Euonymus fortunei (wintercreeper)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Biology and Ecology
- Latitude/Altitude Ranges
- Air Temperature
- Rainfall Regime
- Soil Tolerances
- Natural enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Pathway Vectors
- Impact Summary
- Environmental Impact
- Threatened Species
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Euonymus fortunei (Turcz.) Hand.-Mazz.
Preferred Common Name
Other Scientific Names
- Elaeodendron fortunei Turcz.
- Euonymus carrierei Vauvel
- Euonymus hederaceus Champ. ex Beth.
- Euonymus japonicus (Thunb.) var. acutus (Rehder)
- Euonymus japonicus var. chinensis Pamp. (1910)
- Euonymus kiautschovicus Loes.
- Euonymus patens Rehder
- Euonymus radicans (Miq.) Siebold ex Hand.-Mazz.
- Euonymus radicans var. acutus (Rehder) Rehder
- Euonymus wensiensis J.W. Ren & D.S. Yao (1996)
International Common Names
- English: Chinese spindle tree; climbing euonymus; gaiety; winter creeper
- Spanish: ebonimus
- French: fusain de fortune
- Chinese: fu fang tang
Local Common Names
- : purple leaf wintercreeper
- Germany: kletternder spindelstrauch; kriech-spindelstrauch; Spindelstrauch, Kletter-
- Japan: turu-masaki
- EUOFO (Euonymus fortunei)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Euonymus fortunei is an evergreen, shade-tolerant vine that can form a dense groundcover and also climbs. Native to Asia, from Japan to the Philippines, it has been widely used as an ornamental plant in temperate and sub-tropical regions around the world. Most reports of naturalization and invasion of E. fortunei are from eastern North America. It was introduced to the USA in the late 1800s or early 1900s. First reports of invasiveness did not appear until the late 1990s. It can outcompete other ground layer species for resources and when it climbs on trees it adds extra weight to the branches that can make them more susceptible to storm damage. It may also change soil chemistry and food webs. E. fortunei is proposed for listing as a regulated species in New York, USA.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Celastrales
- Family: Celastraceae
- Genus: Euonymus
- Species: Euonymus fortunei
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
E. fortunei (Turczaninow) Handel-Mazzett was first named in 1863, as Elaeodendron fortunei Turczaninow (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2013). Two varieties may occur in North America, Euonymus fortunei var. fortunei (Turcz.) Hand.-Maz and Euonymus fortunei var. radicans (Siebold ex Miq.) Rehder (ITIS, 2013). These varieties are not distinguished in other local floras (Zouhar, 2009). Dirr (1998) lists E. fortunei var. coloratus which is often listed as the cultivar 'Coloratus'. Some of the confusion about varieties and cultivars comes from E. fortunei’s tendency to easily produce new leaf colours, sizes and variegations:
"This is the most common and widespread species in the genus. It is also the most complex and polymorphic species in East, South, and Southeast Asia, and can be confused with Euonymus japonicus, E. theifolius, or E. vagans. Numerous taxa have been named within the E. fortunei complex but many of these refer to cultivated plants and are best treated as cultivars." (The Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2013).
Other synonyms for E. fortunei are reported by Nesom (2009), Flora of China Editorial Committee (2013) and ISSG (2013). Some of its common names depend on the cultivar. For example, 'Emerald 'n' Gold' is sometimes used as a common name but usually describes a cultivar.
DescriptionTop of page
E. fortunei grows as an evergreen, woody, clinging vine climbing to 12-22 m (40-70 ft) with the support of aerial roots, or it can form a dense groundcover or low shrub to 1 m tall (Hutchison, 2006).
The leaves are variable in colour and size. Leaves can be "dark green, green-white or green-gold variegation with some cultivars having purplish lower surfaces" (Hutchison, 2006). Leaves are "ovate (egg-shaped), 2.5-6 cm (1-2.5 in) long, 2.5-4.5 cm (1-1.75 in) wide, and thick with the base of the leaf tapering to the stalk. The leaf stalk (petiole) is 0.4-1 cm (0.13-0.38 in) long. The leaf margins are finely toothed and somewhat turned under or wavy. The blades are glossy with silvery or whitish veins. Leaves usually occur in pairs, but vigorous shoots may have sections with an alternate arrangement.
