse, the base subcordiform, the margins entire; upper surface dark green, slightly shiny, with the venation notably lighter; lower surface light green, dull, with prominent reticulate venation; petioles 1.3-1.6 cm long, flattened on the upper surface, pubescent, light brown; stipules oblong-lanceolate to subulate, persistent, 1-1.2 cm long, brown, sericeous. Syconium green, pyriform, up to 6 cm long, soft (Acevedo-Rodriguez, 2005).

The species will form woody stems after several years of growth.

Plant Type

Top of page Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated
Vine / climber
Woody

Distribution

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F. pumila is native to temperate and tropical Asia. It is a commonly cultivated species across Puerto Rico and is found in the El Yunque and Maricao public forests (Acevedo-Rodriguez, 2005). It is also widely cultivated in the Philippines and Melanesia (Madulid, 1995), as well as in Nepal and Indo-China (Nepal Checklist, 2014). In the USA, the species can be cultivated in parts of the southern and western coasts (Gilman, 1999). 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

MadagascarPresentCABI (Undated)As Ficus longipedicellata H. Perrier; Original citation: Missouri Botanical Garden (2014)

Asia

ChinaPresentNativeMadulid (1995); Hanelt et al. (2001); Pelser et al. (2014); CABI (Undated)
-AnhuiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014); CABI (Undated)
-FujianPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
-GuangdongPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014); CABI (Undated)
-GuangxiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014); CABI (Undated)
-GuizhouPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014); CABI (Undated)
-HenanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014); CABI (Undated)
-HubeiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014); CABI (Undated)
-HunanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014); CABI (Undated)
-JiangsuPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014); CABI (Undated)
-JiangxiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014); CABI (Undated)
-ShanxiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014); CABI (Undated)
-SichuanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014); CABI (Undated)
-YunnanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014); CABI (Undated)
-ZhejiangPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014); CABI (Undated)
JapanPresentNativePelser et al. (2014); CABI (Undated)
-HonshuPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
-KyushuPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentNativePelser et al. (2014); USDA-ARS (2014)
-ShikokuPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
MyanmarPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationKress et al. (2003)
NepalPresentNativeCABI (Undated)Original citation: Nepal Checklist (2014)
North KoreaPresentNativePelser et al. (2014)
PhilippinesPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedMadulid (1995); Pelser et al. (2014)Widely cultivated
SingaporePresentChong et al. (2009)Casual
South KoreaPresentNativePelser et al. (2014)
TaiwanPresentNativePelser et al. (2014); USDA-ARS (2014); CABI (Undated)
VietnamPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014); CABI (Undated)

Europe

PortugalPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-AzoresPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2014)
-MadeiraPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2014)
SpainPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroducedRandall (2012); DAISIE (2014)

North America

BarbadosPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007); Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana (2014)
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasiveOviedo Prieto et al. (2012); Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Dominican RepublicPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007); Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedHanelt et al. (2001)
HaitiPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
HondurasPresentIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana (2014)
MontserratPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007); Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana (2014); Flora of Nicaragua (2014)
Puerto RicoPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez (2005); Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); USDA-NRCS (2014)Widely cultivated
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007); Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007); Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Sint MaartenPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007); Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
United StatesPresentIntroducedFlora of Nicaragua (2014)
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2014); Gilman (1999)
-ArizonaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedGilman (1999)Potential planting range
-CaliforniaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedGilman (1999)Potential planting range
-FloridaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedGilman (1999); Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012); Randall (2012); USDA-NRCS (2014)Potential planting range
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2014); Gilman (1999)
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2014); Starr et al. (2003)
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2014); Gilman (1999)
-MississippiPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedGilman (1999)Potential planting range
-NevadaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedGilman (1999)Potential planting range
-OregonPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedGilman (1999)Potential planting range
-South CarolinaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedGilman (1999)Potential planting range
-TexasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2014); Gilman (1999)
-WashingtonPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedGilman (1999)Potential planting range

Oceania

AustraliaPresentRandall (2012)South-eastern bushland
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedNaturalizedRandall (2012)Weed; naturalised
GuamPresentWagner et al. (2014)
New ZealandPresentIntroducedInvasiveRandall (2012)

