Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Acacia mangium
(brown salwood)

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Datasheet

Acacia mangium (brown salwood)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Acacia mangium
  • Preferred Common Name
  • brown salwood
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Introduced A. mangium has been found to be associated with invasion events in Africa, Western Australia, American Samoa, Chuuk (Federated States of Micronesia), Sabah (Malaysia) and Bangladesh (

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
A natural stand in Papua New Guinea.
TitleMature tree
CaptionA natural stand in Papua New Guinea.
CopyrightMaurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products
A natural stand in Papua New Guinea.
Mature treeA natural stand in Papua New Guinea.Maurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products
Kalimantan, Indonesia.
TitlePlantation
CaptionKalimantan, Indonesia.
CopyrightStephen Midgley/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Kalimantan, Indonesia.
PlantationKalimantan, Indonesia.Stephen Midgley/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Mission Beach, Queensland, Australia.
TitleYoung tree
CaptionMission Beach, Queensland, Australia.
CopyrightMaurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products
Mission Beach, Queensland, Australia.
Young treeMission Beach, Queensland, Australia.Maurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products
TitleBark
Caption
CopyrightMaurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products
BarkMaurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products
TitleInflorescence
Caption
CopyrightMaurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products
InflorescenceMaurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products
TitleFruit
Caption
CopyrightMaurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products
FruitMaurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products
TitleSeed and fruit
Caption
CopyrightMaurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products
Seed and fruitMaurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products
1. habit of young tree
2. flowering twig
3. pods
TitleLine artwork
Caption1. habit of young tree 2. flowering twig 3. pods
Copyright©PROSEA Foundation
1. habit of young tree
2. flowering twig
3. pods
Line artwork1. habit of young tree 2. flowering twig 3. pods©PROSEA Foundation

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Acacia mangium Willd.

Preferred Common Name

  • brown salwood

Other Scientific Names

  • Racosperma mangium (Willd.) Pedley

Local Common Names

  • Australia/Lord Howe Is.: black wattle; hickory wattle; mangium
  • Indonesia: mangge hutan; Sabah salwood; tange hutan
  • Papua New Guinea: biar
  • Thailand: krathin thepha

EPPO code

  • ACAMG (Acacia mangium)

Trade name

  • brown salwood

Summary of Invasiveness

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Introduced A. mangium has been found to be associated with invasion events in Africa, Western Australia, American Samoa, Chuuk (Federated States of Micronesia), Sabah (Malaysia) and Bangladesh (Haysom and Murphy, 2003). It is also recorded as invasive in Brazil (Instituto Horus, 2011).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Mimosoideae
  •                                 Genus: Acacia
  •                                     Species: Acacia mangium

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page As currently defined Acacia (family Fabaceae, subfamily Mimosoideae) represents a cosmopolitan genus of 1200-1300 species contained in three subgenera: subgenus Acacia, subgenus Aculeiferum and subgenus Phyllodinae (Maslin, 1995). Acacia mangium is in subgenus Phyllodinae, a group containing in excess of 900 species (Maslin and McDonald, 1996). Within subgenus Phyllodinae the species are grouped into seven sections with A. mangium assigned to section Juliflorae (235 species), a group characterized by having flowers in elongated spikes and phyllodes with numerous, often anastomosing, longitudinal nerves.

Pedley (1986) proposed a classification in which Acacia was formally subdivided into three genera, namely Acacia, Senegalia and Racosperma. Most botanists concerned with this group have not adopted Pedley's 1986 classification; however, there are citations for Racosperma mangium in use (Khasa et al., 1995).

This acacia was originally described as Mangium montanum Rumph. in Herbarium Amboinense 3:123, t.81 (1750) but transferred to Acacia by C.L. Willdenow in Sp. Plant 4: 1053 (1806). The specific name is an allusion to Rumphius' observation that this tree resembled 'mangge' or mangroves in Indonesia.

A. mangium may be confused with A. holosericea and A. neurocarpa but can be most readily distinguished by its arborescent habit, glabrous phyllodes and branchlets, white to cream flower spikes and seed with an orange aril (Maslin and McDonald, 1996). A. holosericea and A. neurocarpa occur naturally as shrubs or small trees on drier sites.

Description

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General

A. mangium is a large tree, to 30 m tall, with a straight bole, which may be over half the total tree height. Trees with a diameter over 50 cm are rare. It may be reduced to a small tree or large shrub of 7-10 m on adverse sites. The bark surface is rough, furrowed longitudinally, and varies in colour from pale grey-brown to brown. The lower bole is sometimes fluted.
A detailed botanical description is provided by Pedley (1975).

