Invasive Species Compendium

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Ficus benjamina
(weeping fig)

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Datasheet

Ficus benjamina (weeping fig)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 17 June 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ficus benjamina
  • Preferred Common Name
  • weeping fig
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • F. benjamina is a large, spreading, strangling fig tree of Asian origin, frequently introduced as an ornamental, but listed as “environmental weed, naturalised, weed” in the Global Compendium of Weeds (...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ficus benjamina L.

Preferred Common Name

  • weeping fig

Variety

  • Ficus benjamina var. benjamina
  • Ficus benjamina var. bracteata Corner
  • Ficus benjamina var. nuda (Miq.) M. F. Barrett

Other Scientific Names

  • Ficus benjamina var. comosa (Roxb.) Kurz
  • Ficus cuspido-caudata Hayata
  • Ficus haematocarpa Blume ex Decne.
  • Ficus neglecta Blume ex Decne.
  • Ficus nepalensis auct. non (Spreng.) Blanco
  • Ficus nitida Thunb.
  • Ficus nuda Miq.
  • Ficus papyrifera Griff.
  • Ficus parvifolia Oken
  • Ficus reclinata Desf.
  • Ficus retusa var. nitida (Thunb.) Miq.
  • Ficus striata Roth
  • Ficus umbrina Elmer
  • Ficus waringiana auct.
  • Urostigma benjamina (L.) Miq.
  • Urostigma haematocarpum (Blume) Miq.
  • Urostigma neglectum (Blume ex Decne.) Miq.
  • Urostigma nitida (Thunb.) Miq.

International Common Names

  • English: Benjamin tree; Benjamina fig; Benjamin's-tree; golden fig; java fig; javatree; oval-leaf fig tree; small-leaf rubber-plant; tropical laurel; weeping fig tree
  • Chinese: chui ye rong; cong mao chui ye rong

Local Common Names

  • : book kebar; Ihien; tehd
  • Brazil: beringan; ficus-benjamina; figueira-benjamina
  • Caribbean: figyé
  • Cuba: jaguey; laurel criollo
  • Dominican Republic: arbol de Washington; filipo; filpo; higo cimarrón; laurel; laurel de la India
  • Germany: Benjamin-Feige; Benjamin-Gummibaum; Birkenfeige
  • India: waringin
  • Indonesia: beringin; wariengin
  • Indonesia/Java: bergedat; caringing; rwaringin; sepreh
  • Indonesia/Nusa Tenggara: ajwundut
  • Indonesia/Sulawesi: beringin; nanu merako
  • Israel: ficus ha'shderot
  • Laos: oox ng
  • Lesser Antilles: evergreen; laurel fig
  • Malaysia/Peninsular Malaysia: beringin; cheringin; waringin
  • Micronesia, Federated states of: baola; baulagaragara; baulagarangara; dunar; kaimabu
  • Myanmar: kyet-kadut; nyaung-lun; nyaung-thabye
  • Netherlands: Baniaanboom
  • Nicaragua: laurel de la India
  • Philippines: balite; budbud; bugnai; salisi; salising-haoug; salsing-hubad
  • Puerto Rico: laurel benjamin
  • Solomon Islands: baula garanggara; haisi hena; sirifena
  • Sweden: benjaminfikus
  • Thailand: sai; sai yoi bai laem

EPPO code

  • FIUBE (Ficus benjamina)

Summary of Invasiveness

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F. benjamina is a large, spreading, strangling fig tree of Asian origin, frequently introduced as an ornamental, but listed as “environmental weed, naturalised, weed” in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). It is known to be invasive in Cuba (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012) and parts of Asia-Pacific (PIER, 2014), and was listed in the American Lands Alliance’s “Worst" Invasive Plant Species in the conterminous United States (Randall, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2014). It is known to be naturalized beyond its native range in places including the Galapagos Islands, Australia, and the USA (Randall, 2012). The species tolerates shade, drought, and a wide range of soil types, can regenerate by aerial roots, cuttings and by seeds, and grows rapidly to heights of up to 50 feet, creating a dense cover that prevents any growth beneath it, while its extensive and strong root system invades gardens and can lift pavements and roads (Gilman and Watson, 2007; Quattrocchi, 2012). Based on these traits the species is likely to pose a high risk of introduction, as a previous risk assessment has called for further evaluation (PIER, 2014).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Urticales
  •                         Family: Moraceae
  •                             Genus: Ficus
  •                                 Species: Ficus benjamina

