Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Fallopia convolvulus
(black bindweed)

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Datasheet

Fallopia convolvulus (black bindweed)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Fallopia convolvulus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • black bindweed
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • F. convolvulus is a weedy species of gardens, cultivated fields, open habitats, orchards, non-crop areas, waste areas, and disturbed sites. It is well-adapted to a wide range of climatic conditions and soils. T...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Fallopia convolvulus (black bindweed); habit, in a rock crevice. Bigfork, Montana, USA. July 2012.
TitleHabit
CaptionFallopia convolvulus (black bindweed); habit, in a rock crevice. Bigfork, Montana, USA. July 2012.
Copyright©Prof Matt Lavin-2009/Bozeman, Montana, USA - CC BY-SA 2.0
Fallopia convolvulus (black bindweed); habit, in a rock crevice. Bigfork, Montana, USA. July 2012.
HabitFallopia convolvulus (black bindweed); habit, in a rock crevice. Bigfork, Montana, USA. July 2012.©Prof Matt Lavin-2009/Bozeman, Montana, USA - CC BY-SA 2.0
Fallopia convolvulus (black bindweed); habit, in a rock crevice. Bigfork, Montana, USA. July 2012.
TitleHabit
CaptionFallopia convolvulus (black bindweed); habit, in a rock crevice. Bigfork, Montana, USA. July 2012.
Copyright©Prof Matt Lavin-2009/Bozeman, Montana, USA - CC BY-SA 2.0
Fallopia convolvulus (black bindweed); habit, in a rock crevice. Bigfork, Montana, USA. July 2012.
HabitFallopia convolvulus (black bindweed); habit, in a rock crevice. Bigfork, Montana, USA. July 2012.©Prof Matt Lavin-2009/Bozeman, Montana, USA - CC BY-SA 2.0
Fallopia convolvulus (black bindweed); leaf. Bigfork, Montana, USA. July 2012.
TitleLeaf
CaptionFallopia convolvulus (black bindweed); leaf. Bigfork, Montana, USA. July 2012.
Copyright©Prof Matt Lavin-2009/Bozeman, Montana, USA - CC BY-SA 2.0
Fallopia convolvulus (black bindweed); leaf. Bigfork, Montana, USA. July 2012.
LeafFallopia convolvulus (black bindweed); leaf. Bigfork, Montana, USA. July 2012.©Prof Matt Lavin-2009/Bozeman, Montana, USA - CC BY-SA 2.0
Fallopia convolvulus (black bindweed); leaf and flower. Bigfork, Montana, USA. July 2012.
TitleLeaf and flower
CaptionFallopia convolvulus (black bindweed); leaf and flower. Bigfork, Montana, USA. July 2012.
Copyright©Prof Matt Lavin-2009/Bozeman, Montana, USA - CC BY-SA 2.0
Fallopia convolvulus (black bindweed); leaf and flower. Bigfork, Montana, USA. July 2012.
Leaf and flowerFallopia convolvulus (black bindweed); leaf and flower. Bigfork, Montana, USA. July 2012.©Prof Matt Lavin-2009/Bozeman, Montana, USA - CC BY-SA 2.0
Fallopia convolvulus (black bindweed); leaf and flower. Bigfork, Montana, USA. July 2012.
TitleLeaf and flower
CaptionFallopia convolvulus (black bindweed); leaf and flower. Bigfork, Montana, USA. July 2012.
Copyright©Prof Matt Lavin-2009/Bozeman, Montana, USA - CC BY-SA 2.0
Fallopia convolvulus (black bindweed); leaf and flower. Bigfork, Montana, USA. July 2012.
Leaf and flowerFallopia convolvulus (black bindweed); leaf and flower. Bigfork, Montana, USA. July 2012.©Prof Matt Lavin-2009/Bozeman, Montana, USA - CC BY-SA 2.0
Fallopia convolvulus (black bindweed); close-up of flower. Bigfork, Montana, USA. July 2012.
TitleFlower
CaptionFallopia convolvulus (black bindweed); close-up of flower. Bigfork, Montana, USA. July 2012.
Copyright©Prof Matt Lavin-2009/Bozeman, Montana, USA - CC BY-SA 2.0
Fallopia convolvulus (black bindweed); close-up of flower. Bigfork, Montana, USA. July 2012.
FlowerFallopia convolvulus (black bindweed); close-up of flower. Bigfork, Montana, USA. July 2012.©Prof Matt Lavin-2009/Bozeman, Montana, USA - CC BY-SA 2.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Fallopia convolvulus (L.) Á. Löve

Preferred Common Name

  • black bindweed

Other Scientific Names

  • Bilderdykia convolvulus (L.) Dumort.
  • Fagopyrum convolvulus (L.) H. Gross
  • Fagopyrum volubile Gilib.
  • Fallopia convolvulus var. subalatum (Lej. & Court.) D.H.Kent
  • Helxine convolvulus (L.) Raf.
  • Polygonum convolvulus L.
  • Reynoutria convolvulus (L.) Shinners
  • Tiniaria convolvulus L. Webb. & Moq.