Foliage

Borne on very acutely angled, glabrous and stout branchlets, the mature phyllodes of A. mangium are very large, normally 11-27 cm long and 3-10 cm broad. They are dark green, glabrous on a glabrous pulvinus 0.6-1 cm long. The phyllodes are characterized by four (rarely three or five) main longitudinal nerves, basally confluent but distinct from lower margin, minor nerves strongly anastomosing to form a prominent reticulum (Maslin and McDonald, 1996).

Inflorescences, flowers and fruits

The whitish (or cream) flowers are in rather loose spikes 5-12 cm long on peduncles 0.6-1 cm long, singly or in pairs in the upper axils. The seed pods are linear, tightly coiled when ripe, sometimes tightly spirally coiled, slightly woody, 7-8 cm long and 0.3-0.5 cm wide. The seeds are black and shiny, longitudinal, ovate to oblong 3-5 x 2-3 mm with a yellow or bright orange (rarely red) funicle folded to form an oily, fleshy aril beneath the seed.

Phenology

A. mangium is a fast-growing, evergreen species. It is able to grow throughout the year if conditions are suitable. In Thailand, it has been observed that growth appears to slow down or cease in response to the combination of low rainfall and cool temperatures in January-February. Trees start to grow actively again in April before the start of the wet season (Atipanumpai, 1989).

Flowering phenology differs throughout its natural and planted range. In its natural habitat, flowers are present during February to May in Australia and the seed matures in October-December (Sedgley et al., 1992). Farther north the fruits mature earlier with seed available from July in Indonesia, and late September in Papua New Guinea (Skelton, 1987; Turnbull et al., 1983).

As an exotic, the normal flowering cycle may be disrupted and flowering can occur throughout the year; however, a distinct peak is usually discernible (Awang and Taylor, 1993). The peak is reported to be June-July in Peninsular Malaysia (Zakaria and Awang, 1991), January in Sabah (Sedgley et al., 1992), October-November in Taiwan (Kiang et al., 1989) and September in Thailand (Kijkar, 1992). Mature fruits occur 3-4 months after flowering.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Planted Reference Notes

Africa

BeninPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
Congo, Republic of thePresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
Côte d'IvoirePresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
KenyaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
MadagascarPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
ZimbabwePresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)

Asia

BangladeshPresentIntroducedInvasivePlantedHaysom and Murphy (2003)
ChinaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
-GuangdongPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
-GuangxiPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
-HainanPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
IndiaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
-KarnatakaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
-KeralaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
-MaharashtraPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
-OdishaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
-Tamil NaduPresentPlantedCABI Data Mining (Undated)
-Uttar PradeshPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
-West BengalPresentCABI (Undated a)
IndonesiaPresentPlantedCABI Data Mining (Undated)
-Irian JayaPresentCABI (Undated a)
-Maluku IslandsPresentCABI (Undated a)
-SumatraPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
LaosPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
MalaysiaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
-SabahPresentIntroducedInvasivePlantedHaysom and Murphy (2003)
-SarawakPresentPlantedCABI Data Mining (Undated)
PhilippinesPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
Sri LankaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
TaiwanPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
ThailandPresentPlantedCABI Data Mining (Undated)
VietnamPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)

North America

Costa RicaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
CubaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
PanamaPresentCABI Data Mining (Undated)
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-HawaiiPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroducedInvasiveHaysom and Murphy (2003)
AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-Northern TerritoryPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
-QueenslandPresentPlantedCABI Data Mining (Undated)
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasiveHaysom and Murphy (2003)
Cook IslandsPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveHaysom and Murphy (2003)Chuuk
FijiPresentPlantedCABI (Undated a)
Papua New GuineaPresentCABI (Undated a)

South America

BrazilPresentIntroducedInvasivePlantedInstituto Horus (2011)

History of Introduction and Spread

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Large-scale plantations have already been established in Indonesia and Malaysia for the production of paper pulp. Commercial planting of A. mangium in other Asian countries such as China, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam is increasing (Awang and Taylor, 1993). The species also has potential in parts of Africa and Central and South America.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
-1 -18 0 800

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 0 6
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 18 28
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 30 40
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 10 24

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration06number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall10004000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Boundary, barrier or support
  • Revegetation
  • Soil improvement

Fuels

  • Charcoal
  • Fuelwood

Human food and beverage

  • Honey/honey flora
  • Vegetable

Materials

  • Carved material
  • Fibre
  • Miscellaneous materials
  • Wood/timber

Wood Products

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Charcoal

Containers

  • Boxes
  • Crates

Furniture

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Beams
  • For heavy construction

Veneers

Wood-based materials

  • Fibreboard
  • Medium density fibreboard
  • Particleboard

Woodware

  • Brushes
  • Industrial and domestic woodware
  • Tool handles
  • Turnery

References

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Arisman H, 1996. A tree improvement program for a pulpwood plantation project in Sumatra, Indonesia. In: Rimbawanto A, Widyatmoko AYPBC, Suhaendi H, Furukoshi T, eds. Tropical Plantation Establishment: Improving Productivity through Genetic Practices. Proceedings International Seminar, 19-21 December 1996, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Yogyakarta: Forest Tree Improvement Research and Development Institute, Part IV, 20-26.

