Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Eutypa lata
(Eutypa dieback)

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Datasheet

Eutypa lata (Eutypa dieback)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Eutypa lata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Eutypa dieback
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Sordariomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Excessive gum exudation on cankered branch of sweet cherry.
TitleGum exudation on sweet cherry
CaptionExcessive gum exudation on cankered branch of sweet cherry.
CopyrightGary Munkvold
Excessive gum exudation on cankered branch of sweet cherry.
Gum exudation on sweet cherryExcessive gum exudation on cankered branch of sweet cherry.Gary Munkvold

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Eutypa lata (Pers.) Tul. & C.Tul.

Preferred Common Name

  • Eutypa dieback

Other Scientific Names

  • Cryptosphaeria crepiniana Sacc. & Roum.
  • Cryptosphaeria myriocarpa (Nitschke) Sacc.
  • Cytosporina lata Höhn.
  • Cytosporina ribis Magnus
  • Cytosporina rubescens Fr.
  • Diatrype lata (Pers.: Fr.) Fr.
  • Diatrype macrothecia Speg.
  • Diatrype milliaria (Fr.: Fr.) Fr.
  • Eutypa ambigua J. Kunze ex Sacc.
  • Eutypa armeniacae Hansf. & M.V. Carter
  • Eutypa fraxini (Nitschke) Sacc.
  • Eutypa lata var. ribis Barthelet
  • Eutypa lata var. rimulosa Sacc.
  • Eutypa mauroides (Nitschke) Sacc.
  • Eutypa milliaria (Fr.) Sacc.
  • Eutypa rhodi (Nitschke) Fuckel
  • Libertella blepharis A.L. Sm.
  • Phomopsis ribis (Magnus) Grove
  • Sphaeria fuliginosa Sow.
  • Sphaeria lata Pers.
  • Sphaeria milliaria Fr.
  • Sphaeria papillata Hoffm.
  • Stromatosphaeria lata (Pers.: Fr.) Grev.
  • Valsa fraxini Nitschke
  • Valsa lata (Pers.: Fr.) Nitschke
  • Valsa mauroides Nitschke
  • Valsa myriocarpa Nitschke
  • Valsa prunastri (Pers.) Fr.
  • Valsa rhodi Nitschke

International Common Names

  • English: apricot dieback disease; apricot gummosis; dead-arm disease: grapevine; dieback disease: apricot; dieback: grapevine; gummosis: apricot; limb dieback: apricot
  • Spanish: valsa
  • French: apoplexie de l'abricotier; Eutypiosis; mycose de l'abricotier

Local Common Names

  • Australia: Cytosporina dieback
  • Germany: Absterben: Aprikose; Gummifluss: Aprikose; Kuemmerwuchs: Weinrebe
  • Italy: Eutypiosi
  • USA: Cytosporina dieback

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Sordariomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Sordariomycetidae
  •                         Order: Xylariales
  •                             Family: Diatrypaceae
  •                                 Genus: Eutypa
  •                                     Species: Eutypa lata

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 05 May 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentBerraf and Péros (2005)
LibyaPresentEPPO (2020)
South AfricaPresentFerreira (1985); EPPO (2020)

Asia

IndiaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-MaharashtraPresentEPPO (2020)
LebanonPresentChoueiri et al. (2006)
PakistanPresentHerb IMI (Undated); EPPO (2020)
TurkeyPresentArİ and Tosun (2004); EPPO (2020)

Europe

AustriaPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
BulgariaPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
CyprusPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
CzechiaPresentEichmeier et al. (2020)
FrancePresent, LocalizedCABI (Undated); Lecomte (2003); EPPO (2020)Original citation: Rocque, 1999
GermanyPresentFischer and Kassemeyer (2003); EPPO (2020)
GreecePresentCABI (Undated); EPPO (2020)Original citation: Thanassoulopoulos Cavalloro (1987)
HungaryPresentRábai et al. (2008); EPPO (2020)
ItalyPresentProdorutti et al. (2008); Boubals (1994); EPPO (2020)
MoldovaPresentEPPO (2020)
PortugalPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Tomaz & Da Costa, 1984
RomaniaPresentOprea et al. (2008)
SerbiaPresentAćimović et al. (2008); Živkovicdot over˜ et al. (2012)
SlovakiaPresentEPPO (2020)
SpainPresentLuque et al. (2009); Gramaje et al. (2012); EPPO (2020)
SwitzerlandPresentMonney and Evéquoz (2009); EPPO (2020)
UkrainePresentEPPO (2020)
United KingdomPresentEPPO (2020)
-EnglandPresentEPPO (2020)
-ScotlandPresentEPPO (2020)

