Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ficus lyrata
(fiddle-leaf fig)

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Datasheet

Ficus lyrata (fiddle-leaf fig)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Documented Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ficus lyrata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • fiddle-leaf fig
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • F. lyrata is a fast-growing tree of tropical African origin that reproduces by both seeds and cuttings, and if left unattended can form a dense canopy that may compete with native flora (

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ficus lyrata Warb.

Preferred Common Name

  • fiddle-leaf fig

International Common Names

  • English: banjo fig; fiddle-leaved fig tree; lyre leaf fig tree; lyre-leaved fig tree
  • French: figuier à feuilles lyrées

Local Common Names

  • Cuba: hoja de violin
  • Dominican Republic: higo; honjancha
  • Germany: Geigenblättriger Feigenbaum; geigenfeige
  • Japan: kashiwa bacomu
  • Puerto Rico: jagüey lirado
  • Sweden: fiolfikus

EPPO code

  • FIULY (Ficus lyrata)

Summary of Invasiveness

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F. lyrata is a fast-growing tree of tropical African origin that reproduces by both seeds and cuttings, and if left unattended can form a dense canopy that may compete with native flora (Whistler, 2000). However, like other members of the Ficus genus, F. lyrata requires a specialist pollinator in order to set viable seeds, and can be controlled by herbicides. F. lyrata is currently considered a low-risk species based on a PIER risk assessment prepared for Hawaii (PIER, 2014), but in places where the species’ specialist pollinator wasp is present, the risk may be higher. It was not considered a problem species in Florida (Gilman and Watson, 2014) and was not included in the Geographical Atlas of World Weeds (Holm, 1979). Simpson (2013) suggests that the pollinating wasp of F. lyrata may be present in parts of Western Australia, giving the tree the potential to become invasive.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Urticales
  •                         Family: Moraceae
  •                             Genus: Ficus
  •                                 Species: Ficus lyrata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Often called the mulberry family, Moraceae consists of about 40 genera and 1000 species of trees, shrubs, lianas, or rarely herbs, nearly all with milky sap, and mainly of tropical or subtropical origin (University of Hawaii, 2014). Ficus is a large genus of about 800-1000 tree and shrub species native to the tropics and subtropics that are often cultivated beyond their native range for their fig fruits or as ornamentals. Members of this genus are difficult to distinguish by their flowers, but can be differentiated by habit, whether they are banyans or not, by leaf shape, and by their fruits (Whistler, 2000).

The tree F. lyrata is distinguished by its milky sap, stipules forming a conical cap over the growing point of the stem, large, leathery leaves shaped like a lyre (hence one of its common names, ‘lyre-leaf fig’), and large, berry-like fig fruits (Whistler, 2000). The species name ‘lyrata’ derives from the Latin word ‘lyratus’ due to its leaf shape- a broad, rounded tip and sinuate sides that narrows at the base (Stearn, 1992). 

Description

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A large tree, up to 12 m tall with very minutely puberulous to glabrous young shoots. Leaves with a stout, 2-5 cm long, glabrous, grooved petiole; lamina thick fiddle-shaped or pandurate, 15-30 cm long, 12-20 cm 9-10-costate at the cordate base, sinuate-entire, almost truncate and very shortly acuminate at the apex, glabrous, lateral nerves 4-5 pairs, bulging beneath intercostals present; stipules narrowly triangular-lanceolate, 4-5 cm long, acuminate, glabrous, persistent. Hypanthodia sessile, in axillary pairs, globose, 2.5-4.5 cm in diam., finely puberulous, subtended by 3 triangular, appressed basal bracts, apical orifice somewhat depressed, ± 2-lipped, closed by lanceolate inwardly directed bracts. Male flowers: sepals 2-3, ovate-lanceolate; stamen solitary with ovoid anther. Female flowers; sepals 3, ovate, obtuse; style short with papillate stigma. [from Flora of Pakistan, 2014]

The species may begin life as an epiphyte, eventually developing some aerial roots and growing into a moderate to large-sized banyan tree with heights of up to 12 m and spread of up to 10.5 m, although the plant is usually smaller when grown in temperate climates (Starr et al., 2003; Gilman and Watson, 2014).

