Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Euproctis chrysorrhoea
(brown-tail moth)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Euproctis chrysorrhoea (brown-tail moth)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 October 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Euproctis chrysorrhoea
  • Preferred Common Name
  • brown-tail moth
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Full grown larva of E. chrysorrhoea on hawthorn flowers (Crataegus monogyna), Oxfordshire, UK.
TitleLarva
CaptionFull grown larva of E. chrysorrhoea on hawthorn flowers (Crataegus monogyna), Oxfordshire, UK.
CopyrightEmma J. Durman
Full grown larva of E. chrysorrhoea on hawthorn flowers (Crataegus monogyna), Oxfordshire, UK.
LarvaFull grown larva of E. chrysorrhoea on hawthorn flowers (Crataegus monogyna), Oxfordshire, UK.Emma J. Durman
Full grown larva of E. chrysorrhoea on hawthorn bush (Crataegus monogyna), Oxfordshire, UK.
TitleLarva
CaptionFull grown larva of E. chrysorrhoea on hawthorn bush (Crataegus monogyna), Oxfordshire, UK.
CopyrightEmma J. Durman
Full grown larva of E. chrysorrhoea on hawthorn bush (Crataegus monogyna), Oxfordshire, UK.
LarvaFull grown larva of E. chrysorrhoea on hawthorn bush (Crataegus monogyna), Oxfordshire, UK.Emma J. Durman
Larval damage and defoliation by E. chrysorrhoea on hawthorn bush (Crataegus monogyna), Oxfordshire, UK.
TitleDamage
CaptionLarval damage and defoliation by E. chrysorrhoea on hawthorn bush (Crataegus monogyna), Oxfordshire, UK.
CopyrightEmma J. Durman
Larval damage and defoliation by E. chrysorrhoea on hawthorn bush (Crataegus monogyna), Oxfordshire, UK.
DamageLarval damage and defoliation by E. chrysorrhoea on hawthorn bush (Crataegus monogyna), Oxfordshire, UK.Emma J. Durman
Larval web of E. chrysorrhoea on hawthorn bush (Crataegus monogyna), Oxfordshire, UK.
TitleLarval web
CaptionLarval web of E. chrysorrhoea on hawthorn bush (Crataegus monogyna), Oxfordshire, UK.
CopyrightEmma J. Durman
Larval web of E. chrysorrhoea on hawthorn bush (Crataegus monogyna), Oxfordshire, UK.
Larval webLarval web of E. chrysorrhoea on hawthorn bush (Crataegus monogyna), Oxfordshire, UK.Emma J. Durman
Larval web of E. chrysorrhoea on hawthorn bush (Crataegus monogyna), Oxfordshire, UK.
TitleLarval web
CaptionLarval web of E. chrysorrhoea on hawthorn bush (Crataegus monogyna), Oxfordshire, UK.
CopyrightEmma J. Durman
Larval web of E. chrysorrhoea on hawthorn bush (Crataegus monogyna), Oxfordshire, UK.
Larval webLarval web of E. chrysorrhoea on hawthorn bush (Crataegus monogyna), Oxfordshire, UK.Emma J. Durman
E. chrysorrhoea larvae on web on hawthorn bush (Crataegus monogyna), Oxfordshire, UK.
TitleLarvae on web
CaptionE. chrysorrhoea larvae on web on hawthorn bush (Crataegus monogyna), Oxfordshire, UK.
CopyrightEmma J. Durman
E. chrysorrhoea larvae on web on hawthorn bush (Crataegus monogyna), Oxfordshire, UK.
Larvae on webE. chrysorrhoea larvae on web on hawthorn bush (Crataegus monogyna), Oxfordshire, UK.Emma J. Durman
E. chrysorrhoea adult: set specimen of the brown-tail moth (female).
TitleAdult
CaptionE. chrysorrhoea adult: set specimen of the brown-tail moth (female).
CopyrightA.R. Pittaway
E. chrysorrhoea adult: set specimen of the brown-tail moth (female).
AdultE. chrysorrhoea adult: set specimen of the brown-tail moth (female). A.R. Pittaway

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Euproctis chrysorrhoea (Linnaeus, 1758)