Arisman H; Havmoller P, 1994. Seed supply strategy for a pulpwood plantation project in southern Sumatra. In: Drysdale RM, John SET, Yapa AC, eds. Proceedings: International Symposium on Genetic Conservation and Production of Tropical Forest Tree Seed, 14-16 June 1993, Chiang Mai, Thailand. Saraburi, Thailand: ASEAN Canada Forest Tree Seed Centre, 225-228.

Atipanumpai L, 1989. Acacia mangium: studies on the genetic variation in ecological and physiological characteristics of a fast-growing plantation tree species. Acta Forestalia Fennica, No. 206, 92 pp.; 369 ref.

Banik RL; Mannan MA; Sharmila Das; Islam SAMN; Das S, 1995. Vegetative propagation of adult trees of acacia hybrid (Acacia auriculiformis X Acacia mangium). Bangladesh Journal of Forest Science, 24 (1): 74.

Bell TIW; Evo T, 1983. Fuelwood plantations and the Fijian village community. Fiji Pine Research Paper, Fiji Pine Commission/Fiji Forestry Department, No. 12:6 pp.

Bernhard-Reversat F; Diangana D; Tsatsa M, 1993. Biomasse, mineralomasse et productivité en plantation d' Acacia mangium et A. auriculiformis au Congo [Biomass, mineral content and productivity in an Acacia mangium and A. auriculiformis plantation in Congo]. Bois et Forêts des Tropiques, 238:35-44.

Bhaskar P; Subhash K, 1996. Micropropagation of Acacia mangium Willd. through nodal bud culture. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 34(6):590-591

Bleeker P, 1983. Soils of Papua New Guinea. Canberra, Australia: CSIRO and Australian National University Press.

Bon MC; Monteuuis O, 1996. Biotechnologies forestières au Sabah [Forest biotechnology in Sabah]. Bois et Forêts des Tropiques, 248:31-42.

Booth TH; ed, 1996. Matching trees and sites. Proceedings of an International Workshop held in Bangkok, Thailand, 27-30 March 1995. ACIAR Proceedings No. 63.

Bowen MR; Eusebio TV, 1981. Acacia mangium. Updated information on seed collection, handling and germination testing. FAO/UNDP-MAL/78/009, Forest Research Centre, Sabah, Malaysia Seed Series, No. 5.

Braza RD, 1995. Pinhole beetle infestation of Acacia mangium logs. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports, 13:18; 1 ref.

Braza RD, 1997. New insect pests of Acacia mangium in the Philippines. Forest, Farm, and Community Tree Research Reports, 2: 24-26.

Buford Briscoe C, 1995. Four Acacia species for acid soils. In: Evans DO; Szott, LT eds. Nitrogen Fixing Trees for Acid Soils. Proceedings of a Workshop sponsored by the Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association and Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza (CATIE), July 3-8, 1994, Turrialba, Costa Rica. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports, Special Issue, 265-271.

Butcher PA; Moran GF; Perkins HD, 1996. Genetic resources and domestication of Acacia mangium. In: Dieters MJ, Matheson AC, Nikles DG, Harwood CE, Walker SM, eds. Tree Improvement for Sustainable Tropical Forestry. Proceedings QFRI-IUFRO conference, Caloundra, Queensland, Australia, 27 October-1 November 1996. Gympie: Queensland Forestry Research Institute, 467-471.

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Clark NB; Balodis V; Fang GG; Wang JX, 1991. Pulping properties of tropical acacias. In: Turnbull JW, ed. Advances in Tropical Acacia Research. Proceedings of an International Workshop held in Bangkok, Thailand, 11-15 February 1991. ACIAR Proceedings No. 35, 138-144.

Cole TG; Yost RS; Kablan R; Olsen T, 1996. Growth potential of twelve Acacia species on acid soils in Hawaii. Forest Ecology and Management, 80(1-3):175-186; 19 ref.

Dart P; Umali-Garcia M; Almendras A, 1991. Role of symbiotic associations in nutrition of tropical acacias. ACIAR Proceedings Series Canberra, Australia; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, No. 35:13-19

dela Cruz RE; Umali-Garcia M, 1992. Nitrogen fixation and mycorrhizae in acacias on degraded grasslands. In: Awang K, Taylor DA, eds. Tropical Acacias in East Asia and the Pacific. Proceedings of a First meeting of COGREDA held in Phuket, Thailand. Bangkok, Thailand: Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Research, 59-71.