Plant Type

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Perennial
Seed propagated
Tree
Vegetatively propagated
Woody

Distribution

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F. lyrata is native to tropical western and central Africa but has been introduced and cultivated around the world including the West Indies (Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012). It was listed in Wagner et al.’s (2014) work on Micronesia, but was not included in the works on Hawaii or the Marquesas Islands.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BeninPresentNative
CameroonPresentNative
Côte d'IvoirePresentNative
EgyptPresentIntroduced
GabonPresentNative
LiberiaPresentNative
NigeriaPresentNative
Sierra LeonePresentNative
TogoPresentNative

Asia

IndonesiaPresent
PakistanPresentIntroduced
SingaporePresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced‘cultivated only’

Europe

GermanyPresentIntroduced
PolandPresentIntroduced

North America

BermudaPresentIntroduced1914‘growing at Sunny Lands in 1914’
CubaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
Dominican RepublicPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
El SalvadorPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
HaitiPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
MexicoPresent
NicaraguaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
Puerto RicoPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedSt. Croix
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CaliforniaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-FloridaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-HawaiiPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-MissouriPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-TexasPresentIntroduced

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-QueenslandPresent
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroduced
GuamPresent

South America

BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Mato GrossoPresentGrowing alongside highways and airports.
ColombiaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced

History of Introduction and Spread

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F. lyrata is considered of African origin but has long been cultivated pantropically for use as an ornamental and shade tree. The tree is used as an ornamental or cultivated plant, and in 1916 it was reported to be “cultivated in most European Botanic Gardens; fine specimens have been observed at Berlin, Brussels and Kew” (Hutchinson and Rendle, 1916). Date of introduction to the West Indies is uncertain but may have occurred around the turn of the 20th century. It was not included in Bello’s works on Puerto Rico (1881; 1883) or Urban’s (1898-1928) work on the Antilles, but was listed in Britton (1918) as present on Bermuda. In the 1920s the species was reportedly being cultivated experimentally in Puerto Rico (Britton and Wilson, 1924). By the 1970s the species was observed as a cultivated tree along fences and in national parks in the Dominican Republic (New York Botanical Garden, 2014).

Risk of Introduction

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Risk of introduction for this species is low based on current data, and it received a low risk score of -5 in a risk assessment prepared for Hawaii (PIER, 2014). However, considering the invasive traits this banyan fig species possesses, such as its wide cultivation, tolerance for a wide range of soil types and shade, and ability to regenerate by cuttings, as well as the fact that that several other Ficus banyan species are known to be high-risk invasive species, monitoring and further evaluation of F. lyrata is recommended in the future. To prevent this species from spreading into areas beyond where it is planted, the pollinator wasp should not be introduced where it is cultivated.

Habitat

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The species is native to Africa, where it grows in warm and wet regions, but has been introduced and is now widely cultivated both outdoors and indoors. F. lyrata grows in lowland and premontane humid rainforests (Lansky and Paavilainen, 2010; Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014). It is cultivated as an ornamental in parks and gardens of Nicaragua and the Philippines (Madulid, 1995; Flora of Nicaragua, 2014), and is used as an indoor house plant (Madulid, 1995; Whistler, 2000; Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder, 2014; Flora of Pakistan, 2014).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedBuildings Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Associations

Each member of the Ficus genus has a symbiotic relationship with an agaonid wasp; just as each Ficus species requires a specific wasp in order to pollinate, the wasp will only lay eggs within its associated Ficus species (Starr et al., 2003). The pollinating wasp of F. lyrata is Agaon spatulatum.

Environmental Requirements

F. lyrata is native to Africa. It is known to occur in premontane humid forests (Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014), and has been introduced for cultivation indoors and outdoors to tropical and temperate climate zones. In Colombia the species has been reported growing at 1000-1500 m (Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014).

The species will grow moderately fast, and can grow to heights of up to 40 feet with a spread of up to 35 feet. It has a high tolerance for drought and can grow in full sun, partial sun, or partial shade, has moderate tolerance of aerosol salt, and can withstand a range of soil types including sand, clay, loam, alkaline, and acidic, so long as it is well-drained (Gilman and Watson, 2014). Starr et al. (2003) report that its native temperatures are “typically warm and wet… ranging from over 68 F (20 C) in January to over 86 F (30 C) in July and average annual rainfall ranging from over 40 - 60 in (100 – 150 cm) to over 80 in (200 cm)”.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 30

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall10002000mm; lower/upper limits

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • saline

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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The species originated from tropical Africa, but has been introduced to many parts of the world for ornamental use, as a shade tree, or as a specimen tree in horticulture (Starr et al., 2003). Its fruit may be too large to be likely to be dispersed by water or wind, but it can regenerate by cuttings and has been intentionally spread in this manner by humans for use in horticulture and as an ornamental. Animals and birds may also be capable of spreading the seed through its fruit (Starr et al., 2003; PIER, 2014).