International Common Names

  • English: bear-bind; bind-corn; climbing bindweed; climbing buckwheat; wild buckwheat
  • Spanish: chilillo; corregüela anual; poligono trepador
  • French: faux liseron; renouée liseron; vrillée sauvage
  • Portuguese: cipo de veado de inverno; corriola-bastarda

Local Common Names

  • Argentina: enredadera
  • Brazil: cipo-de-veado-de-inverno
  • Chile: enredadera
  • Denmark: snerle-pileurt
  • Finland: kiertotatar
  • Germany: Gemeiner Winden-Knöterich; Winden-Knöterich
  • Iran: pichak band
  • Italy: convolvolo nero; erba leprina; poligono convolvolo
  • Japan: sobakazura
  • Morocco: faux liseron
  • Netherlands: wilde boekweit; zwaluwtong
  • New Zealand: cornbind
  • Norway: vindelskjedekne
  • Sweden: aakerbinda
  • Turkey: sarmasik coban

EPPO code

  • POLCO (Polygonum convolvulus)

Summary of Invasiveness

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F. convolvulus is a weedy species of gardens, cultivated fields, open habitats, orchards, non-crop areas, waste areas, and disturbed sites. It is well-adapted to a wide range of climatic conditions and soils. This species is a prolific seed producer and has the potential to produce up to 30,000 seeds/plant. Seeds can be dispersed by farm machinery, and water. It is also a common contaminant of wheat and other cereal crops.

F. convolvulus is often a serious weed in cereals, vegetables and horticultural crops (FAO, 2015). Currently, it is listed as invasive in the Dominican Republic, Cuba, Australia, New Caledonia, and New Zealand (Webb et al., 1988; MacKee, 1994; Wilson, 2008; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012), but it is also ranked as a serious weed in 20 crops in more than 41 countries around the world (Holm et al., 1991).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Polygonales
  •                         Family: Polygonaceae
  •                             Genus: Fallopia
  •                                 Species: Fallopia convolvulus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Polygonaceae is a well-defined family of flowering plants including around 59 genera and 1580 species (the Plant List, 2013). Members of the Polygonaceae are very diverse in habit ranging from annual and perennial herbs  to shrubs, lianas and trees. The most distinctive feature of the family is the presence of an “ocrea”, a  membranous or hyaline sheath uniting the stipules (Maharajan and Rajendran, 2014). The genus Polygonum sensu lato was circumscribed by Linnaeus very broadly, causing further authors to divide it into several more naturally circumscribed genera (Holub, 1970). The genus Fallopia is often included in a broader concept of Polygonum but is distinguished by a syndrome of anatomical and morphological characters (Decraene et al., 2000). Molecular data confirm its close relationship to Polygonum in the narrow sense (Lamb Frye and Kron, 2003; Freeman and Hinds, 2005).

Description

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F. convolvulus is an annual or perennial climbing herb with a thin, spindle-formed and deep root, which is often profusely branched. The stem is slender, 5-250 cm long, with long internodes. It is freely branched from the base, smooth to slightly rough, greenish, sometimes with a reddish tinge, trailing on the ground or twining around other plants. The leaves are alternate, 2-6 cm long, long-petioled, elongate-ovate, pointed, heart- or arrow-shaped. The stipule sheath or ochrea with smooth margins. Flowers are small, inconspicuous, up to 5 mm in diameter, and grouped in short axillary clusters of 2 to 6 flowers or in terminal interrupted or spike-like racemes. The perianth is reddish green, white inside and along the margins; the short pedicels are articulate near the upper end. The fruit is a triangular achene, 3-4 mm long, with an obtuse base and pointed top, minutely pitted, brownish black, dull, after maturity enclosed by the somewhat enlarged outer perigon leaves (Korsmo, 1954; Holm et al., 1991; Conert et al., 1981).

The seedlings have long cotyledons, 7-33 mm in length. They are four times longer than wide, with obtuse points. The upper leaf surface is dull dark green; the lower leaf surface is light green, with a distinct central nerve. The expanded cotyledons generally assume a 120° angle, rather than being opposite, at the point of which the primary leaf appears. At the beginning, the primary leaf is often laterally rolled up, with a blueish or reddish green tinge (Schwär et al., 1970; Hume et al., 1983).
 