Preferred Common Name

  • brown-tail moth

Other Scientific Names

  • Arctornis chrysorrhoea (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Bombyx phaeorrhoeus Donovan, 1801
  • Euproctis auriflua Esper
  • Euproctis chrysorrhoea xanthorrhoea Oberthür, 1916
  • Euproctis phaeorrhoea (Donovan, 1801)
  • Euproctis xanthorrhoea (Oberthür, 1916)
  • Liparis chrysorrhoea (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Nygmia phaeorrhoea (Donovan, 1801)
  • Phalaena chrysorrhoea Linnaeus, 1758
  • Phalaena phaeorrhoea (Donovan, 1801)
  • Porthesia chrysorrhoea (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Porthesia phaeorrhoea (Donovan, 1801)

International Common Names

  • English: moth, brown-tail
  • Spanish: gusano del saco; mariposa de cola dorada; mariposa de cola parda; oruga común; oruga de los frutales; oruga de rebujo; oruga de zurrón; oruga de zurrón o peluda; oruga peluda; oruga peluda de los frutales; portesia
  • French: bombyx chrysorrhée; bombyx cul brun; cul brun; cul d'ore; cul-brun; liparis; queue d'or
  • Russian: zlatoguzka

Local Common Names

  • Czechoslovakia (former): bekyne zlatoritná
  • Denmark: brunhale
  • Finland: kultahaentaekehraeaejae
  • Germany: Braunschwänziger Goldafter; Bunte Winterraupe; Dunkler Goldafter; Fleckraupe; Germeiner Goldafter; Gesellschaftsraupe; Goldafter; Goldafter, Braunschwänziger; Goldafter, Dunkler; Goldafter, Gemeiner; Goldafterschwanz; Goldafterspinner; Goldafterspinner, Heller; Goldschwanz; Grosse Nestraupe; Heller Goldafterspinner; Nestraupe, Grosse; Nestraupenspinner; Sammelraupe; Schwarze Winterraupe; Weissdornspinner; Weisser Obstgarten-Schadspinner; Winterraupe; Winterraupe, Bunte; Winterraupe, Schwarze
  • Hungary: aranyfarú szvövö; kis taplók; sárgafarú gyapjaslepke
  • Italy: bombice dal ventre bruno; bombice dal ventre dorato; bruco peloso degli alberi da frutto; farfalla cul dorato; farfalla cul ruggine; farfalla dal ventre bruno
  • Netherlands: Bastaardsatijnvlinder; Bruinstaart; Goudstaart
  • Sweden: äpplerödgump
  • Turkey: altin kicli kelebek

EPPO code

  • EUPRCH (Euproctis chrysorrhoea)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Erebidae
  •                             Genus: Euproctis
  •                                 Species: Euproctis chrysorrhoea

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentStolyarov, 1970
ArmeniaPresentDavytan et al., 1986; EPPO, 2014
AzerbaijanPresentMamedov, 1988; EPPO, 2014
ChinaRestricted distributionYou et al., 1983
-HeilongjiangPresentClausen, 1931
Georgia (Republic of)PresentBatiashvili, 1965; EPPO, 2014
IranPresentde and Freina Witt, 1987; EPPO, 2014
IsraelPresent
JapanAbsent, invalid recordSHIRAKI, 1952; EPPO, 2014
-HokkaidoPresentSHIRAKI, 1952
-HonshuPresentSHIRAKI, 1952
-KyushuPresentSHIRAKI, 1952
-ShikokuPresentSHIRAKI, 1952
Korea, Republic ofAbsent, invalid recordSHIRAKI, 1952; EPPO, 2014
SyriaPresentAchard, 1927; EPPO, 2014
TajikistanPresentBulbulshoev, 1989
TurkeyPresentde and Freina Witt, 1987; Eroglu, 1995; Karsholt and Razowski, 1996; EPPO, 2014

Africa

AlgeriaPresentEPPO, 2014
MauritaniaPresentEPPO, 2014
MoroccoPresentRungs, 1981; EPPO, 2014
TunisiaPresentEPPO, 2014

North America

CanadaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-New BrunswickPresentCovell, 1984; EPPO, 2014
-Nova ScotiaPresentCovell, 1984; EPPO, 2014
USARestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-ConnecticutPresentCovell, 1984; EPPO, 2014
-MainePresentCovell, 1984; EPPO, 2014
-MassachusettsPresentSouth, 1961; Covell, 1984; EPPO, 2014
-New HampshirePresentCovell, 1984; EPPO, 2014
-Rhode IslandPresentCovell, 1984; EPPO, 2014
-VermontPresentCovell, 1984; EPPO, 2014