South America

BoliviaPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated); Flora of Nicaragua (2014)Santa Cruz, La Paz; Original citation: Bolivia Checklist (2014)
ColombiaPresentIntroducedFlora of Nicaragua (2014); Vascular Plants of Antioquia (2014)
EcuadorPresentIntroducedFlora of Nicaragua (2014)
VenezuelaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Missouri Botanical Garden (2014)

History of Introduction and Spread

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F. pumila is native to the Old World tropics but is now cultivated and in some cases invasive to introduced places. Date of introduction to the West Indies is uncertain. The species was not included in Bello’s work on Puerto Rico (1881; 1883) but by 1918 it was being cultivated “for ornament and interest” in Bermuda (Britton, 1918), and by 1926 it was being “commonly grown on walls in Puerto Rico and occasionally in the Virgin Islands” (Britton and Wilson, 1926). F. pumila specimens were collected in Cuba in 1920, in Guadeloupe in 1945, and Jamaica in 1966 (US Smithsonian National Herbarium), and today the plant is a widely cultivated and common ornamental species in Puerto Rico (Acevedo-Rodriguez, 2005). Elsewhere, the species has been unintentionally introduced to the Canary Islands and the Azores, and was unintentionally introduced to Italy around 1500 (DAISIE, 2014). In 1882 Joseph Hooker wrote that the species (referring to it as syn. Ficus stipulata) was reportedly introduced to Europe in 1771 but only ‘recently’ became a popular ornamental climber in gardens and conservatories of England, and mentioned specimens growing in Berlin and Paris (Hooker, 1882). According to DAISIE (2014), the species was introduced to Madeira, Portugal as an ornamental in 1914 and unintentionally released through vectors such as live food trade, animals and plants used for ornamental purposes in parks, gardening, and bonsai, and has now become an established species.

Risk of Introduction

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F. pumila is a dense, rapid-growing, aggressively climbing species with adventitious roots and high tolerance for drought, shade, and a wide range of soil types and pH (Gilman, 1999). Like other Ficus species, F. pumila requires a specialist pollinator wasp to produce viable seeds and does not appear to spread by seed in Hawaii or New Zealand (Starr et al., 2003); however, it can also reproduce by vegetative fragmentation, which has resulted in its accidental introduction, naturalization and invasiveness to some non-native environments (HEAR, 2008; DAISIE, 2014). The species is reported to be invasive to Cuba (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012) and potentially invasive in New Zealand (Randall, 2012). It has a history of repeated introductions beyond its native range and creates dense, smothering thickets that can significantly alter a habitat if allowed to establish itself (Starr et al., 2003; HEAR, 2008; PIER, 2014). F. pumila is poisonous to mammals (Wiersema and Leon, 1999; USDA-ARS, 2014). Although the species received a low score of 2 in a risk assessment for its invasiveness in Hawaii (PIER, 2014), a separate risk assessment gave the species a high risk score of 10 for Florida (HEAR, 2008). Considering these traits, this species carries a high risk of introduction in places where its specialist pollinator wasp is present.

Habitat

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F. pumila is native to the Old World tropics but has been introduced and is now widely cultivated both indoors and outdoors in the Neotropics, and in some cases has escaped cultivation. In Florida, USA, it is found growing in disturbed thickets (Flora of North America, 2014). In Antioquia, Colombia the species occurs in humid premontane forests (Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014). It has also been reported for the Andean region of Bolivia (Bolivia Checklist, 2014). In Hawaii, it has been observed escaping gardens into adjacent disturbed scrub forest of some lowland moist areas, and in New Zealand it has also been reportedly seen escaping cultivation into the edges of forest reserves or spreading from garden rubbish dumped along roadsides (Starr et al., 2003). As a landscape species, F. pumila is often planted by walls and other structures as an ornamental cover.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedProtected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Buildings Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Sporophytic count for F. pumila is 26 (IPCN Chromosome Reports, 2014).