During harsh winters, E. fortunei may drop some or all of its leaves, leaving only the stems. The stems are stout, green and hairless when young becoming grey, slightly warty or corky and hairy with age, but may turn greenish-purple during severe cold. Small, greenish-yellow, inconspicuous flowers form at the ends of y-shaped stems in May to July. Each flower is 2-3 mm (0.1 inch) wide and has four petals" (Hutchison, 2006). The dangling paired or single fruits are pinkish to reddish, 0.5-1.0 cm (0.2-0.4 inch) long rounded capsules that mature in September to November and split to reveal orange to red fleshy-coated seeds (Miller et al., 2010).
Plant TypeTop of page Broadleaved
Vine / climber
DistributionTop of page
E. fortunei is native to China where it is widespread (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2013). It is also native to Japan, Taiwan, Korea, India, Indonesia, Laos, Thailand, Myanmar, Philippines, and Vietnam (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013).
E. fortunei is cultivated in Europe, North America, South America and Oceania (Teillier et al., 2003; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2013) but there are relatively few cases where it has been reported as naturalized except in North America.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|China||Present||CABI (Undated)||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Anhui||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2013)|
|-Fujian||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2013)|
|-Gansu||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2013)|
|-Guangdong||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2013)|
|-Guangxi||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2013)|
|-Guizhou||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2013)|
|-Hainan||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2013)|
|-Hebei||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2013)|
|-Henan||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2013)|
|-Hubei||Present||Native||Bartholemew et al. (1983); Flora of China Editorial Committee (2013)|
|-Hunan||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2013)|
|-Jiangsu||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2013)|
|-Jiangxi||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2013)|
|-Liaoning||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2013)|
|-Qinghai||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2013)|
|-Shaanxi||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2013)|
|-Shandong||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2013)|
|-Shanxi||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2013)|
|-Sichuan||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2013)|
|-Xinjiang||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2013)|
|-Yunnan||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2013)|
|-Zhejiang||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2013)|
|Hong Kong||Present||1867||Native||Royal Botanic Gardens Kew (2013)||Victoria Peak|
|India||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2013)|
|Indonesia||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2013)|
|Japan||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2013)|
|-Hokkaido||Present, Widespread||Native||Ohwi (1965)|
|-Honshu||Present, Widespread||Native||Ohwi (1965)|
|-Kyushu||Present, Widespread||Native||Ohwi (1965); GBIF (2013)|
|-Shikoku||Present, Widespread||Native||Ohwi (1965)|
|Laos||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2013)|
|Myanmar||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2013); Kress et al. (2003)|
|Pakistan||Present||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2013)|
|Philippines||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2013)|
|South Korea||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2013)|
|Taiwan||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2013)|
|Vietnam||Present||Native||Flora of China Editorial Committee (2013)|
|Denmark||Present, Only in captivity/cultivation||1989||Introduced||GBIF (2013)||University of Copenhagen Arboretum|
|France||Present||Introduced||Tela Botanica (2013); Marco et al. (2010)||Southwestern France|
|Poland||Present, Only in captivity/cultivation||1996||Introduced||GBIF (2013)|
|Canada||Present||CABI (Undated)||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-British Columbia||Present, Only in captivity/cultivation||1956||Introduced||GBIF (2013)||University of British Columbia Botanical Garden|