Europe

AlbaniaAbsent, invalid recordKarsholt and Razowski, 1996; EPPO, 2014
AustriaRestricted distribution****Fischer-Colbrie, 1984; Karsholt and Razowski, 1996; EPPO, 2014
BelarusPresentMalyi and Ovsyanikova, 1978
BelgiumPresentKarsholt and Razowski, 1996; EPPO, 2014
BulgariaWidespread****Karsholt and Razowski, 1996; EPPO, 2014
CroatiaPresentEPPO, 2014
Czech RepublicWidespreadEPPO, 2014
Czechoslovakia (former)Widespread****Komárek and Tykac, 1952
DenmarkPresentKarsholt and Razowski, 1996; EPPO, 2014
EstoniaPresentKarsholt and Razowski, 1996
FranceRestricted distributionHerbulot, 1971; Karsholt and Razowski, 1996; EPPO, 2014
-CorsicaPresentKarsholt and Razowski, 1996; EPPO, 2014
GermanyWidespread****Forster and Wohlfahrt, 1960; Sauer, 1986; Karsholt and Razowski, 1996; EPPO, 2014
GreecePresentGeorgevitis, 1979; Karsholt and Razowski, 1996; EPPO, 2014
HungaryWidespread****Csoka, 1996; Karsholt and Razowski, 1996; EPPO, 2014
ItalyWidespreadNovakovic et al., 1989; Karsholt and Razowski, 1996; EPPO, 2014
-SardiniaPresentDelrio and Luciano, 1985; Karsholt and Razowski, 1996; EPPO, 2014
-SicilyPresentKarsholt and Razowski, 1996
LatviaPresentKarsholt and Razowski, 1996; EPPO, 2014
LithuaniaPresentKarsholt and Razowski, 1996
LuxembourgPresentKarsholt and Razowski, 1996
MacedoniaPresentEPPO, 2014
MaltaPresentKarsholt and Razowski, 1996
MoldovaPresentEPPO, 2014
NetherlandsPresentKarsholt and Razowski, 1996; EPPO, 2014
NorwayAbsent, invalid recordEPPO, 2014
PolandPresentLipa and Kolk, 1995; Karsholt and Razowski, 1996; EPPO, 2014
PortugalWidespreadKarsholt and Razowski, 1996; EPPO, 2014
RomaniaPresentPopescu-Gorj, 1964; Karsholt and Razowski, 1996; EPPO, 2014
Russian FederationRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-Russia (Europe)Restricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-Russian Far EastRestricted distributionSHIRAKI, 1952
SerbiaPresentEPPO, 2014
SlovakiaPresentKarsholt and Razowski, 1996; EPPO, 2014
SpainPresentGómez Bustillo, 1979; EPPO, 2014
SwedenRestricted distribution****Barrett, 1895; Karsholt and Razowski, 1996; EPPO, 2014
SwitzerlandWidespread****Vorbrodt and Müller-Rutz, 1911; EPPO, 2014
UKRestricted distribution****Barrett, 1895; South, 1961; Heath and Emmet, 1983; EPPO, 2014
-England and WalesRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
UkrainePresentEfetov and Budashkin, 1990; EPPO, 2014
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentKarsholt and Razowski, 1996

