Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Fagus sylvatica
(common beech)

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Datasheet

Fagus sylvatica (common beech)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Fagus sylvatica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • common beech
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Uses List
  • Agroforestry
  • Boundary, barrier or support
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Soil improvement

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
F. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica, mature shelterwood stand, 120-years-old, tree height 35 m. Location: southern Germany.
TitleBeech forest stand in winter
CaptionF. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica, mature shelterwood stand, 120-years-old, tree height 35 m. Location: southern Germany.
CopyrightBernhard Felbermeier
F. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica, mature shelterwood stand, 120-years-old, tree height 35 m. Location: southern Germany.
Beech forest stand in winterF. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica, mature shelterwood stand, 120-years-old, tree height 35 m. Location: southern Germany.Bernhard Felbermeier
F. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica, solitary tree within mixed forest. Age 140 years, height 35 m. Location: southern Germany.
TitleIndividual beech tree, summer foliage
CaptionF. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica, solitary tree within mixed forest. Age 140 years, height 35 m. Location: southern Germany.
CopyrightGudrun Elisabeth Felbermeier
F. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica, solitary tree within mixed forest. Age 140 years, height 35 m. Location: southern Germany.
Individual beech tree, summer foliageF. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica, solitary tree within mixed forest. Age 140 years, height 35 m. Location: southern Germany.Gudrun Elisabeth Felbermeier
An open-grown F. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica, age 140-years, height 35 m. Location: southern Germany.
TitleAutumn foliage, mature tree
CaptionAn open-grown F. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica, age 140-years, height 35 m. Location: southern Germany.
CopyrightGudrun Elisabeth Felbermeier
An open-grown F. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica, age 140-years, height 35 m. Location: southern Germany.
Autumn foliage, mature treeAn open-grown F. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica, age 140-years, height 35 m. Location: southern Germany.Gudrun Elisabeth Felbermeier
F. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica, mature tree aged 140 years.
TitleBark
CaptionF. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica, mature tree aged 140 years.
CopyrightBernhard Felbermeier
F. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica, mature tree aged 140 years.
BarkF. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica, mature tree aged 140 years. Bernhard Felbermeier
F. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica branch with long shoots and regular branching pattern.
TitleBranch and buds
CaptionF. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica branch with long shoots and regular branching pattern.
CopyrightGudrun Elisabeth Felbermeier
F. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica branch with long shoots and regular branching pattern.
Branch and budsF. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica branch with long shoots and regular branching pattern.Gudrun Elisabeth Felbermeier
F. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica terminal bud on short shoot.
TitleTerminal bud
CaptionF. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica terminal bud on short shoot.
CopyrightGudrun Elisabeth Felbermeier
F. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica terminal bud on short shoot.
Terminal budF. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica terminal bud on short shoot.Gudrun Elisabeth Felbermeier
F. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica flowers.
TitleInflorescences
CaptionF. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica flowers.
CopyrightGudrun Elisabeth Felbermeier
F. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica flowers.
InflorescencesF. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica flowers.Gudrun Elisabeth Felbermeier
F. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica leaves in spring.
TitleLeaves
CaptionF. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica leaves in spring.
CopyrightBernhard Felbermeier
F. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica leaves in spring.
LeavesF. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica leaves in spring. Bernhard Felbermeier
F. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica beech nuts in cupule.
TitleBeech nuts
CaptionF. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica beech nuts in cupule.
CopyrightGudrun Elisabeth Felbermeier
F. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica beech nuts in cupule.
Beech nutsF. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica beech nuts in cupule.Gudrun Elisabeth Felbermeier
F. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica beech nut.
TitleBeech nut
CaptionF. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica beech nut.
CopyrightGudrun Elisabeth Felbermeier
F. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica beech nut.
Beech nutF. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica beech nut.Gudrun Elisabeth Felbermeier
F. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica germinating beech nut.
TitleGerminating beech nut
CaptionF. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica germinating beech nut.
CopyrightGudrun Elisabeth Felbermeier
F. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica germinating beech nut.
Germinating beech nutF. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica germinating beech nut.Gudrun Elisabeth Felbermeier
F. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica modified branching pattern, probably caused by air pollution. Location: northern Germany.
TitleBeech with modified branching
CaptionF. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica modified branching pattern, probably caused by air pollution. Location: northern Germany.
CopyrightBernhard Felbermeier
F. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica modified branching pattern, probably caused by air pollution. Location: northern Germany.
Beech with modified branchingF. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica modified branching pattern, probably caused by air pollution. Location: northern Germany.Bernhard Felbermeier
F. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica. This tree, with intensive branching pattern, helps to reduce soil erosion. Location: southern Germany.
TitleIntensive branching
CaptionF. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica. This tree, with intensive branching pattern, helps to reduce soil erosion. Location: southern Germany.
CopyrightBernhard Felbermeier
F. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica. This tree, with intensive branching pattern, helps to reduce soil erosion. Location: southern Germany.
Intensive branchingF. sylvatica subsp. sylvatica. This tree, with intensive branching pattern, helps to reduce soil erosion. Location: southern Germany.Bernhard Felbermeier