North America

CanadaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-ManitobaPresentEPPO (2020)
-OntarioPresentEPPO (2020)
-SaskatchewanPresentEPPO (2020)
MexicoPresentEPPO (2020)
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a); EPPO (2020)Present based on regional distribution.
-ArkansasPresentUrbez-Torres et al. (2012)
-CaliforniaPresentCABI (Undated); EPPO (2020)Original citation: Munkvold et al. (1993)
-MichiganPresentCatal et al. (2007); EPPO (2020)
-MissouriPresentUrbez-Torres et al. (2012)
-New YorkPresentEPPO (2020)
-OregonPresentPscheidt and Ocamb (2000)
-South DakotaPresentHerb IMI (Undated); EPPO (2020)
-WashingtonPresentEPPO (2020)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentLardner et al. (2007); EPPO (2020)
-New South WalesPresentPitt et al. (2010); EPPO (2020)
-South AustraliaPresentCreaser and Wicks (2004); EPPO (2020)
-TasmaniaPresentEPPO (2020)
-VictoriaPresentEPPO (2020)
-Western AustraliaPresentEPPO (2020)
New ZealandPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)

South America

BrazilPresentSônego et al. (2005); EPPO (2020)
-Sao PauloPresentEPPO (2020)
VenezuelaPresentRamirez and Pineda (2003)

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / reduced size
Inflorescence / blight; necrosis
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / leaves rolled or folded
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / canker on woody stem
Stems / dieback
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / distortion
Stems / gummosis or resinosis
Stems / internal discoloration
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacillus subtilis Pathogen
Gibberella baccata Pathogen

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark hyphae; spores Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Wood hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)

References

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Acimovic S, Deliba?ic G, Annemiek S, Tanovic B, 2008. Eutypa dieback and ESCA - trunk necrosis and dieback diseases of grapevines in Serbia. (Eutipoza i ESCA - bolesti odumiranja i su?enja cokota vinove loze u Srbiji.) Biljni Lekar (Plant Doctor), 36(2):94-103.

Adam DB, Grace J, Flentje NT, 1952. The "gummosis" or "dieback" disease of apricots. J. Agric. South Australia, 55:450-455.

Ari ME, Tosun N, 2004. Fungal diseases of grape. In: Crop management and postharvest handling of horticultural products. Volume IV: Diseases and disorders of fruits and vegetables [ed. by Dris, R.\Niskanen, R.\Jain, S. M.]. Enfield, USA: Science Publishers, Inc., 297-328.

Barnett HL, Hunter BB, 1987. Illustrated Genera of Imperfect Fungi. 4th Ed. New York, USA: MacMillan Publishing.

Berraf A, Péros JP, 2005. Importance of Eutypa dieback and esca in Algeria and structure of the associated fungal community. (Importance de l'eutypiose et de l'esca en Algérie et structure de la communauté fongique associée.) Journal International des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin, 39(3):121-128.

Bolay A, 1984. L'eutypiose en arboriculture fruitiere. Revue Suisse de viticulture, d'arboriculture et d'horticulture, 18:265-273.

Bolay A, 1986. How can one protect grapevine and fruit trees from attacks of Eutypa? Revue Suisse de Viticulture d'Arboriculture et d'Horticulture, 18(1):7-13.

Bolay A, Spring JL, Monney P, 1990. Influence of time of apricot tree pruning on canker development. Revue Suisse de Viticulture, d'Arboriculture et d'Horticulture, 22(6):371-376

Boubals D, 1994. The present status of problems caused by wood diseases leading to vine decline: (Eutypa, esca, black wood). Progres Agricole et Viticole, 111(6):125-131

Butterworth SC, Schilder AMC, 2000. Effects of Eutypa dieback on yield components in Concord grapes in Michigan (Abstr.). Phytopathology, 90:S11.

Carter MV, 1957. Eutypa armeniacae Hansf. & Carter, sp. nov., an airborne vascular pathogen of Prunus armeniaca L. in southern Australia. Aust. J. Botany, 5:21-35.

Carter MV, 1971. Biological control of Eutypa armeniacae. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. Anim. Husb., 11:687-692.

Carter MV, 1983. Biological control of Eutypa armeniacae 5. Guidelines for establishing routine wound protection in commercial apricot orchards. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture & Animal Husbandry, 23(123):429-436; [5 fig., 2 tab.]; 17 ref.

Carter MV, 1988. Eutypa dieback. In: Pearson RC, Goheen AC, eds. Compendium of Grape Diseases. St. Paul, MN, USA: APS Press, 32-34.