Plant Type

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Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated

Distribution

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F. convolvulus is native to Eurasia, although due to its plasticity it occurs in most regions of the world. In Europe and North America it grows everywhere that crops are cultivated, but is less frequent in the south (Franzini, 1982). In Canada, it is reported as one of the most abundant weeds, occurring in 60-80% of all fields in the provinces of Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Prince Edward Island (Hume et al., 1983). It is found throughout South America. In Africa it occurs in North Africa, on the east coast and in South Africa. In Asia, its geographical distribution ranges from Japan to Iran, down to India and into Indonesia. F. convolvulus can also be found in Australia and New Zealand. It is not common in the humid tropics, and in warm areas, it is more often found at high altitudes or in cooler valleys (Holm et al., 1991).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
EgyptPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
GhanaPresentHolm et al. (1977); Holm et al. (1979); Holm et al. (1991)
KenyaPresentPopay and Ivens (1982); Holm et al. (1991)
LesothoPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2015)
LibyaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
MoroccoPresentBoulet and Hammoumi (1984); Holm et al. (1991); USDA-ARS (2015)
South AfricaPresentWells and Stirton (1982); Holm et al. (1991); USDA-ARS (2015)
TanzaniaPresentHolm et al. (1977); Holm et al. (1979); Holm et al. (1991)
TunisiaPresentHolm et al. (1977); Holm et al. (1979); Holm et al. (1991)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentNativeHolm et al. (1977); Holm et al. (1991); Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
ArmeniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
AzerbaijanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
BhutanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
ChinaPresentHolm et al. (1977); Tu (1989); Holm et al. (1991)
-AnhuiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
-GansuPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
-GuizhouPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
-HebeiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
-HeilongjiangPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
-HubeiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
-Inner MongoliaPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
-JiangsuPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
-JilinPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
-LiaoningPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
-NingxiaPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
-QinghaiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
-ShaanxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
-ShandongPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
-ShanxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
-SichuanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
-TibetPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
-XinjiangPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
-YunnanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
GeorgiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
IndiaPresentHolm et al. (1977); Holm et al. (1979); Holm et al. (1991); Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
IranPresentHubl and Holzner (1982); Holm et al. (1991); USDA-ARS (2015)
IsraelPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
JapanPresentHolm et al. (1977); Holm et al. (1979); Holm et al. (1991); Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
JordanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
KazakhstanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
KyrgyzstanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
LebanonPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
MongoliaPresentHilbig (1982); Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
NepalPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
North KoreaPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
PakistanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
PhilippinesPresentHolm et al. (1991)
South KoreaPresentKang et al. (1996); Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
SyriaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
TaiwanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee (2015)
TajikistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
TurkeyPresentKorkut and Kasa (1979); Holm et al. (1991); USDA-ARS (2015); CABI (Undated)
UzbekistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)