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Often called the mulberry family, Moraceae consists of about 40 genera and 1000 species of trees, shrubs, lianas, or rarely herbs, nearly all with milky sap, and mainly of tropical or subtropical origin (University of Hawaii, 2014). The milky sap of various Moraceae species contain ‘heart poisons’ that are used as dart poisons in some cultures; other plant parts such as leaves and fruit juices have also been reported to cause allergic and toxic reactions in humans and livestock (Frohne and Pfa¨nder, 2005). Many genera of this family are well-known as food crops and include Artocarpus, the tropical food staple breadfruit and jackfruit genus, Ficus, the fig genus, and Morus, the mulberry genus.

Ficus is a large genus of about 800-1000 tree and shrub species native to the tropics and subtropics that are often cultivated beyond their native range for their fig fruits or as ornamentals. Members of this genus are difficult to distinguish by their flowers, but can be differentiated by habit, whether they are banyans or not, by leaf shape, and by their fruits (Whistler, 2000).

The species name of F. benjamina, sometimes spelled benzamina, likely refers to the supposed relation of this plant to the source of a resin or benzoin procured from the Orient in antiquity, or the specific epithet from banyan, the Sanskrit ‘banij’ (Quattrocchi, 2012). Its common English name ‘weeping fig’ refers to its drooping branches as well as its aerial roots which descend from the branches to the ground.

Description

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Tree to 15 m high (50 feet) with the fused conical stipules enclosing the step tip, sap milky. Leaves simple, alternate, blade ovate to elliptic, 4-12 cm long (1 5/8-5 in), typically light green, finely veined, with a sharp or attenuate tip. Fruits can be found on the tree throughout the year. Fruit an orange, red, pink, or purple, subglobose synconium 7-12 mm long (1/4-1/2 in), paired in the leaf axils. [Taken from Whistler, 2000]

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated
Tree
Vegetatively propagated
Woody

Distribution

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F. benjamina is native to Asia, Malaysia, Australia, and parts of the Pacific region (Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012). It has been introduced elsewhere as an ornamental, and is found in much of the Americas and on many Pacific islands. The species is reportedly rare on the Marshall Islands, with only one tree observed growing near a village (PIER, 2014). The species was not listed in Funk et al.’s (2007) work on the Guiana Shield or in the Marquesa Island flora of Wagner and Lorence (2014).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentFlora of Pakistan, 2014
BhutanPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
Brunei DarussalamPresent Natural Natural
CambodiaPresent Natural Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
ChinaPresentFlora of Pakistan, 2014South China
-GuangdongPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-GuangxiPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-GuizhouPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-HainanPresent Natural Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
-Hong KongPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER, 2014
-YunnanPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
IndiaPresentNativeQuattrocchi, 2012; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; Flora of Pakistan, 2014
-AssamPresent Natural Natural
-SikkimPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
IndonesiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Irian JayaPresent Natural
-JavaPresent Planted
-Nusa TenggaraPresent
-SulawesiPresent Natural
-SumatraPresent Natural
IranPresent Planted
IsraelPresentIntroduced<1992DAISIE, 2014Unintentionally introduced through agriculture
LaosPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
MalaysiaPresentNativeCorner, 1967; Quattrocchi, 2012; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Throughout Malaysia
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent only in captivity/cultivationNativePlanted, NaturalHanelt et al., 2001Malacca
-SabahPresentPlanted, Natural
-SarawakPresentPlanted, Natural
MyanmarPresentKress et al., 2003; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; Flora of Pakistan, 2014Rakhine, Yangon
NepalPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; Flora of Pakistan, 2014
PakistanPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Planted Flora of Pakistan, 2014
PhilippinesPresentNativeMerrill, 1923; Hanelt et al., 2001; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; PIER, 2014
SingaporePresentChong et al., 2009; PIER, 2014Weed of uncertain origin
Sri LankaPresent only in captivity/cultivationHanelt et al., 2001; Flora of Pakistan, 2014
TaiwanPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
ThailandPresentPlanted, NaturalFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
VietnamPresent Natural Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014