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Fagus sylvatica L.

Preferred Common Name

  • common beech

Other Scientific Names

  • Castanea fagus Scop.
  • Fagus hohenackeriana Palib.
  • Fagus intermedia nov. spec. col.
  • Fagus macrophylla Koidz.
  • Fagus moesiaca (K. Maly) Czeczott
  • Fagus moesiaca K. Maly
  • Fagus orientalis Lipsky
  • Fagus silvatica var. asiatica D.C.
  • Fagus silvestris Gaertn.
  • Fagus taurica Popl.
  • Fagus winkleriana Koidz.

International Common Names

  • English: European beech; oriental beech
  • Spanish: cascojo; faig; haya; haya
  • French: fau; fayard; foyard; hetre; hêtre asiatique; hêtre commun; hêtre d'orient
  • Russian: buk
  • Arabic: zan
  • Chinese: ou zhou shan mao ju

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: bög
  • Germany: Buche; Gemeine Buche; Orientalische Buche; Rot- Buche; Rotbuche
  • Greece: oxya
  • Iran: raasch
  • Italy: faggio; faggio orientale
  • Netherlands: beuk; beuken
  • Poland: buk zwyczajny
  • Sweden: Bok; boken; rädbok
  • Turkey: gülgen ag; gürgen ag; kayin ag; kaym

EPPO code

  • FAUMO (Fagus moesiaca)
  • FAUSO (Fagus sylvatica subsp. orientalis)
  • FAUSY (Fagus sylvatica)

Subspecies

  • Fagus sylvatica nothosubsp. moesiaca
  • Fagus sylvatica subsp. orientalis
  • Fagus sylvatica subsp. sylvatica
  • Fagus sylvatica subsp. sylvatica var. dawyk
  • Fagus sylvatica subsp. sylvatica var. pendula

Trade name

  • aceite de haya
  • alquitrán de haya
  • beech nut
  • beech tar
  • beech wood
  • beech-oil
  • bois de hêtre
  • buchecker
  • Buchenholz
  • buchenteer
  • buchöl
  • faine
  • goudron de bois de hêtre
  • hayuco
  • huile de faines
  • madera de haya

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fagales
  •                         Family: Fagaceae
  •                             Genus: Fagus
  •                                 Species: Fagus sylvatica

List of Pests

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Major host of:

Agrilus sulcicollis; Apiognomonia errabunda (anthracnose); Cherry leaf roll virus (walnut ringspot); Cryptococcus fagisuga (beech coccus); Diaporthe eres (apple leaf, branch and fruit fungus); Fomes fomentarius (hoof fungus); Lymantria monacha (nun moth); Mikiola fagi; Phytophthora cambivora (root rot of forest trees); Phytophthora pseudosyringae; Pythium ultimum (black-leg of seedlings); Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis (evergreen bagworm); Tremex fuscicornis (Tremex wasp); Xylosandrus germanus (black timber bark beetle)