Europe

AlbaniaPresentUSDA-ARS (2015)
AustriaPresentNeururer (1990); USDA-NRCS (2015); CABI (Undated)
BelarusPresentUSDA-ARS (2015)
BelgiumPresentHimme et al. (1983); Holm et al. (1991); USDA-ARS (2015)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresentUSDA-ARS (2015)
BulgariaPresentHolm et al. (1991); Stoimenova et al. (1995); DAISIE (2015); CABI (Undated);
CroatiaPresentUSDA-ARS (2015)
CyprusPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2015)
CzechiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedDAISIE (2015)Naturalized
CzechoslovakiaPresentTalašová (1987); Holm et al. (1991); Míchal (1991)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentDražić and Glušac (1987); Holm et al. (1991)
DenmarkPresentPetersen (1960); Andreasen et al. (1996); Kudsk et al. (1997); DAISIE (2015)
Faroe IslandsPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2015)
FinlandPresentScragg (1974); Holm et al. (1991); Erviö et al. (1994); DAISIE (2015); CABI (Undated)
FrancePresent, WidespreadVeegens and Vergracht (1974); Dessaint et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1991); USDA-ARS (2015)
GermanyPresent, WidespreadHilbig and Mahn (1971); Holm et al. (1977); Meisel (1979); Pötsch (1987); Fuchs and Voit (1992); DAISIE (2015)
GreecePresentHolm et al. (1991); Skorda et al. (1995); Katis et al. (1997); USDA-ARS (2015); CABI (Undated)
HungaryPresentHunyadi (1973); Bakos et al. (1991); Tóth and Péter (1997); USDA-ARS (2015)
IcelandPresentHolm et al. (1977); Holm et al. (1979); Holm et al. (1991)
IrelandPresentHolm et al. (1979); Holm et al. (1991); DAISIE (2015)
ItalyPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991); Nati (1994); Campagna and Rapparini (1997); USDA-NRCS (2015); CABI (Undated)
LatviaPresentCABI (Undated a)
LithuaniaPresentAleksinas (1984); Shalna and Melamed (1986); CABI (Undated);
MaltaPresentUSDA-ARS (2015)
MoldovaPresentUSDA-ARS (2015)
MontenegroPresentUSDA-ARS (2015)
NetherlandsPresentHolm et al. (1991); Bouma et al. (1996); USDA-ARS (2015); CABI (Undated);
North MacedoniaPresentUSDA-ARS (2015)
NorwayPresentHolm et al. (1991); DAISIE (2015)
PolandPresentDuer (1986); Hochół (1990); Holm et al. (1991); Sawicka and Skalski (1996); CABI (Undated)
PortugalPresentHolm et al. (1977); Holm et al. (1979); Holm et al. (1991); USDA-ARS (2015)
-AzoresPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2015)
RomaniaPresentChiriță (1990); USDA-ARS (2015); CABI (Undated)
RussiaPresentKazantseva and Tuganaev (1972); Zubkov (1987); Holm et al. (1991); USDA-ARS (2015); CABI (Undated)
-Russian Far EastPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated a)
-Western SiberiaPresentKryukova and Persidskaya (1986)
SerbiaPresentUSDA-ARS (2015)
SlovakiaPresentUSDA-ARS (2015)
SloveniaPresentUSDA-ARS (2015)
SpainPresentHolm et al. (1991); Dalmau et al. (1993); Caballero et al. (1995); USDA-ARS (2015); CABI (Undated)
-Balearic IslandsPresentUSDA-ARS (2015)
SwedenPresentScragg (1974); Holm et al. (1991); Hallgren (1996); Hallgren (1996a); DAISIE (2015); CABI (Undated)
SwitzerlandPresentMayor and Maillard (1995); USDA-ARS (2015)
UkrainePresentZuza (1986); Petunova (1995); DAISIE (2015)
United KingdomPresentPhillipson et al. (1972); Scragg (1974); Holm et al. (1977); Roberts and Chancellor (1986); Fisher (1992)
-Channel IslandsPresentIntroducedDAISIE (2015)

North America

CanadaPresent, WidespreadAlex (1982); Holm et al. (1991)
-AlbertaPresent, WidespreadAlex (1982); Blackshaw et al. (1994); Bryan et al. (1995); Gill and Arshad (1995); USDA-NRCS (2015); CABI (Undated)
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-ManitobaPresent, WidespreadGoodwin et al. (1986); Holm et al. (1991); Thomas (1991); Bryan et al. (1995); USDA-NRCS (2015); CABI (Undated)
-New BrunswickPresent, WidespreadAlex (1982); USDA-NRCS (2015)
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-Nova ScotiaPresent, WidespreadAlex (1982); USDA-NRCS (2015)
-OntarioPresent, WidespreadAlex (1982); Kneeshaw et al. (1983); USDA-NRCS (2015)
-Prince Edward IslandPresent, WidespreadAlex (1982); Ivany (1987); USDA-NRCS (2015)
-QuebecPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-SaskatchewanPresent, WidespreadAlex (1982); Thomas (1985); Thomas and Wise (1989); Hume (1993); Bryan et al. (1995); USDA-NRCS (2015)
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasiveAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedInvasiveAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
GreenlandPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Saint Pierre and MiquelonPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
United StatesPresentHolm et al. (1991); Forcella et al. (1997)
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-AlaskaPresentHolm et al. (1991); Conn and Deck (1995); USDA-NRCS (2015)
-ArizonaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-ArkansasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-ColoradoPresentSchweizer and Zimdahl (1979); USDA-NRCS (2015)
-ConnecticutPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-DelawarePresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-District of ColumbiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-FloridaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasiveWagner et al. (1999)
-IdahoPresentBain and Johnson (1986)
-IllinoisPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-IndianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-IowaPresentUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-KansasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-KentuckyPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-MainePresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-MarylandPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-MassachusettsPresentJordan et al. (1997); USDA-NRCS (2015)
-MichiganPresentSchlotter and Schuster (1992); CABI (Undated)
-MinnesotaPresentAnderson et al. (1986); Dahl et al. (1986); McGinley and Tilman (1993); Durgan et al. (1997); USDA-NRCS (2015)
-MississippiPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-MissouriPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-MontanaPresent, WidespreadJackson and Fay (1979); Anderson et al. (1986); Bain and Johnson (1986); USDA-NRCS (2015)
-NebraskaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-NevadaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-New HampshirePresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-New JerseyPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-New MexicoPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-New YorkPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-North DakotaPresent, WidespreadMitich (1975); Anderson et al. (1986); Dahl et al. (1986); USDA-NRCS (2015); CABI (Undated)
-OhioPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-OklahomaPresent, WidespreadFain et al. (1980); Currie and Peeper (1986); Scott and Peeper (1994); USDA-NRCS (2015)
-OregonPresentBain and Johnson (1986); USDA-NRCS (2015)
-PennsylvaniaPresentFontana (1980); USDA-NRCS (2015)
-Rhode IslandPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-South DakotaPresent, WidespreadDosland and Arnold (1966); Schultz and Tichota (1981); USDA-NRCS (2015)
-TennesseePresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-TexasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-UtahPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-VermontPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-WashingtonPresentAnderson et al. (1986); Bain and Johnson (1986); USDA-NRCS (2015)
-West VirginiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2015)
-WisconsinPresentMuhammad Banaras (1993); USDA-NRCS (2015)
-WyomingPresentMiller and Alley (1985); USDA-NRCS (2015)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentHolm et al. (1991); Adkins et al. (1997)
-New South WalesPresentArends and Pegg (1990); Felton et al. (1994); Wilson (2008)
-QueenslandPresentArends and Pegg (1990); Holm et al. (1991); Wilson (2008)
-South AustraliaPresentHolm et al. (1991); Wilson (2008)
-TasmaniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWilson (2008)
-VictoriaPresentHolm et al. (1991); Wilson (2008)
-Western AustraliaPresentHolm et al. (1991); Wilson (2008)
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveMacKee (1994)
New ZealandPresentWebb et al. (1988); Holm et al. (1991); Mitchell and Abernethy (1993)
Norfolk IslandPresentIntroducedInvasiveOrchard (1994)