Doran JC; Gunn BV, 1987. Treatments to promote seed germination in Australian acacias. In: Turnbull JW, ed. Australian Acacias in Developing Countries. Proceedings of an International Workshop, Gympie, Qld., Australia, 4-7 August 1986. ACIAR Proceedings No 16:57-63

Doran JC; Skelton DJ, 1982. Acacia mangium seed collections for international provenance trials. Forest Genetic Resources Information, FAO, No. 11, 47-53; 1 pl.; 7 ref.

Doran JC; Turnbull JW, 1997. Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics. Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics., viii + 384 pp.; [refs].

Doran JC; Turnbull JW; Boland DJ; Gunn BV, 1983. Handbook on seeds of dry-zone acacias. A guide for collecting, extracting, cleaning, and storing the seed and for treatment to promote germination of dry-zone acacias. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organisation. 1983, viii + 92 pp.; 18 pl.; 8 pp. of ref.

Fisher RF, 1995. Amelioration of degraded rain forest soils by plantations of native trees. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 59(2):544-549; 32 ref.

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Gough DK; Bell RE; Ryan PA; Bragg CT, 1989. Drying and burning properties of the wood of some Australian tree species. In: Boland DJ, ed. Trees for the tropics. Growing Australian multipurpose trees and shrubs in Developing Countries. ACIAR-Monograph, No. 10, 177-186.

Guzman LC; Lawrence JH; Marler TE, 1997. Growth and development responses of three Acacia species to long-term light regimes. Journal of Sustainable Forestry, 4(1-2):119-130; 15 ref.

Harbard J; Sedgley M, 1994. Storage of Acacia mangium and A. auriculiformis pollen. In Drysdale RM, John SET, Yapa AC, eds. Proceedings: International Symposium on Genetic Conservation and Production of Tropical Forest Tree Seed, 14-16 June 1993, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 199-204; 10 ref.

Harwood CE, 1996. Recent developments in improvement strategy for tropical tree species. In: Rimbawanto A, Widyatmoko AYPBC, Suhaendi H, Furukoshi T, eds Tropical Plantation Establishment: Improving Productivity Through Genetic Practices. Proceedings international seminar, 19-21 December 1996, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Yogyakarta: Forest Tree Improvement Research and Development Institute, II 1-21.

Harwood CE; Williams ER, 1992. A review of provenance variation in growth of Acacia mangium. In: Carron LT, Aken KM, eds. Breeding Technologies for Tropical Acacias. Proceedings of an International Workshop held in Tawau, Sabah, Malaysia, 1-4 July 1991. ACIAR Proceedings No. 37:22-30.

Haysom K; Murphy S, 2003. The status of invasiveness of forest tree species outside their natural habitat: a global review and discussion paper. Rome, Italy: FAO. http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/006/J1583E/J1583E00.htm

Ho YF; Maznah O, 1995. Insect pests of Acacia mangium sawn timber. Journal of Tropical Forest Products, 1(2):113-116; 7 ref.

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Manubag J; Laureto B; Nicholls J; Cannon P, 1995. Acacia mangium response to nitrogen and phosphorous in the Philippines. In: Evans DO, Szott LT, eds. Nitrogen Fixing Trees for Acid Soils. Proceedings of a Workshop Sponsored by the Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association and Centro Agronomico Tropical de Investigacion y Ensenanza, July 3-8, 1994, Turrialba, Costa Rica. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports, Special Issue, 32-34.

Maslin BR, 1995. Systematics and phytogeography of Australian species of Acacia: an overview. IFA Newsletter, 36(2):2-5.

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Mead DJ; Miller RR, 1991. The establishment and tending of Acacia mangium. In:Turnbull JW, ed. Advances in Tropical Acacia Research. Proceedings of an International Workshop held in Bangkok, Thailand, 11-15 February 1991. ACIAR Proceedings No. 35, 116-122; 12 ref.

Mehrotra MD; Pandey PC; Chakrabarti K; Suresh Sharma; Hazra K, 1996. Root and heart rots in Acacia mangium plantations in India. Indian Forester, 122(2):155-160; 6 ref.

Moncur MW; Kleinschmidt G; Somerville D, 1991. The role of acacia and eucalypt plantations for honey production. ACIAR Proceedings Series, No. 35:123-127; 18 ref.

Monteuuis O, 1995. In vivo grafting and in vitro micrografting of Acacia mangium: impact of ortet age. Silvae Genetica, 44(4):190-193; 18 ref.

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