|-Ontario||Present, Only in captivity/cultivation||1991||Introduced||DiTomaso and Healy (2003); Catling (1997); USDA-NRCS (2013)||Royal Botanical Gardens, Hamilton|
|United States||Present||CABI (Undated)||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Alabama||Present||Introduced||USDA-NRCS (2013); EDDMapS (2013)|
|-Arkansas||Present, Localized||Introduced||Zouhar (2009); USDA-NRCS (2013)|
|-Connecticut||Present||Introduced||USDA-NRCS (2013); Angelo (1990); EDDMapS (2013)|
|-District of Columbia||Present, Localized||Introduced||Invasive||Zouhar (2009); EDDMapS (2013); USDA-NRCS (2013)||Rock Creek Park|
|-Georgia||Present||Introduced||USDA-NRCS (2013); EDDMapS (2013)|
|-Illinois||Present, Localized||1990||Introduced||1978||Invasive||Zouhar (2009); EDDMapS (2013); USDA-NRCS (2013)|
|-Indiana||Present, Localized||Introduced||Invasive||Brothers and Spingarn (1992); EDDMapS (2013); USDA-NRCS (2013)|
|-Kansas||Present||Introduced||USDA-NRCS (2013); Freeman et al. (1998)|
|-Kentucky||Present||Introduced||USDA-NRCS (2013); Zouhar (2009); EDDMapS (2013)|
|-Maryland||Present, Localized||2003||Introduced||Invasive||Shelter et al. (2006); USDA-NRCS (2013)||Plummers Island|
|-Massachusetts||Present||Introduced||USDA-NRCS (2013); BONAP (2013); EDDMapS (2013)|
|-Mississippi||Present||Introduced||USDA-NRCS (2013); Denley et al. (2002); EDDMapS (2013)|
|-Missouri||Present, Localized||2001||Introduced||Invasive||EDDMapS (2013); Muhlenback (1979); USDA-NRCS (2013)|
|-Nebraska||Present, Localized||Introduced||Nesom (2009)|
|-New Jersey||Present, Widespread||2010||Introduced||Invasive||EDDMapS (2013); USDA-NRCS (2013)|
|-New York||Present, Localized||Introduced||Invasive||Yost et al. (1991); USDA-NRCS (2013)|
|-North Carolina||Present||Introduced||USDA-NRCS (2013); Zouhar (2009); EDDMapS (2013)|
|-Ohio||Present||Introduced||USDA-NRCS (2013); Zouhar (2009)|
|-Rhode Island||Present||Introduced||USDA-NRCS (2013)|
|-South Carolina||Present||Introduced||USDA-NRCS (2013)|
|-Tennessee||Present, Widespread||Introduced||Invasive||Zouhar (2009); USDA-NRCS (2013)|
|-Texas||Present||Introduced||USDA-NRCS (2013); Nesom (2009)|
|-Virginia||Present, Localized||Introduced||Invasive||EDDMapS (2013); Zouhar (2009); USDA-NRCS (2013)||Fairfax County|
|-Wisconsin||Present||Introduced||USDA-NRCS (2013); BONAP (2013)|
|New Zealand||Present, Localized||2003||Introduced||1955||New Zealand Plant Conservation Network (2013); GBIF (2013)||Claudlands Bush and Waikite Valley streamsides|
|Chile||Present, Only in captivity/cultivation||Introduced||Teillier et al. (2003)||Widely cultivated|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
In the 1860s, E. fortunei was recommended for ornamental use (Hogg, 1867). It was introduced to Europe around 1860 by Robert Fortune, who probably collected it from Japan (Bretschneider, 1898). In 1880, it was described in the Gardener’s Monthly and Horticulturist (Meehan, 1880). It was also reported to be an ornamental plant in 1884 (Fish, 1884). Further collections were made by E.H. Wilson and others into the 1990s (USDA, 1967; Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013).
E. fortunei was introduced in 1895 to Montana, USA, and was described as “useless” for horticulture. Specimens were sent from China to the US in 1906, 1908, and 1914 by Frank N. Myer (USDA-ARS, 2013). Other E. fortunei plants were received from England in 1915 and Japan in 1961 by the US Department of Agriculture Research Station in Beltsville, MD (USDA, 1967; USDA-ARS, 2013).
The Harvard University Herbarium (2013) in Massachusetts, USA, has herbarium specimens dating from 1845 collected by Robert Fortune in China, as well as one from Rhode Island, USA, from 1889 and from Florida, USA, from 1887 with a note that it was probably introduced to those states from China by George R. Hall. Specimens were received by the Arnold Arboretum from western China collected by E. H. Wilson in 1907 (Wilson, 1913).
In Canada, Catling (1997) reported E. fortunei as invasive in Ontario, Canada. Another specific location report of naturalization was on sanctuary lands of the Royal Botanical Garden in Ontario where the seeds were presumed to have come from cultivated plants at the botanical garden (Rothfels, 2004). Most other reports of naturalization and invasion begin in the late 1990s (Zouhar, 2009).