South America

ArgentinaPresent, WidespreadCatullo et al. (1983); Falcon et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1991); USDA-NRCS (2015); CABI (Undated)
BrazilPresentHashimoto (1982); Holm et al. (1991)
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroducedNaturalizedMelo (2015)Naturalized
-ParanaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedMelo (2015)Naturalized
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroducedMelo (2015)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentSilveira (1983); Fleck et al. (1989); CABI (Undated)
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedMelo (2015); USDA-NRCS (2015)Naturalized
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedNaturalizedMelo (2015)Naturalized
ChilePresentHolm et al. (1977); Holm et al. (1979); Holm et al. (1991); USDA-ARS (2015)
ParaguayPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2015)
PeruPresentHolm et al. (1991); USDA-ARS (2015)

Habitat

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F. convolvulus is most common on arable land, but it can also be found on waste ground, in thickets, on roadsides, along fences, and occasionally in pastures and on river banks (Hume et al., 1993). Because of its deep root system, it is rather unaffected by drought or low nitrogen levels. Nevertheless, high nutrient levels promote the growth and abundance of F. convolvulus (Bazdyrev et al., 1984; Mahn, 1984; Pulcher-Häussling and Hurle, 1986; Borowiec and Kutyna, 1988; Bräutigam, 1995). According to Karczmarczyk et al. (1983), who investigated the influence of irrigation on potato, sugar-beet and the weeds associated with these crops, F. convolvulus predominates on non-irrigated field plots. Haas and Streibig (1982) and Haman and Peeper (1983) reported that growth of F. convolvulus is stimulated by shading.

While in northern areas it is found in warm and well-drained locations, in hotter countries it is present on moist shady sites and at high altitudes. In China, F. convolvulus is found in thickets in valleys and along stream banks, at 100-3600 m (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015). In Pakistan, as well as being a weed on cultivated land, it is recorded in crevices in moist, shady places and at 1500-3500 m altitude (Flora of Pakistan Editorial Committee, 2013). 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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A list of crops in which F. convolvulus is, or could be, a problem weed includes almost every crop of the temperate zone. Worldwide, F. convolvulus is most troublesome in cereals, but it may also cause yield losses in potatoes, sugarbeet and vegetables, as well as vineyards and orchards. According to Holm et al. (1991), it is a weed of 25 crops in 41 countries and in 20 crops of these countries it is ranked as a serious weed.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

F. convolvulus is polyploid and has a chromosome count of 2n = 40 (Mulligan, 1957, 1960; Clapham et al., 1962).

Reproductive Biology

Flowers of F. convolvulus are bisexual and self-compatible (Mulligan and Findlay, 1970). Each flower produces a single achene. In Asia, this species has been recorded flowering from July to September (FAO, 2015). In Europe, flowering plants can be found throughout the summer till mid-autumn (Hanf, 1982). As a result of the indeterminate flowering habit of F. convolvulus, flowers, immature seed and mature seed may be found at the same time on a single plant.

Longevity

F. convolvulus is a fast-growing herb that behaves as annual and perennial herb. It has a large, fibrous root system which may reach down as far as 80 cm in the soil (Kutschera, 1960), enabling it to evade dry conditions.