Associations

Each member of the Ficus genus has a symbiotic relationship with an agaonid wasp; just as each Ficus species requires a specific wasp in order to pollinate, the wasp will only lay eggs within its associated Ficus species (Starr et al., 2003). F. pumila is associated with the wasp Wiebesiapumilae, which is currently known to be present in its native Asian range of China, Japan, and Taiwan (Noyes, 2014).

Environmental Requirements

F. pumila is a dense, rapid-growing, aggressively climbing species with adventitious roots and high tolerance for drought, shade, and soil types (Gilman, 1999; Starr et al., 2003). It can tolerate infertile soil and can grow in most soil types including chalk, clay, sand, and loam with pH ranging from acidic to alkaline, so long as it is well-drained (Royal Horticultural Society, 2014).

F. pumila is found at low-to-mid elevations, primarily in humid premontane forests. In Florida the species has been reported growing between 0 and 10 m (Flora of North America, 2014) and in Nicaragua between 0 and 1000 m, while in Colombia it has been observed growing between 1000 and 1500 m (Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014), and in Bolivia between 1500 and 2000 m (Bolivia Checklist, 2014). In Nepal, the species has been reported growing around 1400 m (Nepal Checklist, 2014).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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According to DAISIE (2014), F. pumila was introduced to Madeira, Portugal as an ornamental in 1914 and was later unintentionally released, becoming an established species. Because it is fast-growing and creates dense foliage, in Florida it is a popular species in theme parks for creating ‘instant’ green walls and ornamental frame-based shrubbery, but requires careful pruning to prevent its escape (Floridata, 2014). In Hawaii and New Zealand, Starr et al. (2003) report that the species vigorously spreads into unwanted areas by vegetative fragments, often as a cultivation escape or from garden rubbish. Animals are less likely causes for introduction and dispersal, as the fruits of this fig species are relatively large and unlikely to be eaten by birds, while the plant is known to be toxic to mammals (Gilman, 1999; Starr et al., 2003; HEAR, 2008; USDA-ARS, 2014).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoos Yes Yes Britton, 1918; Floridata, 2014; Hooker, 1882
Crop productionCultivated in Asia to make jelies Yes Yes Hanelt et al., 2001; Mabberly, 2008
Escape from confinement or garden escapeSpreads by vegetative fragments, known to escape from cultivation and garden rubbish Yes Yes DAISIE, 2014; Starr et al., 2003
Garden waste disposalSpreads by vegetative fragments, known to escape from cultivation and garden rubbish Yes Yes DAISIE, 2014; Starr et al., 2003
Horticulture Yes Yes Britton, 1918; Floridata, 2014; Hooker, 1882
Landscape improvement Yes Yes Britton, 1918; Floridata, 2014; Hooker, 1882
Medicinal use Yes Hanelt et al., 2001; Quattrocchi, 2012; Rojo et al., 1999; USDA-ARS, 2014
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes Britton, 1918; Floridata, 2014; Hooker, 1882

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activities Yes Yes Hanelt et al., 2001; Mabberly, 2008
Floating vegetation and debrisCan reproduce by vegatative fragmentation Yes Yes
Machinery and equipment Yes Yes Hanelt et al., 2001; Mabberly, 2008
Soil, sand and gravelCan reproduce by vegetative fragmentation Yes Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Human health Negative

Economic Impact

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Because F. pumila produces edible fruits, its increased presence may provide local foragers with food or means to earn extra income, but also negatively impacts livelihoods by competing with other plant species for space, especially as it is a known agricultural weed. It is also a known vertebrate poison and thus poses additional negative health and livelihood impacts.

Environmental Impact

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If allowed to spread, F. pumila can significantly alter ecosystems due to its rapid growth and smothering growth habit, as it creates dense thickets with its adventitious roots and adhesive latex that allows it to grow both horizontally and vertically. 

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - smothering
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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This species has been widely grown as an ornamental.  In China, Taiwan, and Japan, it is commercially cultivated to make jellies from the fruit (Hanelt et al., 2001; Mabberly, 2008).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Graft stock

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo
  • Ornamental

Genetic importance

  • Gene source

Human food and beverage

  • Fruits

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Potted plant
  • Propagation material

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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F. pumila is easily distinguished from most other Ficus species due to its unusual climbing habit, rigid leaves and large, pyriform figs (Flora of Nicaragua, 2014).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Prevention

F. pumila requires a specialist pollinator wasp in order to set viable seed. Especially in places where F. pumila is already a known weed or invasive species, it is a high priority to prevent the wasp from entering non-native areas in order to prevent further spread.