IntroductionsTop of page
|Introduced to||Introduced from||Year||Reason||Introduced by||Established in wild through||References||Notes|
|Natural reproduction||Continuous restocking|
|UK||Japan||1860||Horticulture (pathway cause)||No||Bretschneider (1898)|
|USA||Japan||1961||Horticulture (pathway cause)||Yes||USDA (1967)|
|USA||China||1906-1914||Horticulture (pathway cause)||Yes||USDA-ARS (2013)|
|USA||UK||1915||Horticulture (pathway cause)||Yes||USDA-ARS (2013)|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
E. fortunei is sold around the world as an ornamental plant. It is propagated primarily through cuttings but can be grown from seed (Dirr, 1998). It could be shipped as seeds, cuttings, or container plants.
HabitatTop of page
In Asia, E. fortunei is "Common in woodlands, scrub, and forests" (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2013).
In the USA, E. fortunei is found in a variety of forest types including floodplain, mesic, and dry-mesic forests dominated by deciduous hardwoods. Some of the specific forest communities in which it occurs include oak-hickory, sugar maple-American beech, and green ash-silver maple. It is occasionally found in more open field and scrub habitats (Zouhar, 2009).
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial – Managed||Disturbed areas||Present, no further details|
|Urban / peri-urban areas||Principal habitat||Productive/non-natural|
|Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-natural||Natural forests||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Natural forests||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Natural grasslands||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Scrub / shrublands||Principal habitat||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Scrub / shrublands||Principal habitat||Natural|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
E. fortunei has a chromosomal number of n=16, 2n=32.
Plants can reproduce vegetatively, forming rootlets at nodes where branches contact the ground (Zouhar, 2009).
Physiology and Phenology
E. fortunei is usually evergreen. It flowers from April to August and set fruits from July to December (Zouhar, 2009). It is shade tolerant, showing relatively efficient use of low light (Wang and Ma, 2004). Seeds of several species of Euonymus can be stored for more than 2 years (Wyman, 1953).
Fruiting occurs on upright, climbing stems. The flowering sections of the vines do not have aerial rootlets (Miller et al., 2010). Groundcover plants seldom fruit or flower because the vine diameter must reach approximately 1 cm to trigger flowering (Zouhar, 2009). Fruits often persist on plants into winter (Zouhar, 2009). Each dry capsule holds up to 4 seeds covered in a bright orange aril (Miller et al., 2010).
No reports of longevity in the wild were found, but in cultivation plants have been documented to live at least 15 years (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2013).
A record number of numerous wasps and flies were reported visiting the flowers in Michigan, USA, along with two cerambycid beetle species, Brachyleptura champlaini and Brachyleptura rubrica. The cerambycids were feeding on pollen and became "incapable of flight or coordinated movement" (Gosling, 1984).
ClimateTop of page
|Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year|
|Df - Continental climate, wet all year||Preferred||Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)|
Latitude/Altitude RangesTop of page
|Latitude North (°N)||Latitude South (°S)||Altitude Lower (m)||Altitude Upper (m)|
Air TemperatureTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit|
|Absolute minimum temperature (ºC)||-15|
|Mean annual temperature (ºC)||-9||33|
|Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC)||27||33|
|Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC)||-9||-1|
RainfallTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit||Description|
|Dry season duration||0||0||number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall|
|Mean annual rainfall||937||1363||mm; lower/upper limits|
Rainfall RegimeTop of page Bimodal
Soil TolerancesTop of page
Special soil tolerances
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
|Glomerella cingulata||Pathogen||Leaves/Stems||not specific|
|Phymatotrichopsis omnivora||Parasite||Roots||not specific|
|Pseudocercospora destructiva||Pathogen||Leaves||to genus|
|Pseudoidium euonymi-japonici||Pathogen||Leaves||to genus|
|Rhizobium radiobacter||Pathogen||Roots/Stems||not specific|
|Unaspis euonymi||Herbivore||Leaves||not specific|
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Vector Transmission (biotic)
Seeds are bird-dispersed (Zouhar, 2009).
Intentional introduction has primarily been as an ornamental plant. Plants have been introduced numerous times to the USA and Europe from their native range for plant breeding programs (Harvard University Herbarium, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013).