Physiology and Phenology

According to Hanf (1982), a single plant of F. convolvulus produces 100 to 1000 seeds. Grown without competition, Stevens (1932) reported fecundity of 11,900 seeds per plant, and Forsberg and Best (1964) obtained up to 30,000 seeds from plants that emerged early in the growing season. The seeds possess a deep primary dormancy for several months when mature (Zwerger, 1987, 1993) due mostly to the hard pericarp, which limits gas and water exchange, and acts as a barrier to germination (Ransom, 1935; Timson, 1966). Under field conditions, most seeds germinate in their first year (Chepil, 1946), but they may remain viable in the soil for several years (Holm et al., 1991). Chippendale and Milton (1934) found viable seeds of F. convolvulus after approximately 22 years in the soil under pasture.

Seedlings emerge throughout the growing season. They normally germinate at depths in the soil between 6 and 51 mm, although research has shown that seeds buried as deep as 19 cm can germinate (Forsberg and Best 1964). Light is not required for germination. Seeds germinate at temperatures between 2°C and 30°C, with maximum germination rates occurring between 5°C and 15°C.

Environmental Requirements

F. convolvulus occurs on a wide range of soil types (Hume et al., 1983), but according to Paatela and Erviö (1971) it is less common on peaty soils. In field observations in Finland, F. convolvulus was more abundant in clay than in coarse mineral or organic soil (Erviö et al., 1994). Higher rates of F. convolvulus emergence are recorded on soils with a high clay content. In field experiments in Poland, F. convolvulus predominated on plots fertilized with nitrogen plus calcium (Borowiec et al., 1995). However, Zwerger (1990) could only find a positive effect of nitrogen fertilization on seed production at low densities of this weed.

At higher weed densities, the effect of intraspecific competition became more important than nitrogen supply. Sirbu and Slonovschi (1989) found that nutrient reserves of F. convolvulus seeds increased with increasing phosphate fertilization. In a study concerning the distribution of several common weeds in Denmark, decreasing potassium content in the soil appeared to favour the occurrence of F. convolvulus (Andreasen and Streibig, 1990; Andreasen et al., 1991). According to Hanf (1982), it is one of the most frequent weeds on soils with a low pH.

Shade usually suppresses the growth of black bindweed (Haman and Peeper 1983), but in hotter countries it can be found in moist shady places and crevices (Flora of Pakistan Editorial Committee, 2013).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Tolerated > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Tolerated Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Df - Continental climate, wet all year Preferred Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Preferred Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)
Dw - Continental climate with dry winter Preferred Continental climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters)

Soil Tolerances

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Soil reaction

  • acid

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Coleophora peribenanderi Herbivore Leaves
Coleophora therinella Herbivore Leaves
Gastrophysa polygoni Herbivore Leaves
Pegomya setaria Herbivore Leaves
Peronospora polygoni Pathogen Leaves
Puccinia polygoni-amphibii Pathogen Leaves

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Insects that have been cited as using F. convolvulus as a host are Gastrophysa polygoni (Forsberg, 1955; Kjaer and Elmegaard, 1996), Coleophora therinella and C. peribenanderi (van der Wolf, 1992). F. convolvulus may serve as a habitat for a number of viruses, insects (Mamestra (Noctuidae) and Pegomyia (Anthomyiidae)), nematodes (species of Heterodera and Meloidogyne) and fungi (species of Ustilago, Puccinia and Peronospora). A review of arthropod natural enemies in Canada and Europe was presented by Hume (1983)

In a study on the internal and surface-dwelling pathogenic fungi of seeds of the 30 most widespread weed species in Lithuania, Grigaliunaite and Kacergius (1995) found that F. convolvulus seeds were the least damaged of all weeds investigated.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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F. convolvulus spreads by seeds and may produce 11,900-30,000 seeds/plant (Stevens, 1932; Forsberg and Best, 1964). The hard seed coat allows seeds to remain dormant for several years (Chippendale and Milton, 1934, Roberts and Feast, 1973, Conn and Deck, 1995). Seeds can be dispersed by farm machinery and water over short distances. It is also a common contaminant of wheat and other cereal crops (Gooch, 1963, Rutledge and McLendon, 1996).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionContaminant in cereals crops Yes Yes Rutledge and McLendon, 1996

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Impact

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F. convolvulus can reduce crop yields by competition, especially in highly infested fields (Friesen and Shebeski, 1960; Nakoneshny and Friesen, 1961; Dosland and Arnold, 1966; Fabricius and Nalewaja, 1968). Friesen and Shebeski (1960) showed that 56 and 210 plants per m² can reduce wheat yields by 15 and 25%, respectively. Crop seed weight and protein contents can also be negatively affected (Nakoneshny and Friesen, 1961; Gruenhagen and Nalewaja, 1969).