Minor host of:

Armillaria mellea (armillaria root rot); Armillaria ostoyae (armillaria root rot); Bean yellow mosaic virus (bean yellow mosaic); Cydia splendana (chestnut tortrix moth); Euproctis chrysorrhoea (brown-tail moth); Fomitopsis pinicola (brown crumbly rot); Gibberella avenacea (Fusarium blight); Heterobasidion abietinum; Heterobasidion annosum; Hylobius abietis (large pine weevil); Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth); Malacosoma neustria (common lackey); Melolontha melolontha (white grub cockchafer); Neonectria ditissima (Nectria canker (apple, pear)); Operophtera brumata (winter moth); Orgyia antiqua (European tussock moth); Otiorhynchus armadillo (armadillo weevil); Phyllactinia guttata (powdery mildew of hardwood trees); Phytophthora cactorum (apple collar rot); Phytophthora gonapodyides; Phytophthora hedraiandra; Phytophthora ramorum (sudden oak death (SOD)); Scolytus intricatus (European oak bark beetle)

Wild host of:

Adoxophyes orana (summer fruit tortrix); Eutypa lata (Eutypa dieback); Orthosia cerasi (common quaker); Pratylenchus penetrans (nematode, northern root lesion); Rhododendron ponticum (rhododendron); Xiphinema diversicaudatum (dagger nematode); Xyleborinus saxesenii (fruit-tree pinhole borer); Xyleborus dispar (pear blight beetle)

Associated with (not a host):

Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore); Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom)

Host of (source - data mining):

Aceria stenaspis; Agriopis aurantiaria; Agriopis marginaria; Amphipyra pyramidea (copper underwing); Antheraea pernyi; Calliteara pudibunda (hop, dog); Cephalcia arvensis; Cryptodiaporthe salicina; Cydia fagiglandana (beech seed moth); Diurnea fagella; Erannis defoliaria (mottled umber moth); Fusarium arthrosporioides (root rot: pea); Ganoderma pfeifferi; Hartigiola annulipes; Hylesinus varius (ash bark beetle); Isotoma notabilis; Isotomiella minor; Kretzschmaria deusta (canker of beech); Neonectria coccinea (bark disease: beech); Operophtera fagata; Phalera bucephala (buff tip moth); Phyllaphis fagi (beech, aphid); Phyllonorycter maestingella; Phytomyza ranunculi; Phytophthora citricola (black hop root rot); Rhynchaenus fagi (weevil, beech flea); Schizophyllum commune (wood rot); Sinodendron cylindricum; Trametes versicolor (wood decay); Trypodendron domesticum; Uraba lugens (eucalypt leaf skeletonizer)

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Boundary, barrier or support
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Soil improvement

Fuels

  • Charcoal

General

  • Ornamental

Materials

  • Carved material
  • Dye/tanning
  • Essential oils
  • Fibre
  • Miscellaneous materials
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical

Wood Products

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Boats

Charcoal

Containers

  • Boxes
  • Cases
  • Crates
  • Pallets

Furniture

Lignin products

Other cellulose derivatives

Plastics from wood

Pulp

  • Short-fibre pulp

Railway sleepers

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Carpentry/joinery (exterior/interior)
  • Flooring
  • For light construction
  • Wall panelling

Textiles

Vehicle bodies

Veneers

Wood extractives (including oil)

Wood flour

Wood gas (and other hydrocarbons

Wood hydrolysates

Wood residues

Wood wool

Wood-based materials

  • Composite boards
  • Fibreboard
  • Flakeboard
  • Gypsum board
  • Hardboard
  • Improved wood
  • Laminated strand lumber
  • Laminated veneer lumber
  • Laminated wood
  • Medium density fibreboard
  • Oriented strand lumber
  • Oriented strandboard
  • Parallel strand lumber
  • Particleboard
  • Plywood
  • Waferboard
  • Wood cement

Woodware

  • Brushes
  • Cutlery
  • Industrial and domestic woodware
  • Musical instruments
  • Sports equipment
  • Tool handles
  • Toys
  • Turnery