Oceania

Papua New GuineaPresent

Growth Stages

Top of page Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / webbing

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Agria mamillata Parasite Larvae
Alsomyia nidicola Parasite Larvae
Aprostocetus xanthopus Parasite
Austrophorocera grandis Parasite Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen Larvae
Baumhaueria goniaeformis Parasite Larvae
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen
Blondelia nigripes Parasite Larvae New England fruit trees
Blondelia nigripes Parasite Larvae
Borelinaviruseuproctis Pathogen Larvae
Brachymeria lasus Parasite
Calosoma sycophanta Predator Larvae Canada forest trees
Carabus auratus Predator Larvae USA ornamental woody plants
Carcelia bombylans Parasite Larvae
Carcelia laxifrons Parasite Larvae
Carcelia rasa Parasite Larvae
Compsilura concinnata Parasite Larvae Canada; USA forest trees; ornamental woody plants
cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses Pathogen Larvae
Dolichogenidea lacteicolor Parasite Larvae Canada; USA forest trees; fruit trees
Dolichogenidea laevigata Parasite Larvae
Erycilla ferruginea Parasite Larvae USA fruit trees
Eurytoma verticillata Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Exorista fasciata Parasite Larvae
Exorista larvarum Parasite Larvae USA ornamental woody plants
Exorista rossica Parasite Kara and Alaoglu, 2001
Exorista segregata Parasite Larvae
Glyptapanteles inclusus Parasite Larvae
Hexamermis albicans Parasite Larvae Nikdel et al., 2011
Huebneria affinis Parasite Larvae
Lecanicillium lecanii Pathogen
Masicera sphingivora Parasite Larvae
Meteorus versicolor Parasite Larvae Canada forest trees
Monodontomerus aereus Parasite USA ornamental woody plants
Nilea innoxia Parasite Larvae
Nosema kovacevici Pathogen Larvae
Nucleopolyhedrosis virus Pathogen
Paecilomyces farinosus Pathogen
Pales pavida Parasite Larvae
Palesisa nudioculata Parasite Larvae
Peleteria rubescens Parasite Larvae
Phryxe magnicornis Parasite Larvae
Phryxe vulgaris Parasite Larvae
Pimpla contemplator Parasite
Pimpla hypochondriaca Parasite Pupae
Pleistophora carpocapsae Pathogen Larvae
Sarcophaga uliginosa Parasite
Scambus brevicornis Parasite Pupae
Senometopia excisa Parasite Larvae
Sturmia bella Parasite Larvae
Tachina nupta Parasite Larvae
Tachina praeceps Parasite Larvae
Telenomus turkarkandas Parasite
Trichogramma Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma buluti Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma dendrolimi Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma kilinceri Parasite Eggs
Trichomalopsis hemipterus Parasite USA fruit trees
Trichomalopsis peregrinus Parasite Larvae
Zenillia libatrix Parasite Larvae

References

Top of page

Achard E, 1927. Notes on the use of four insecticides. Damascus, Syria: Ministry of Agriculture.

Avramenko ID; Prokopenko NI; Mezentsev AI; Kucheryavenko VI; Minyalo VG, 1981. The effect of insect pests on the formation and productivity of oak stands. In: Aukshtikal'nene AM, ed. Noveshie dostizheniya lesno entomologii (po materialam USh s"ezda VEO, Vil'nyus, 9-13 oktyabrya 1979 g.) Institut Zoologii i Parazitologii Akademii Nauk Litovsko SSR Vilnius USSR, 4-6

Barrett CG, 1895. The Lepidoptera of the British Islands (illus. edn). Vol. 2. London, UK: L. Reeve and Co.

Batiashvili ID, 1965. Pests of continental and subtropical fruit crops. 2nd edn. Tiblisi, Georgia: Izdat. Ganatleba.

Bin F; Colazza S; Currado I; Longo S; Scaramozzino PL; Tiberi R, 1988. Egg mass characteristics of brown tail moth and attack strategy of an egg parasitoid. In: Gupta V K, ed. Advances in Parasitic Hymenoptera Research: Proceedings of the II Conference on the Taxonomy and Biology of Parasitic Hymenoptera. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 379-382.

Bulbulshoev T, 1989. Pathogenic properties of crystalliform bacilli, isolated from insects of the Western Pamir. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Tadzhikskoi SSR, Biologicheskikh Nauk, No. 2:59-63; 12 ref.

Bulut H; Kilincer N, 1989. Investigations on species of Trichogramma spp. (Hym.: Trichogrammatidae), egg parasitoids of important lepidopterous pests of fruit trees and their distribution in Ankara. Bitki Koruma Bulteni, 29(1-2):19-46

Canada Agriculture, 1971. Biological control programmes against insects and weeds in Canada 1959-1968. Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control, Technical Communication no. 4: 266 pp.

Carter DJ, 1984. Pest Lepidoptera of Europe, with special reference to the British Isles. Series Entomologica, Volume 31.

CIE, 1976. Distribution Maps of Pests, Map No. 362. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Clausen CP, 1931. Insects injurious to agriculture in Japan. Circular - United States Department of Agriculture, 168:1-115.

Clausen CP, 1978. Introduced parasites and predators of arthropod pests and weeds: A world review, Part 1. Parasites and predators introduced against arthropod pests. Agri. Res. Serv. USDA, Agriculture Handbook No 480, 75-77.

Covell CV Jr, 1984. A Field Guide to the Moths of Eastern North America. Boston, USA: Houghton Mifflin Co.

Csoka G, 1996. Drought years - increasing damage by insect pests in Hungarian forests. Novenyvedelem, 32(11):545-551.