Chemical Control

Chemical control has been used for Ficus species, as they are sensitive to triclopyr herbicides as a basal or stump treatment (Starr et al., 2003). F. pumila was reportedly successfully controlled by Metsulfuron herbicide, 5 grams to 10 litres of water in a knapsack sprayer in New Zealand, but no chemical measures were reportedly being used in Hawaii as of 2003 (Starr et al., 2003; HEAR, 2008).

Physical Control

The species can be physically controlled by pruning to prevent the plant from maturing into a woody shrub or tree-like form. However, it is a vigorous climbing plant with adventitious roots and can spread vegetatively. For this reason, grazing and burning are not the most effective methods for such Ficus species (Starr et al., 2003; DiTomaso et al., 2013).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2005. Vines and climbing plants of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 51:483 pp.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Bello D, 1883. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Segunda parte. Monoclamídeas.) Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, 12:103-130.

Bello Espinosa D, 1881. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Primera parte.) Anal. Soc. Española de Hist. Nat, 10:231-304.

Bolivia Checklist, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Bolivia, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=13

Britton NL, 1918. Flora of Bermuda. New York, USA: Charles Scribner's Sons. 585 pp.

Britton NL; Wilson P, 1926. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and Virgin Islands. Volumen VI. New York, USA: Academy of Sciences, 629 pp.

Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Chong KY; Tan HTW; Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore. http://rmbr.nus.edu.sg/raffles_museum_pub/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

DAISIE, 2014. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do

DiTomaso JM; Kyser GB; Oneto SR; Wilson RG; Orloff SB; Anderson LW; Wright SD; Roncoroni JA; Miller TL; Prather TS; Ransom C; Beck KG; Duncan C; Wilson KA; Mann JJ, 2013. Weed Control in Natural Areas in the Western United States. Davis, California, USA: Weed Research and Information Center, University of California, 544 pp.

Flora Mesoamericana, 2014. Flora Mesoamericana. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FM

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Nicaragua, 2014. Flora of Nicaragua, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=7

Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of North America North of Mexico. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1

Floridata, 2014. FLORIDATAbase website. Tallahassee, Florida, USA: Floridata.com. http://www.floridata.com/

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Distribution References

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Gilman EF, 1999. Ficus pumila, Fact Sheet FPS-212., Florida, USA: Environmental Horticulture Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS), University of Florida. http://hort.ifas.ufl.edu/database/documents/pdf/shrub_fact_sheets/ficpuma.pdf

Hanelt P, Buttner R, Mansfeld R, 2001. Mansfeld's Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops (except Ornamentals). Berlin, Germany: Springer. 539 pp.

Kress WJ, Defilipps RA, Farr E, Kyi DYY, 2003. A checklist of the trees, shrubs, herbs, and climbers of Myanmar. In: Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 45 1-590.

Madulid DA, 1995. A Pictorial Cyclopedia of Philippine Ornamental Plants., Metro Manilla, Bookmark, Inc. 214-217.

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

Pelser PB, Barcelona JF, Nickrent DL, 2014. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines., http://www.philippineplants.org

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds., Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia. 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Starr F, Starr K, Loope L, 2003. Ficus pumila (creeping fig)., Maui, Hawaii, USA: United States Geological Survey- Biological Resources Division. http://www.starrenvironmental.com/publications/species_reports/pdf/ficus_pumila.pdf

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

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Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Tornabene MW, Weitzman A, Lorence DH, 2014. Flora of Micronesia website., Washington DC, Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/micronesia/index.htm

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm
Check-list of the Trees,Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmarhttp://botany.si.edu/myanmar/checklistNames.cfm
Flora of Micronesiahttp://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/micronesia/index.htm
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global Compendium of Weedshttp://www.hear.org/gcw/
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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25/8/2014 Original text by:

Marianne Jennifer Datiles, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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