Notes on Natural Enemies
Unaspis euonymi (euonymus scale) causes leaf abscission, particularly when E. fortunei is drought-stressed. Infestations can be lethal. Cultivars ‘Vegetus’ and ‘Coloratus’ appear to be particularly susceptible. U. euonymi affects a variety of Euonymus species (Zouhar, 2009).
In the southwestern USA and northern Mexico, E. fortunei is very susceptible to Phymatotrichum omnivorum (Texas root rot), a parasitic root fungus that attacks several ornamental species (Zouhar, 2009).
A species of powdery mildew, Oidium euonymi-japonici [Pseudoidium euonymi-japonici], causes its leaves to yellow and drop off (Hutchison, 2006).
E. fortunei is also browsed by rabbits (Zouhar, 2009).
Pathway CausesTop of page
|Botanical gardens and zoos||Planted at Royal Botanical Garden, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada and at Longwood Gardens, Kennett Square||Yes||Longwood Gardens, 2012; Rothfels, 2004|
|Breeding and propagation||Numerous cultivars have been bred and propagated for commercial sale||Yes||Yes||Dirr, 1998|
|Escape from confinement or garden escape||Often naturalized close to plantings||Yes||Zouhar, 2009|
|Horticulture||Cultivars are sold at numerous retail nurseries in many countries as well as online||Yes||Yes||Amazon, 2013; ISSG, 2013|
|Internet sales||Plants are available for sale on numerous internet sites||Yes||ISSG, 2013|
|Nursery trade||Many nurseries stock the plant||Yes||Yes||ISSG, 2013|
|Ornamental purposes||Plants are sold for ornamental plantings||Yes||Yes||Dirr, 1998|
Pathway VectorsTop of page
Impact SummaryTop of page
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Impact on Habitat
E. fortunei is listed as one of the vines most likely to impact Illinois forests by the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources (1994).
The weight that this vine adds to tree branches can make them more susceptible to storm damage (Remaley, 2005).
Impact on Biodiversity
E. fortunei appears to alter soil communities in woodland affecting the growth of native plant species (Swedo et al., 2008; Smith and Reynolds, 2012). It forms a dense groundcover impacting habitat for state-listed imperilled plant, Trillium pusillum (Andre and Wait, 2006). It can also smother and kill trees (Schwegman, 1996).
Threatened SpeciesTop of page
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Has a broad native range
- Abundant in its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Pioneering in disturbed areas
- Tolerant of shade
- Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
- Reproduces asexually
- Has high genetic variability
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Threat to/ loss of endangered species
- Threat to/ loss of native species
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Competition - shading
- Competition - smothering
- Rapid growth
- Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
UsesTop of page
E. fortunei has long been cultivated as an ornamental plant in China and Japan.
A survey of nurseries in Georgia found that 124 nurseries of the 655 respondents sold E. fortunei with revenues estimated at $187,100/year (Stegelin, 2006).
Used as a medicinal plant in China, it contains dulcitol which has anti-cancer properties (Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, 2013).
Uses ListTop of page
- Botanical garden/zoo
- Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
- Potted plant
- Propagation material
- Seed trade
Detection and InspectionTop of page
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
Euonymus japonicus is more upright than E. fortunei, growing to 3 m tall, but is otherwise very similar in appearance (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2013). Euonymus theifolius has longer, narrower leaves (5-10 cm vs. 2-5.5 cm) and the flowers are usually in larger clusters of more than 7 flowers (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2013). Euonymus vagans is also more shrub-like growing only to 3 m, but otherwise its characteristics overlap with those of E. fortunei (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2013).
Although two varieties of E. fortunei are reported in North America, E. fortunei var. fortunei and E. fortunei var. radicans (Siebold ex Miq.) Rehder (Zouhar, 2009), no information could be found on how they are distinguished from the species.
Vinca minor and Vinca major may be confused with E. fortunei, but Vinca has purple, pinwheel shaped flowers and the leaf margins are smooth and slightly rolled under (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2013).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
E. fortunei is proposed as a regulated species in New York (New York Department of Environmental Conservation, 2013).
E. fortunei should be prevented from flowering and setting seed by clipping climbing stems (Schwegman, 1996). Care should be taken when disposing cut or pulled plants since stems can root (Zouhar, 2009).