Davytan LT; Grigoryan EG; Burov VN, 1986. Controlling the leaf-feeding pest complex. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 9:35

Delrio G; Luciano P, 1985. The parasites and predators of Euproctis chrysorrhoea L. in Sardinia (preliminary note). Atti XIV Congresso Nazionale Italiano di Entomologia sotto gli auspici dell'Accademia Nazionale Italiana di Entomologia, della Societa Entomologica Italiana e della International Union of Biological Sciences. Palermo - Erice - Bagheria, 28 maggio-1 giugno 1985. Palermo, Italy: Accademia Nazionale Italiano di Entomologia, 825-832

Dobeneck A, 1899. Caterpillars of the Butterflies, Hawkmoths and Bombycids of the Central European Faunal Region. Stuttgart, Germany: Eugen Ulmer Verlag.

Efetov KA; Budashkin YuI, 1990. Macrolepidoptera of the Crimea. Simferopol, Russia: Tauria, 110 pp.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Eroglu M, 1990. Investigations on relations between Meteorus versicolor (Wesm.) (Hym., Braconidae) and Euproctis chrysorrhoea (L.) (Lep., Lymantriidae). Proceedings of the Second Turkish National Congress of Biological Control. Izmir, Turkey: Ege Universitesi, 73-81

Eroglu M, 1995. Investigations on the development and efficacy of Compsilura concinnata (Meigen) (Diptera, Tachinidae) on Euproctis chrysorrhoea (L.) (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae). Tu^umlaut~rkiye Entomoloji Dergisi, 19(3):169-176; 18 ref.

Eversmann E, 1844. Lepidopteran Fauna of the Volga-Urals Region. Kasani, Russia: Typis Universitatis.

Farahbakhsh G, 1961. A Checklist of Economically Important Insects and other Enemies of Plants and Agricultural Products in Iran. Tehran, Iran: Department of Plant Protection, Ministry of Agriculture.

Fischer-Colbrie P, 1984. Defoliation of deciduous trees - lepidopterous larvae as causal agents. Pflanzenarzt, 37(10):154-157

Forster W; Wohlfahrt TA, 1960. The Lepidoptera of Central Europe. Vol. 3. Stuttgart, Germany: Franckh'sche Verlagshandlung.

Freina JJ de; Witt TJ, 1987. The Bombycids and Sphingids of the Western Palaearctic. Vol. 1. Munich, Germany: Edition Forschung und Wissenschaft Verlag.

Georgevitis RP, 1979. Comparison of results in the control of Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff. with Dimilin, Decis, Bactospeine and Thuricide HP. Anakoinoseis Idrumaton Dasikon Ereunon, 7(1):7-34

Gómez Bustillo MR, 1979. Lepidoptera of the Iberian Peninsula IV. Heterocera II. Madrid, Spain: Ministerio de Agricultura.

Heath J; Emmet AM, ed. , 1979. The Moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland. Volume 9. Sphingidae - Noctuidae Noctuinp and Hadeninp. London, UK: Curwen Books, 288 pp.

Herbulot C, 1971. Atlas des Lépidoptères de France, Belgique, Suisse, Italie du Nord. II Hétérocères. Paris, France: Boubeé.

Kara K; Alaoglu Ö, 2001. Some new host records of Tachinidae (Diptera) from Turkey. Studia Dipterologica, 8(1):349-351.

Karsholt O; Razowski J, 1996. The Lepidoptera of Europe: a distributional checklist. Stenstrup, Denmark: Apollo Books, 380 pp.

Komárek J; Tykac J, 1952. Atlas of Lepidoptera. Prague, Czechoslovakia: Melantrich.

Kuteev FS; Kondakova MV, 1987. Against leaf-eating pests of oak. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), No.10:29

Leskó K, 1984. Environment-friendly control measures against Euproctis chrysorrhoea.. Erdészeti Kutatások, 76-77:315-320.

Lesko K, 1986. Increment loss of pedunculate oak [Quercus robur] stands of Ormansag [Hungary] in the years of damage by Lymantria dispar and Euproctis chrysorrhoea and in subsequent periods. Erdeszeti Kutatasok, 78:369-372

Lipa JJ; Kolk A, 1995. The recent situation of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) and other lymantriids in Poland. Bulletin OEPP, 25(4):623-629; 38 ref.