Africa

EgyptPresent Natural
MayottePresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER, 2014

North America

MexicoPresentFlora Mesoamericana, 2014Yucatan
USAPresentIntroduced Invasive Randall, 2012Listed in Worst Invasive Plant Species in the conterminous United States
-FloridaPresentIntroducedGilman and Watson, 2007; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; USDA-NRCS, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
BarbadosPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Costa RicaPresentFlora Mesoamericana, 2014
CubaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; Oviedo et al., 2012
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
GrenadaWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
HondurasPresentFlora Mesoamericana, 2014
MontserratPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
NicaraguaPresentFlora Mesoamericana, 2014; Flora of Nicaragua, 2014
PanamaFlora Mesoamericana, 2014; Panama Checklist, 2014
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; USDA-NRCS, 2014
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentIntroduced
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012

South America

BoliviaPresent only in captivity/cultivationBolivia Checklist, 2014Beni, Santa Cruz
ColombiaPresent only in captivity/cultivationVascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014Municipios Apartadó, Barbosa, Bello, Caldes, Chigorodó, Copacabana, Envigado, Itagui, Medellin, Puerto Berrío, Sabaneta, Santa Fé de Antioquia, Sopetran, Turbo
EcuadorPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012; PIER, 2014
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedBerg et al., 2000

Oceania

American SamoaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER, 2014
AustraliaPresentNativeCorner, 1967; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; Flora of Pakistan, 2014North Australia
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentNativePIER, 2014
-New South WalesPresent Planted Randall, 2012
-QueenslandPresentNativePIER, 2014
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012Naturalised
Cook IslandsPresent only in captivity/cultivationPIER, 2014
FijiPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
French PolynesiaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER, 2014
GuamPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014
KiribatiPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014
Marshall IslandsPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER, 2014Rare
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER, 2014; Wagner et al., 2014
New CaledoniaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER, 2014
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014
PalauPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER, 2014
Papua New GuineaPresent Natural Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014
SamoaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2014
Solomon IslandsPresentNativeCorner, 1967; Flora of Pakistan, 2014; PIER, 2014
TongaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2014
US Minor Outlying IslandsPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPIER, 2014Midway Atoll

History of Introduction and Spread

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F. benjamina is native to the Asia-Oceania region but has been introduced around the world as a cultivated ornamental and hedge plant (Wiersema and Leon, 1999; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2014). It was reportedly present in the West Indies in the early twentieth century; although it was not included in D. Bello’s work on Puerto Rico (1881; 1883), the species was reportedly present in most of the West Indies islands including Cuba, Puerto Rico, St. Lucia, Barbados, and Trinidad by 1903, as I. Urban included the species in Volume 3 of his work on the Antilles (Urban, 1898-1928). J.G. Jack collected specimens in Cuba in 1926 and 1927, and D. Fairchild collected a specimen on St. Vincent in the Grenadines in 1932 (Smithsonian Herbarium Collection).

Elsewhere, F. benjamina was cultivated in England by Philip Miller in 1757 and was introduced to the USA several times from various countries including Nassau (Bahamas) in 1906, Australia in 1915, Sumatra in 1926, and the Philippines in 1929 (Condit, 1969). It was reportedly accidentally introduced to Israel by 1992 through agriculture (DAISIE, 2014).

Risk of Introduction

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F. benjamina is a large, spreading, strangling tree of Asian origin, which is known to be naturalized beyond its native range in places including the Galapagos Islands, Australia, and the USA (Randall, 2012). The species tolerates shade, drought, and a wide range of soil types, can regenerate by aerial roots, cuttings and by seeds, and grows rapidly to heights of up to 50 feet, creating a dense cover that prevents any growth beneath it, while its extensive and strong root system invades gardens and can lift pavements and roads (Gilman and Watson, 2007; Quattrocchi, 2012). Based on these traits the species is likely to pose a high risk of introduction, as a previous risk assessment has called for further evaluation (PIER, 2014). In Florida, however, it not documented in any undisturbed natural areas and is not considered a problem species (Gilman and Watson, 2007).