By climbing up the crop, F. convolvulus causes lodging in grain crops (Neururer, 1961; Hume et al., 1983), and can cause harvesting problems when its vines wrap around moving parts of machinery (Forsberg and Best, 1964; Fabricius and Nalewaja, 1968).

In addition, high weed densities can raise the moisture content of harvested grain (Neururer, 1961) and contribute to heating in storage when harvested with cereals as a seed contaminant (Holm et al., 1991). F. convolvulus produces large amounts of seed and they are often difficult to separate from grain crops, because of their similar size. Therefore, F. convolvulus is a serious contaminant of seed stocks in several places in the world (Gooch, 1963; Bogdan, 1965).

The general importance of this weed is due to its ability to emerge throughout the growing season. Forsberg and Best (1964) showed that late-emerging seedlings are likely to escape herbicide spraying and could be a potential source of re-infestations, especially where competition from other weeds has been eliminated.

Furthermore, F. convolvulus may serve as an alternate host for disease organisms affecting crops (Cooper and Harrison, 1973; Bendixen et al., 1979).

According to Holm et al. (1991), F. convolvulus is ranked as a principal or serious weed in 20 crops of 41 countries. It is one of the most important weeds of cereals in Argentina, Canada, Kenya, South Africa and the USA; maize in the former Soviet Union; and sugarbeet in Spain. It is a principal weed of cereals in Argentina, Australia, Canada, UK, Finland, New Zealand, Tanzania, and the USA; maize in Italy; flax in Australia, Brazil, Canada, and the USA; potatoes in Chile; sugarbeet in former Czechoslovakia, UK and Germany; beans in England; vegetables in Argentina, Bulgaria, Chile, UK and New Zealand; peas in Bulgaria and New Zealand; onions in Argentina and UK; and sorghum in Italy.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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Tkachuk and Mellish (1977) stated that although being comparatively low in protein, oil and fibre content, seeds of F. convolvulus may be promising as a nutritious food or feed, because its amino acid composition is similar to that of cultivated buckwheat. The high lysine content of the seeds makes them a reasonable supplement to feeds otherwise consisting largely of cereals.

The seeds are supposed to have been used as food or feed in neolithic to medieval times (Eggers, 1979; Willerding, 1981; Hanf, 1990), but are too small and low-yielding to be grown commercially today. According to Boatman (1987), F. convolvulus is a host plant for insects eaten by gamebird chicks in the UK, for example, the grey partridge (Perdix perdix).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Prior to flowering, F. convolvulus may be mistaken for Convolvulus arvensis, as both have twining greenish stems and leaves of similar shape. In contrast to F. convolvulus, C. arvensis is a deep-rooted perennial with extensive creeping white roots and rhizomes, blunt-tipped leaves and large funnel-shaped pink or white flowers. It has no ochrea or sheathing stipules as in F. convolvulus.

Two further Fallopia species which could be confused with F. convolvulus in Canada (Hume et al. (1983): Fallopia cilinode and F. scandens. Both are perennials.  Fallopia cilinode has bristles at the base of the sheath, leaves with narrower spacing between the basal lobes and achenes that are shiny and smooth. The flowers of F. scandens are long-stalked. It has a strong, winged calyx and smooth, shiny achenes.

F. convolvulus is also closely related to Fallopia dumetorum and F. dentate-alata, but in both these species the pedicel is much longer (up to 10 mm long) and articulated above the middle (Flora of Pakistan Editorial Committee, 2013).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Cultural Control

According to Holm et al. (1991), tillage implements and rotations have only limited success in controlling F. convolvulus because of its large seedbank, the ability of seeds to emerge from great depth, the persistent emergence of new seedlings throughout the growing season and the large quantities of seeds produced by the plants.

Nevertheless, there are several methods suggested which could be used to reduce possible yield losses caused by this weed. Koch (1964) observed a stimulation in emergence of F. convolvulus by harrowing, which could be taken advantage of in the control of this weed in cereal cultivation. Gruenhagen and Nalewaja (1969) and Messersmith and Nalewaja (1969) stated that higher seeding rates of the crop result in a reduction of relative yield losses through competition of F. convolvulus in wheat or flax. Moreover, Smith (1980) found out that a significant reduction of F. convolvulus could be attained by discing after barley harvest.