Carter MV, 1991. The status of Eutypa lata as a pathogen. Wallingford, UK; C.A.B. International, x + 59 pp.

Carter MV, Bolay A, English H, Rumbos I, 1985. Variation in the pathogenicity of Eutypa lata (= E. armeniacp). Australian Journal of Botany, 33(3):361-366

Carter MV, Moller WJ, 1967. The effect of pruning time on the incidence of Eutypa armeniacae infection in apricot trees. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. Anim. Husb., 7:584-586.

Carter MV, Moller WJ, 1971. The quantity of inoculum required to infect apricot and other Prunus species with Eutypa armeniacae. Austr. J. Exp. Agric. Anim. Husb., 11:684-686.

Carter MV, Mullett LF, 1978. Biological control of Eutypa armeniacp. 4. Design and performance of an applicator for metered delivery of protective prosols during pruning. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 18(91):287-293

Carter MV, Perrin E, 1985. A pneumatic-powered spraying secateur for use in commercial orchards and vineyards. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 25(4):939-942

Carter MV, Price TV, 1974. Biological control of Eutypa armeniacae. II. Studies of the interaction between E. armeniacae and Fusarium lateritium, and their relative sensitivities to benzimidazole chemicals. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 25(1):105-119

Carter MV, Price TV, 1975. Biological control of Eutypa armeniacae. III. A comparison of chemical, biological and integrated control. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 26(3):537-543

Carter MV, Price TV, 1977. Explanation of the failure of a commercial scale application of benomyl to protect pruned apricot trees against Eutypa dieback disease. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 17(84):171-173

Catal M, Jordan SA, Butterworth SC, Schilder AMC, 2007. Detection of Eutypa lata and Eutypella vitis in grapevine by nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Phytopathology, 97(6):737-747. http://www.apsnet.org/phyto/

Chapuis L, Dubos B, Roudet J, Blaise P, 1998. Quelques differences mises en evidence dans le comportement des cepages sensibiles et tolerants a l'eutypiose. Bulletin OILB-SROP, 21:29-30.

Chapuis L, Richard L, Dubos B, 1998. Variation in susceptibility of grapevine pruning wound to infection by Eutypa lata in south-western France. Plant Pathology, 47(4):463-472; 25 ref.

Choueiri E, Jreijiri F, Chlela P, Louvet G, Lecomte P, 2006. Occurrence of grapevine declines and first report of black dead arm associated with Botryosphaeria obtusa in Lebanon. Plant Disease, 90(1):115. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Clements FF, Shear CL, 1931. The Genera of Fungi. New York, USA: Wilson.

Contesini A, Faretra F, 1991. Effectiveness in vitro of fungicides against some causal agents of wood diseases of grapevine. Difesa delle Piante, 14(3):5-12

Creaser ML, Wicks TJ, 2004. Short-term effects of remedial surgery to restore productivity to Eutypa lata infected vines. Phytopathologia Mediterranea [Research papers, short notes and abstracts based on presentations at the third international workshop on grapevine trunk diseases, Christchurch, New Zealand, 1-2 February, 2003.], 43(1):105-107.

DeScenzo RA, Engel SR, Gomez G, Jackson EL, Munkvold GP, Weller J, Irelan NA, 1999. Genetic analysis of Eutypa strains from California supports the presence of two pathogenic species. Phytopathology, 89(10):884-893; 60 ref.

Dubos B, 1987. Mise au point sur les maladies de deperissement dans le vignoble francais. Progres Agricole et Viticole, 104:135-140.

Dubos B, 1996. L'eutypiose de la vigne, Eutypa lata (Pers.:Fr.) Tul. Comptes Rendus de l'Academie d'Agriculture de France, 82:21-30.

Duthie JA, Munkvold GP, Chellemi DO, Grant RS, Marois JJ, 1991. Relationship between age of vineyard and incidence of Eutypa dieback. Phytopathology, 81:1183.

English H, Davis JR, 1978. Eutypa armeniacp in apricot: pathogenesis and induction of xylem soft rot. Hilgardia, 46(6):193-204

English H, Davis JR, Ogawa JM, Schick FJ, 1983. Variation in Eutypa armeniacae and discovery of its ascigerous stage in California's Central Valley. Phytopathology, 73:958.

Ferreira JHS, 1985. Effect of rootstock on the incidence of dying arm of Chenin blanc vines. S. African J. Enology and Viticulture, 6:23-24.

Ferreira JHS, 1999. Growth of Eutypa lata in grapevine wood extracts. S. African J. Enology and Viticulture, 20:53-56.