Habitat

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F. benjamina is cultivated in public areas as a hedge or roadside plant, although it may damage pavements and roads with its strong and extensive root system (Wiersema and Leon, 1999; Whistler, 2000). It has been reportedly cultivated as an ornamental house plant in Missouri, Florida, and other U.S. states (Gilman and Watson, 2007; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014). Outside of cultivation the species often occurs in forest habitats, as in the Philippines (Merrill, 1923; PIER, 2014), and in China and the Solomon Islands, where it reportedly has been observed both in moist mixed forests and near villages, towns and roadsides (Corner, 1967; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). In North America, where it is an introduced species, F. benjamina can be found in disturbed thickets and hammocks (Flora of North America, 2014). In Jamaica the species is reportedly found growing in roadsides (Smithsonian Herbarium Collection).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details
Buildings Present, no further details
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Sporophytic Count=26 (IPCN Chromosome Count Reports, 2014).

Reproductive Biology

Flowers and fruits are enclosed in a fleshy sac turning from green to orange-red to red and then purplish black. The plant is easily propagated by cuttings.

Environmental Requirements

In Antioquia, Colombia, the species grows in premontane humid forest and tropical humid forest climate zones (Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014). It has been reportedly cultivated as an ornamental house plant in Missouri, Florida, and other U.S. states (Gilman and Watson, 2007; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014).

F. benjamina generally prefers low elevations. In North America it reportedly grows at 0-10 m, while in Bolivia, the species has been reported growing between 0 and 500 m, in China between 400 and 800 m, in Panama up to 1000 m, and in Antioquia, Colombia up to 2000 m (Bolivia Checklist, 2014; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; Flora of North America, 2014; Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014).

F. benjamina will thrive in fertile, moist soils in full sun (Whistler, 2000) but it can tolerate drought and a wide range of soil types including clay, loam, and sand, as well as well-drained, with pH levels ranging from acidic to alkaline (Gilman and Watson, 2007). 

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
30 -30 0 1400

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 4
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 12 42
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 28 49
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 9 20

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration06number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall4503600mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • impeded

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • shallow

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Gynaikothrips ficorum Herbivore
Gynaikothrips uzeli Herbivore
Trilocha varians Herbivore

Notes on Natural Enemies

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The species is susceptible to a number of pathogens and predators. The thrip species Gynaikothrips uzeli has been reported as a pest of cultivated F. benjamina in a number of countries. In Peru, Narrea-Cango et al. (2013) report high specificity of G. uzeli on F. benjamina. Tree (2012), reporting the thrip in Australia for the first time, states that it is considered a pest of F. benjamina in southern Asia and America.

Navasero and Navasero (2014) report that Trilocha varians can cause defoliation and death of F. benjamina in the Philippines. Thrip species including Gynaikothrips garitacambroneroi are reported on F. benjamina in Colombia by Sepúlveda Cano et al. (2009).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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F. benjamina spreads naturally both by seed and vegetatively. It has been intentionally dispersed by humans for use as an ornamental and a hedge plant (Wiersema and Leon, 1999), but is known to have unintentionally escaped from cultivation/agriculture (DAISIE, 2014). 

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionUnintentionally introduced by agriculture Yes Yes DAISIE, 2014
Escape from confinement or garden escapeNaturalised in places where it has been introduced as a garden cultivation Yes Yes
Hedges and windbreaks Yes Yes Wiersema and León, 1999
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2014; Whistler, 2000; Wiersema and León, 1999

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

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F. benjamina has been intentionally cultivated as an ornamental house plant and garden species, as well as planted in public areas such as roadsides (Wiersema and Leon, 1999; Whistler, 2000). However where it occurs naturally the species can have a negative environmental impact to native flora, due to its dense, shading branches that prevent anything from growing beneath it. It can cause damage in urban areas due to its extensive root system strong enough to lift mortar and cement (Gilman and Watson, 2007).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Infrastructure damage
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - shading
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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F.benjamina is grown for ornamental purposes and is therefore found in many countries outside its natural range; it is often planted in villages and cemeteries. Miniature cultivars are popular for indoor bonsai. F. benjamina is sometimes used for for landscaping in urban areas and housing estates, and is planted along roadsides, although it can lift roads and pavements over time as its strong root system spreads: Gilman and Watson (2007) warn that “the tree should not be planted close to streets, walks or parking lots”, and that “the tree is much too large for residential planting unless it is used as a hedge or clipped screen”. The bark was once used to make rope while the fruit are eaten by birds and small mammals. In additional to its intentional cultivation as an ornamental and as a shade/shelter plant (Wiersema and Leon, 1999), the species is known to have toxic latex like other various members of the Moraceae family, although not as severe (Frohne and Pfander, 2005). The plant sap of all plant parts reportedly possess the toxic principles furocoumarins, psoralens, and ficin, which cause minor skin irritation (NCSU, 2014).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Forage