Longo S, 1989. Relieves on activity of Telenomus turkarkandas (Szabo') (Hym.: Scelionidae), an egg parasite of Euproctis chrysorrhoea (L.) (Lep.: Lymantriidae) in Sicily. Phytophaga (Palermo), No. 3:61-72; 5 ref.

Malyi LP; Ovsyanikova TYu, 1978. The susceptibility of larvae of Euproctis chrysorrhoea to dendrobacillin. Lesovedenie, 2:73-75.

Mamedov ZM, 1988. Parasitoids of the brown-tail moth (Euproctis chrysorrhoea L.) and the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.). in orchards of Azerbaidzhan. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Azerbaidzhanskoi SSR, Biologicheskikh Nauk, 4:75-77

Mietkiewski R, 1984. The possibility of using selected species of fungi for the control of larvae of the brown-tail (Euproctis chrysorrhoea L.). Roczniki Nauk Rolniczych, E (Ochrona Roslin), 14(1-2):102-111

Nastase I, 1973. Biology and ecology of Euproctis chrysorrhoea on the basis of observations in Moldavia. Revista Padurilor, 88(7):384-386.

Nikdel M; Kaiser H; Niknam G, 2011. First record of Hexamermis cf. albicans (Siebold, 1848) (Nematoda: Mermithidae) infecting Lepidopteran larvae from Iran. Nematologia Mediterranea, 39(1):81-83. http://www.edizioniets.com

Novakovic T; Bakic J; Agolli B, 1989. Allergic skin lesions due to immigration of the adults of the brown-tail moth (Euproctis chrysorrhoea Linne) into the new biotopes along the Adriatic littoral. Periodicum Biologorum, 91(1):71-72

Popescu-Gorj A, 1964. Catalogue of the Lepidoptera collection of "Prof. A. Ostrogovich" in the Natural History Museum "Grigore Antipa" Bucarest. Bucarest, Romania: Musée d'Histoire Naturelle "Gr. Antipa".

Purrini K, 1979. On the natural diseases of the gold-tail moth Euproctis chrysorrhoea L. (Lep., Lymantriidae) in Bavaria, 1977. Anzeiger für Schadlingskunde Pflanzenschutz Umweltschutz, 52(4):56-58

Rungs CE, 1981. Catalogue raisonné des Lépidoptères du Maroc Vol. 2. Rabat, Morocco. [Reprinted from Trav. Inst. scient. chérif., Série Zool., 40:223-583.]

Sauer F, 1986. Identifying Native Moths via Colour Photos. 4th edn. Karlsfeld, Germany: Fauna Verlag.

Schaefer PW, 1975. Population ecology of the browntail moth (Euproctis chrysorrhoea L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) in North America. Dissertation Abstracts International, B., 36(3):1058-1059.

Semakov VV, 1990. Effectiveness of using extracts of coniferous vegetation in the protection of plants from agricultural pests. Vestnik Sel'skokhozyaistvennoi Nauki (Moskva), 11:142-144

SHIRAKI T, 1952. Catalogue of injurious Insects in Japan (exclusive of Animal Parasites). Volumes I-VII. Prelim. Stud. econ. sci. Sect. nat. Resources Div. G. H. Q. Allied Powers, 71. Tokyo, 47, 128, 162, 167, 126, 82; 130 pp.

Sidor C, 1979. The role of insect pathogenic microorganisms in environmental protection. Mikrobiologija, 16(2):173-186

South R, 1961. The Moths of the British Isles Vol. 1. 4th edn. London, UK: Frederick Warne & Co Ltd.

Speight MR; Kelly PM; Sterling PH; Entwistle PF, 1992. Field application of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus against the brown-tail moth, Euproctis chrysorrhoea (L.) (Lep., Lymantriidae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 113(3):295-306

Stokoe WJ; Stovin GHT, 1958. The Caterpillars of British Moths Vol. 1. London, UK: Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd.

Stolyarov MV, 1970. The red spider mite in northern Afghanistan. Zashchita Rastenii, 15(8):53-54

Tkachev VM, 1986. Protection of apple. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 5:24-25.

Vorbrodt K; Müller-Rutz J, 1911. Die Schmetterlinge der Schweiz. [The Lepidoptera of Switzerland.] Vol. 1. Bern, Switzerland: K. J. Wyss Verlag.

You LS; Xiong SL; Cao KC, 1983. New records of Apanteles Forster (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from China. Acta Entomologica Sinica, 26(4):469

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map