Monitoring and surveillance (incl. remote sensing)
Since plants often escape from nearby plantings, monitor areas near plantings carefully.
Minimize disturbance where invasive plants are likely to establish (Zouhar, 2009).
Gaps in Knowledge/Research NeedsTop of page
There is relatively little information available on impacts of naturalized E. fortunei. It is not known what bird species disperse the seeds and how much dispersal is due to seeds or plant parts. Little information exists on whether it has naturalized on other continents.
ReferencesTop of page
Amazon, 2013. Wintercreeper. http://www.amazon.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss?url=search-alias%3Daps&field-keywords=wintercreeper
Andre CS; Wait DA, 2006. Ecology of three populations of the rare woodland perennial Trillium pusillum Michaux (Liliaceae) in southwestern Missouri. Missouriensis, 26:2-21.
Angelo R, 1990. Concord area trees and shrubs. Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Harvard University. http://www.ray-a.com/ConcordAreaTrees&Shrubs/
Bartholemew B; Boufford DE; Chang AL; Cheng Z; Dudley TR; He SA; Jin YX; Li QY; Luteyn JL; Spongberg SA; Sun SC; Tang YC; Wan JX; Ying TS, 1983. The 1980 Sino-American botanical expedition to western Hubei province, People's Republic of China. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum, 64(1):1-103.
Bender J, 2007. One of Kentucky's least wanted weeds: winter creeper. Kentucky Woodlands Magazine, 2(2). 10-11. http://www2.ca.uky.edu/forestryextension/KWM/Winter%20creeper.pdf
Bentham G, 1861. A description of the flowering plants and ferns of the island of Hong Kong. London, UK: Lovell Reave, 59 pp. http://eol.org/pages/392378/literature/bhl_title/116542
BONAP, 2013. BONAP's North American Plant Atlas (NAPA). The Biota of North America Program. http://bonap.net/napa
Bretschneider E, 1898. History of European plant discoveries in China. Reprint 2011. Hamburg, Germany: Severus Verlag.
Catling PM, 1997. The problem of invading alien trees and shrubs: some observations in Ontario and a Canadian checklist. Canadian Field Naturalist, 111:338-342.
Dirr MA, 1998. Manual of woody landscape plants: their identification, ornamental characteristics, culture, propagation and uses, Ed. 5. Champaign, Illinois, USA: Stipes Publishing L.L.C., xxxviii + 1187 pp.
DiTomaso JM; Healy EA, 2003. Aquatic and riparian weeds of the West [ed. by DiTomaso, J. M.\Healy, E. A.]. Oakland, USA: University of California, Agriculture and Natural Resources Communications Services - Publications, vi + 442 pp.
EDDMapS, 2013. Early detection and distribution mapping system. Georgia, USA: University of Georgia. https://www.eddmaps.org/
Everett TH, 1981. The New York botanical garden illustrated encyclopedia of horticulture, 4. New York, USA: Garland Publishing.
Fish DT, 1884. Cassell's popular gardening. London, UK: Cassell and Company, 380 pp
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2013. Flora of China web. Cambridge, USA: Harvard University Herbaria. http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/
Freeman CC; McGregor RL; Morse CA, 1998. Vascular plants new to Kansas. Sida, 18(2):593-604.
GBIF, 2013. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). http://data.gbif.org/species/
Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, 2013. Chinese and Thai medicinal plants specialized database. Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine; Khon Kaen University. http://gxsti01.vicp.net/English/Detail/5e04b297-9701-41a0-96a1-481bbb756081
Harvard University Herbaria and Libraries, 2013. Index of botanical specimens. USA: The President and Fellows of Harvard College, Harvard University. http://kiki.huh.harvard.edu/databases/specimen_search.php?herbarium=A&start=1&gen=Euonymus&family=&sp=fortunei&infra=&author=&year=&typestatus=&cltr=&collectornumber=&yearcollected=&loc=&substrate=&habitat=&host=&provenance=&barcode=
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07/02/2014 Original text by:
Sylvan Kaufman, Consultant, New Mexico, USA
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