Environmental

  • Boundary, barrier or support
  • Landscape improvement

General

  • Ornamental

Materials

  • Bark products
  • Fibre

Ornamental

  • Potted plant

Prevention and Control

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Miao et al. (2011) investigated the potential of an undescribed gall midge, associated with F. benjamina in its natural range in southwestern China, for biological control of the species. The gall midge had a strong negative effect on reproduction, reducing pollination and seed quality. The authors state that within its presumed natural range the gall midge appears to be host specific, and suggest that given its dramatic impact on host reproductive success, it is a potential candidate for the biological control of F. benjamina.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Little data is available on methods of prevention and control for this species in places where it has proven weedy or invasive. An evaluation of the species has been previously recommended (PIER, 2014).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Arafa AS; Mohamed BR; Ibrahim IA; El Din TMN, 1993. Callus induction and organ differentiation in the tissue culture of Ficus spp. Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research. 71: 4, 987-996; 1 pl., 1 fig; 13 ref.

Backer CA; Brink RC-Bakhuizen-Van-Den; Jr, 1963. Flora of Java (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 1 : Gymnospermae, families 1-7; Angiospermae, families 8-110. Vol. II: Angiospermae, families 111-190. Vol. III: Angiospermae, families 191-238; addenda et corrigenda; general index to volumes I-III. N. V. P. Noordhoff, Groningen, Netherlands. 1963-1968 pp. xxiii + 648; 72 + 641; 761.

Bello D, 1883. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Segunda parte. Monoclamídeas.) Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, 12:103-130.

Bello Espinosa D, 1881. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Primera parte.) Anal. Soc. Española de Hist. Nat, 10:231-304.

Berg CC; Simonis JE; Riina R, 2000. Flora de Venezuela - Moraceae-Cecropiaceae (Flora of Venezuela - Moraceae-Cecropiaceae). Santiago de León de Caracas, Venezuela: Fundacio´n Instituto Bota´nico de Venezuela "Dr. Tobi´as Lasser", 269 pp.

Bolivia Checklist, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Bolivia, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=13

Bouzar H; Chilton WS; Nesme X; Dessaux Y; Vaudequin V; Petit A; Jones JB; Hodge NC, 1995. A new Agrobacterium strain isolated from aerial tumors on Ficus benjamina L. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 61(1):65-73; 66 ref.

Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Burkill HM, 1994. Useful plants of the West Tropical Africa. Volumen 4, Families M-R. London, UK: Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, 981pp.

Burkill IH, 1966. A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula, 2(2nd edition):2444 pp.

Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/CE

Chong KY; Tan HTW; Corlett; RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore. National University of Singapore, Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, 273 pp.

Condit IJ, 1969. Ficus: the exotic species. Berkeley, CA, USA: University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences, 363 pp.

Corner EJH, 1965. Checklist of Ficus in Asia and Australasia with keys to identification. Gardens Bulletin Singapore, 21 :1-186.

Corner EJH, 1967. Ficus in the Solomon Islands and its bearing on the post-jurassic history of Melanesia. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 253(783):23-159.

Corner EJH, 1988. Wayside trees of Malaya in two volumes (3rd edition). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: The Malayan Nature Society.

DAISIE, 2014. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do

Dennis, 1996. Cultivar Francis Goldstar. Plant Varieties Journal, 9(3):70.

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm
Check-list of the Trees,Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmarhttp://botany.si.edu/myanmar/checklistNames.cfm
Flora of Micronesiahttp://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/micronesia/index.htm
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
North Carolina State University Poisonous Plantshttp://www.cals.ncsu.edu/plantbiology/ncsc/poisonousplants.htm

Contributors

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25/8/2014 Updated by:

Marianne Jennifer Datiles, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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