Different results have been published regarding the effects of tillage techniques as a means for weed control. Thompson et al. (1984) and Dessaint et al. (1993) concluded that no-tillage cultivation or reduced tillage resulted in increasing densities of F. convolvulus in comparison to conventional tillage, whereas Hoffman-Kakol et al. (1982) observed a reduction in the relative abundance of F. convolvulus in directly drilled maize after rye. Nielsen and Pinnerup (1982) also reported a decline in F. convolvulus populations caused by reduced cultivation in spring barley.

Although effective for the control of other weeds, harrowing in the dark showed no significant influence on emergence of F. convolvulus seedlings in comparison to daylight harrowing in Swedish field trials (Ascard, 1992).

According to Rajczyova (1978), monocultures of winter wheat and spring barley lead to an increase in F. convolvulus incidence.

Biological Control

Adkins and Sowerby (1996) revealed that the weed Parthenium hysterophorus has allelopathic potential against P. covolvulus. They used leachate from the leaves of P. hysterophorus to depress germination and seedling growth of F. convolvulus and several other weeds.

In a search for potential biological control agents for weeds, species of Botrytis were isolated from seedlings of F. convolvulus infected with pathogenic fungi in Canada (Mortensen and Molloy, 1993). In Argentina, the fungus Puccinia polygoni-amphibii was found to cause sufficient damage to warrant investigation as a biocontrol agent against F. convolvulus (Dal-Bello and Carranza, 1995).

Chemical Control

A considerable number of selective herbicides sprayed alone, in mixtures either pre- or post-emergence have been used to control F. convolvulus: aclonifen, atrazine, aziprotryne, benfluralin, benazolin, bentazone, bifenox, bromoxynil, chloramben, chlorbromuron, chloridazon, chlorsulfuron, chlorthal-dimethyl, clopyralid, cyanazine, cycloate, 2,4-D, desmedipham, dicamba, dichlorprop, dinitramine, diphenamid, ethalfluralin, ethofumesate, fluorochloridone, fluroxypyr, glufosinate-ammonium, haloxyfop, ioxynil, isopropalin, linuron, lenacil, MCPA, MCPB, mecoprop, metamitron, metolachlor, metobromuron, metsulfuron, metribuzin, napropamide, oryzalin, oxadiazon, oxyfluorfen, pendimethalin, phenmedipham, picloram, prometryn, propachlor, propyzamide, pyridate, sethoxydim, thifensulfuron, triasulfuron, tribenuron, trifluralin and triflusulfuron (Haas and Streibig 1982; Anderson et al., 1996; Fain, 1986; Nohl-Weiler and Hindersmann, 1986; Pimpini et al., 1986; Shalna and Melamed, 1986; Drazic et al., 1987; Kapros et al., 1988; Prochazka et al., 1988; Klingaman and Peeper, 1989; Milusher et al., 1989; Rapparini et al., 1989; Arends and Pegg, 1990; Lalova and Bogdanovske, 1990; Labza et al., 1990; Drazic and Glusac, 1991; Sysmans et al., 1991; Muller, 1992; Gvozdenovic-Varga et al., 1992; Meinlschmidt and Karch, 1992; Hallgren, 1993; Mitchell and Abernethy, 1993; Andersson, 1994; Rapparini, 1995, 1996; Bouma et al., 1996; Fields et al., 1996; Campagna and Rapparini, 1997; Toth and Peter, 1997).

Herbicide resistence has been reported for the following active ingredients: chlorsulfuron in Australia (Adkins et al., 1997); 2,4-D in Lithuania, Hungary and China (Aleksinas, 1984; Nemeth, 1985; Tu, 1989), 2,4-TB in Czechoslovakia (Bojas, 1987); MCPA in the former USSR and Hungary (Ryzhaya et al. 1984; Nemeth, 1985); metolachlor in the former USSR (Zuza, 1983; Veselovskii and Saulyak, 1984); metribuzin in Poland (Sawicka and Skalski, 1996); quinmerac in the UK (Boatman, 1991); simazine (Stryckers and van Himme, 1974); terbacil in Hungary (Nagy et al., 1978); and triazines in Czechoslovakia, Germany and the Netherlands (Valkova, 1975; Kees, 1988; van Oorschot, 1989).

Skorobogatova and Mirchinik (1985) revealed that the microbial metabolite citrin applied in wheat fields could decrease F. convolvulus incidence markedly, with negligible effects on wheat growth and yield. Gleason and Case (1986) showed that the algicide cyanobacterin inhibited the growth of F. convolvulus when sprayed onto the leaves of 1- to 2-week-old plants. Bryan et al. (1995) reported that a monic acid derivative of pseudomonic acid (derived from compounds produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens) was active against a range of broadleaved weeds, including F. convolvulus, in field trials performed in Canada. Barley was not affected by the monic acid derivative, although unacceptable damage to wheat did occur.

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Links to Websites

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GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

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03/06/15 Updated by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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