Ferreira JHS, Augustyn OPH, 1989. Differentiation between Eutypa lata and Cryptovalsa cf ampelina by means of cellular fatty acid analysis. South African Journal for Enology and Viticulture, 10(1):18-22

Ferreira JHS, Matthee FN, Thomas AC, 1991. Biological control of Eutypa lata on grapevine by an antagonistic strain of Bacillus subtilis.. Phytopathology, 81(3):283-287; 21 ref.

Fischer M, Kassemeyer H-H, 2003. Fungi associated with Esca disease of grapevine in Germany. Vitis, 42:109-116.

Gendloff EH, Ramsdell DC, 1983. Fungicidal control of Eutypa armeniacae infecting Concord grapevine in Michigan. Plant Dis., 67:754-756.

Glawe DA, Rogers JD, 1982. Observations on the anamorphs of six species of Eutypa and Eutypella. Mycotaxon, 14(1):334-346

Glawe DA, Rogers JD, 1984. Diatrypaceae in the Pacific Northwest. Mycotaxon, 20(2):401-460; [42 fig.]; 53 ref.

Gramaje D, Agustí-Brisach C, Pérez-Sierra A, Moralejo E, Olmo D, Mostert L, Damm U, Armengol J, 2012. Fungal trunk pathogens associated with wood decay of almond trees on Mallorca (Spain). Persoonia, 28:1-13. http://www.persoonia.org

Hanlin RT, 1990. Illustrated genera of Ascomycetes. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, viii + 263 pp.

Hughes G, Munkvold GP, Samita S, 1998. Application of the logistic-normal-binomial distribution for analysis of Eutypa dieback disease incidence data. Int. J. Pest Management, 44:35-42.

IMI Herbarium, undated. Herbarium specimen. International Mycological Institute (now CABI Bioscience) Herbarium. Egham, UK: CABI Bioscience.

Irelan N, Gubler WD, Descenzo RA, 1999. Efficacy testing of Eutypa chemical and biological control candidates with DNA-based technologies. Practical Wine and Vineyard, 12:47-56.

Johnson DA, Lunden JD, 1987. Incidence and yield impact of Eutypa dieback of grapevine in Washington State. Research Bulletin - Agricultural Research Center, Washington State University, No. 0993:7 pp.

Johnson DW, Kuntz JE, 1979. Eutypella canker of maple: ascospore discharge and dissemination. Phytopathology, 69(2):130-135

Ju YM, Glawe DA, Rogers JD, 1991. Conidial germination in Eutypa armeniacae and selected other species of Diatrypaceae: implications for the systematics and biology of diatrypaceous fungi. Mycotaxon, 41(1):311-320

Lardner R, Scott ES, Stummer BE, 2007. Genetic variation in Australian isolates of the grapevine pathogen Eutypa lata. Australasian Plant Pathology, 36(2):149-156. http://www.publish.csiro.au/nid/39.htm

Lecomte P, 2003. Could E. lata infect A. deliciosa? (Connu sur de nombreuses espèces végétales, principalement la vigne: Eutypa lata peut-il également infecter l'actinidia?.) Phytoma, No.558:36-37.

Luque J, Martos S, Aroca A, Raposo R, Garcia-Figueres F, 2009. Symptoms and fungi associated with declining mature grapevine plants in northeast Spain. Journal of Plant Pathology, 91(2):381-390. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/

Mahoney N, Molyneux RJ, Smith LR, Schoch TK, Rolshausen PE, Gubler WD, 2005. Dying-arm disease in grapevines: diagnosis of infection with Eutypa lata by metabolite analysis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53(21):8148-8155. http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi/jafcau/2005/53/i21/abs/jf0510236.html

Mauro MC, Vaillant V, Tey-Rulh P, Mathieu Y, Fallot J, 1988. In vitro study of the relationship between Vitis vinifera and Eutypa lata (Pers.:Fr.) Tul. I. Demonstration of toxic compounds secreted by the fungus. Am. J. Enol. Vitic., 39:201-204.

McKemy JM, Glawe DA, Munkvold GP, 1993. A Hyphomycetous synanamorph of Eutypa armeniacae in artificial culture. Mycologia, 85(6):941-944

Minervini G, Bisiach M, 1995. Presenza di eutypiosi ed esca nei vigneti del Veneto e della Lombardia. Vignevini, 22:19-25.

Moller WJ, Carter MV, 1965. Production and dispersal of ascospores in Eutypa armeniacae. Aust. J. Biol. Sci., 18:67-80.