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive

Impact: Environmental

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Perhaps because its associated wasp required for pollination is not widespread, F. lyrata is currently considered a low-risk species and has had minimal negative impact in places where it has been introduced; in fact, it is a popular cultivated plant and used beyond its native Africa for use as an ornamental, shade tree, and horticultural specimen. Considering its popularity for these purposes, however, careful monitoring is required to ensure the associated wasp species is not accidentally introduced into places where F. lyrata is cultivated, as this could result in its uncontrolled spread into the wild. Additionally, it has been reported as a minor nuisance for the large leaves it sheds and litters onto the ground. According to Gilman and Watson (2014) it produces thorns, which could also prove a nuisance as an ornamental tree in public areas, although in the PIER (2014) risk assessment it is reported as not producing any thorns.

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact mechanisms
  • Produces spines, thorns or burrs
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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F. lyrata is grown in tropical regions as an ornamental and shade tree (Hanelt et al., 2001). In Hawaii the species has been cultivated for use in shady landscapes or indoor conditions. The bark of the species has been used for its gums/resins, and the tree is used as an ornamental or cultivated plant, a shade tree, and an indoor houseplant, and is also known to have social significance, as it is used in some cultures in magic (fetish tree) (Lansky and Paavilainen, 2010; Gilman and Watson, 2014).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Boundary, barrier or support

General

  • Ornamental
  • Ritual uses

Materials

  • Gums

Ornamental

  • Potted plant

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Prevention

The species requires a specialist pollinator wasp in order to set viable seed. Especially in places where F. lyrata has been introduced, it is a high priority to prevent the wasp from entering non-native areas in order to prevent the species’ spread.

Chemical Control

Chemical control has been used for Ficus species, as they are sensitive to triclopyr herbicides as a basal or stump treatment (Starr et al., 2003).

Physical Control

The species can be physically controlled by pruning to prevent the plant from maturing into a woody shrub or tree-like form. However, like other Ficus species, F. lyrata can spread vegetatively, so grazing and burning are not the most effective methods for such Ficus species (Starr et al., 2003; DiTomaso et al., 2013).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Although the species has been previously evaluated for its risk of introduction and found to pose very low threat (PIER, 2014), research on the spread of its associated wasp may shed light to the potential invasiveness of this species in the future.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Bello D, 1883. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Segunda parte. Monoclamídeas.) Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, 12:103-130.

Bello Espinosa D, 1881. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Primera parte.) Anal. Soc. Española de Hist. Nat, 10:231-304.

Britton NL, 1918. Flora of Bermuda. New York, USA: Charles Scribner's Sons. 585 pp.

Britton NL; Wilson P, 1924. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin islands, Volume V, Botany of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. New York Academy of Sciences, New York.

Chong KY; Tan HTW; Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

DiTomaso JM; Kyser GB; Oneto SR; Wilson RG; Orloff SB; Anderson LW; Wright SD; Roncoroni JA; Miller TL; Prather TS; Ransom C; Beck KG; Duncan C; Wilson KA; Mann JJ, 2013. Weed Control in Natural Areas in the Western United States. Davis, California, USA: Weed Research and Information Center, University of California, 544 pp.

Flora Mesoamericana, 2014. Flora Mesoamericana. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FM

Flora of Nicaragua, 2014. Flora of Nicaragua, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=7

Flora of Pakistan, 2014. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

Frohne D; Pfander HJ, 2005. Poisonous plants: A handbook for doctors, pharmacists, toxicologists, biologists and veterinarians. 2nd Edition. Portland, OR, USA: Timber Press, 469 pp.

Gilman EF; Watson DG, 2014. Ficus lyrata, Fact Sheet ENH 413. Florida, USA: Environmental Horticulture Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS), University of Florida. http://edis.ifas.edu/pdffiles/ST/ST25400

Hanelt P; Buttner R; Mansfeld R, 2001. Mansfeld's Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops (except Ornamentals). Berlin, Germany: Springer.

HEAR, 2012. Alien species in Hawaii. Hawaii Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/AlienSpeciesInHawaii/index.html

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 391 pp.