Moller WJ, Kasimatis AN, 1978. Dieback of grapevines caused by Eutypa armeniacp. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(3):254-258

Moller WJ, Kasimatis AN, 1980. Protection of grapevine pruning wounds from Eutypa dieback. Plant Disease, 64(3):278-280

Moller WJ, Kasimatis AN, 1981. Further evidence that Eutypa armeniacp-not Phomopsis viticola-incites dead arm symptoms on grape. Plant Disease, 65(5):429-431

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Moller WJ, Ramos DE, Sanborn RR, 1977. Eutypa dieback in California apricot orchards: chemical control studies. Plant Disease Reporter, 61(7):600-604

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Munkvold GP, Duthie JA, Marois JJ, 1993. Spatial patterns of grapevines with Eutypa dieback in vineyards with or without perithecia. Phytopathology, 83(12):1440-1448

Munkvold GP, Duthie JA, Marois JJ, 1994. Reductions in yield and vegetative growth of grapevines due to Eutypa dieback. Phytopathology, 84(2):186-192

Munkvold GP, Hughes G, 2000. Epidemiological evidence for spread of Eutypa dieback by asexual means (Abstr.). Phytopathology, 90:S120.

Munkvold GP, Marois JJ, 1991. Perithecia of Eutypa lata on sweet cherry in the central valley of California. Plant Disease, 75(4):431

Munkvold GP, Marois JJ, 1992. Eutypa dieback of grapevine in California. Am. Vineyard, 1:20-23.

Munkvold GP, Marois JJ, 1993. Efficacy of natural epiphytes and colonizers of grapevine pruning wounds for biological control of Eutypa dieback. Phytopathology, 83(6):624-629; 24 ref.

Munkvold GP, Marois JJ, 1993. The effects of fungicides on Eutypa lata germination, growth, and infection of grapevines. Plant Disease, 77(1):50-55

Munkvold GP, Marois JJ, 1994. Eutypa dieback of sweet cherry and occurrence of Eutypa lata perithecia in the Central Valley of California. Plant Disease, 78(2):200-207

Munkvold GP, Marois JJ, 1995. Factors associated with variation in susceptibility of grapevine pruning wounds to infection by Eutypa lata. Phytopathology, 85(2):249-256

Mur G, 1979. Trials of grapevine inoculation with Eutypa armeniacp. Progres Agricole et Viticole, 96(16/17):334-337

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Oprea M, Jinga V, Popescu M, 2008. Preliminary studies to establish a pattern for development of apricot dieback. Acta Horticulturae [Proceedings of the VIIIth International Symposium on Modelling in Fruit Research and Orchard Management, Switzerland, 1-5 July 2007.], No.803:91-96. http://www.actahort.org

Pearson RC, 1980. Discharge of ascospores of Eutypa armeniacp in New York. Plant Disease (formerly Plant Disease Reporter), 64(2):171-174

Pearson RC, 1982. Protection of grapevine pruning wounds from infection by Eutypa armeniacae in New York State. Am. J. of Enology and Viticulture, 33:51-53.

Peros JP, Berger G, 1994. A rapid method to assess the aggressiveness of Eutypa lata isolates and the susceptibility of grapevine cultivars to Eutypa dieback. Agronomie, 14(8):515-523

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Price TV, 1973. Serological identification of Eutypa armeniacae. Austr. J. Biol. Sci., 26:389-394.

Price TV, 1973. Studies on the microbial colonization of sapwood of pruned apricot trees. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences, 26(2):379-388

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PTros JP, 1999. Rootstock and scion effects on the expression of Eutypa dieback symptoms. Progre^grave~s Agricole et Viticole, 116(19):407-414; 22 ref.

Rábai A, Dula T, Mugnai L, 2008. Distribution of esca disease in Hungary and the pathogens causing the syndrome. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 43(1):45-54. http://www.akademiai.com/content/119709/

Ramirez E, Pineda J, 2003. Distribution of Eutypa lata and Lasiodiplodia theobromae in vineyard zones in Venezuela. (Distribución de Eutypa lata y Lasiodiplodia theobromae en las zonas vitícolas de Venezuela.) Revista de la Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad del Zulia, 20(1):43-51.

Ramos DE, Moller WJ, English H, 1975. Production and dispersal of ascospores of Eutypa armeniacp in California. Phytopathology, 65(12):1364-1371

Ramos DE, Moller WJ, English H, 1975. Susceptibility of apricot tree pruning wounds to infection by Eutypa armeniacae. Phytopathology, 65(12):1359-1364

Ramsdell DC, 1995. Winter air-blast sprayer applications of benomyl for reduction of Eutypa dieback disease incidence in a Concord grape vineyard in Michigan. Plant Disease, 79(4):399-402

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Distribution References

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