Hutchinson J; Rendle AB, 1916. Flora of Tropical Africa, Vol 6 Part 2. http://plants.jstor.org/flora/flota011872

Lansky EP; Paavilainen HM, 2010. Figs: the genus Ficus [ed. by Lansky, E. P.\Paavilainen, H. M.]. London, UK: CRC Press Inc., 415 pp.

Madulid DA, 1995. A Pictorial Cyclopedia of Philippine Ornamental Plants. Bookmark, Inc., Metro Manilla:214-217.

Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder, 2014. Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder. St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder

New York Botanical Garden, 2014. The C.V. Starr Virtual Herbarium. New York, USA: The New York Botanical Garden. http://sciweb.nybg.org/Science2/vii2.asp

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Quattrocchi U, 2012. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology [ed. by Quattrocchi, U.]. London, UK: CRC Press Inc., 3960 pp.

Randall RP, 2002. A global compendium of weeds. A global compendium of weeds, xxx + 905 pp.

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Simpson D, 2013. Some Magnetic Island Plants: Ficus lyrata. http://www.somemagneticislandplants.com.au/index.php/component/content/article/11-botanical-names/660-fiddle-leaf-fig

Starr F; Starr K; Loope L, 2003. Ficus lyrata (fiddle leaf fig). Maui, Hawaii, USA: United States Geological Survey- Biological Resources Division, Haleakala Field Station.

Stearn WT, 1992. Stearns dictionary of plant names for gardeners: A handbok on the origin and meaning of the botanical names of some cultivated plants. London, UK: Cassell.

University of Hawaii, 2014. Department of Botany Vascular Plant Family Access Page: Moraceae. Honolulu, USA: University of Hawaii. http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/carr/mor.htm

Urban I, 1898-1928. Symbolae Antillanae: Seu fundamenta florae Indiae Occidentalis. Berolini, Germany: Fratres Borntraeger.

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of the Department of Antioquia (Colombia), Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/CV

Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Tornabene MW; Weitzman A; Lorence DH, 2014. Flora of Micronesia website. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/micronesia/index.htm

Whistler WA, 2000. Tropical ornamentals. Portland, Oregon, USA: Timber Press.

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Britton N L, 1918. Flora of Bermuda. New York, USA: C. Scribner's Sons.

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species., Singapore, Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Flora Mesoamericana, 2014. Flora Mesoamericana., St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FM

Flora of Nicaragua, 2014. Flora of Nicaragua, Tropicos website., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=7

Flora of Pakistan, 2014. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD)., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

Gilman EF, Watson DG, 2014. Ficus lyrata, Fact Sheet ENH 413., Florida, USA: Environmental Horticulture Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS), University of Florida. http://edis.ifas.edu/pdffiles/ST/ST25400

HEAR, 2012. Alien species in Hawaii. In: Hawaii Ecosystems at Risk, Honolulu, USA: University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/AlienSpeciesInHawaii/index.html

Lansky E P, Paavilainen H M, 2010. Figs: the genus Ficus. [ed. by Lansky E P, Paavilainen H M]. London, UK: CRC Press Inc. 415 pp.

New York Botanical Garden, 2014. The C.V. Starr Virtual Herbarium., New York, USA: The New York Botanical Garden. http://sciweb.nybg.org/Science2/vii2.asp

Quattrocchi U, 2012. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology. [ed. by Quattrocchi U]. London, UK: CRC Press Inc. 3960 pp.

Randall R P, 2002. A global compendium of weeds. [ed. by Randall R P]. Meredith, Australia: R.G. and F.J. Richardson. xxx + 905 pp.

Simpson D, 2013. Some Magnetic Island Plants: Ficus lyrata., http://www.somemagneticislandplants.com.au/index.php/component/content/article/11-botanical-names/660-fiddle-leaf-fig

Starr F, Starr K, Loope L, 2003. Ficus lyrata (fiddle leaf fig)., Maui, Hawaii, USA: United States Geological Survey- Biological Resources Division, Haleakala Field Station.

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of the Department of Antioquia (Colombia), Tropicos website., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/CV

Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Tornabene MW, Weitzman A, Lorence DH, 2014. Flora of Micronesia website., Washington DC, Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/micronesia/index.htm

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Flora of Micronesia websitehttp://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/micronesia/index.htm
Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos websitehttp://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan
Flora of the Hawaiian Islands websitehttp://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm
Flora of the Marquesas Islandshttp://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/index.htm
Flora of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/
Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk Project (HEAR)http://www.hear.org/
PIERhttp://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Contributors

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15/12/2014 Original text by:

Marianne Jennifer Datiles, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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