Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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Vachellia macracantha
(porknut)

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Datasheet

Vachellia macracantha (porknut)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Vachellia macracantha
  • Preferred Common Name
  • porknut
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Vachellia macracantha is a thorny, deciduous shrub or tree that is cultivated as a fodder plant, for firewood and as ornamental in areas within and outside its native distribution range. It is considered to be...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Vachellia macracantha (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Seigler & Ebinger

Preferred Common Name

  • porknut

Other Scientific Names

  • Acacia cowellii (Britton & Rose) León
  • Acacia flexuosa Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
  • Acacia humboldtii Ham.
  • Acacia lutea (Mill.) Britton
  • Acacia macracantha Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
  • Acacia macracanthoides Bertero ex DC.
  • Acacia obtusa Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
  • Acacia pellacantha (Meyen) Vogel
  • Acacia platyacantha Schltdl.
  • Acacia punctata Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
  • Acacia subinermis Bertero ex DC.
  • Mimosa flexuosa (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Poir.
  • Mimosa flexuosa Benth.
  • Mimosa lutea Mill.
  • Mimosa macracantha (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Poir.
  • Mimosa obtusa Poir.
  • Poponax canescens Britton ex Britton & Killip
  • Poponax cowellii Britton & Rose
  • Poponax flexuosa (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Britton & Rose ex Britton & Killip
  • Poponax lutea Britton & Rose
  • Poponax macracantha (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Killip
  • Poponax macracanthoides (Bertero ex DC.) Britton & Rose
  • Vachellia lutea Speg.

International Common Names

  • English: long-spine acacia; park nut; wild tamarind
  • Spanish: acacia; algarobillo; aroma; tamarindo silvestre
  • French: acacia savane

Local Common Names

  • Argentina: aromita; tusca
  • Bolivia: espino; faique; huarango; kini; kiñi; sirado; sirado-sirao; th'ago; tusca
  • Colombia: aromo real
  • Cuba: guatapaná
  • Dominican Republic: cambrón; cambrona; carambomba
  • Haiti: carambouba
  • Lesser Antilles: acacia piquant; alabamba; black briar; briar; casha; cusha; kushar
  • Nicaragua: cuji
  • Peru: espino; huarango; tague
  • United States Virgin Islands: stink casa
  • Venezuela: cuji

EPPO code

  • ACAMA (Acacia macracantha)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Vachellia macracantha is a thorny, deciduous shrub or tree that is cultivated as a fodder plant, for firewood and as ornamental in areas within and outside its native distribution range. It is considered to be native to northern South America, the USA and the Caribbean, but its native distribution range is still uncertain. It has escaped from cultivation and can be found naturalized in disturbed sites, coastal areas and drylands, where it often grows as a weed forming dense thickets. The species also has the potential to modify soil nitrogen levels, with negative impacts on nutrient cycling and balances. It is listed as invasive in Cuba and Chile. 

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Mimosoideae
  •                                 Genus: Vachellia
  •                                     Species: Vachellia macracantha

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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V. macracantha, formerly Acacia macracantha, is one of around 1500 species grouped in the genus Acacia, one of the largest genera within the family Fabaceae. Acacia species (sensu lato) naturally occur in Australia, Asia, Africa and the Americas. A reclassification of the genus Acacia was proposed in 2003 and accepted in 2011, after a long and complex debate. In this new classification, the genus was split into five separate genera and now the generic name Acacia is reserved for those species native to Australia (about 900 species), while the African, Asian and American species are now grouped into the genera Vachellia, Senegalia, Acaciella and Mariosousa (Orchard and Maslin, 2005; Maslin, 2008, Thiele et al., 2011).

Throughout its geographic range, V. macracantha is morphologically highly variable and numerous varietal and specific names have been applied to the species. This taxon is also highly variable in the type and degree of pubescence on vegetative parts of the plant, ranging from glabrous to puberulent in most of Mexico and northern South America, densely pubescent in the Caribbean Islands, to densely lanate throughout much of Chile, Ecuador and Peru. Also, leaf and leaflet size vary extensively (Isely, 1973; Seigler and Ebinger, 1988; 2005; Ebinger et al., 2000; ILDIS, 2017; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017).

Description

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Small tree, the branchlets armed with small to large, solid, paired stipular spines, in youth pubescent to subglabrous, later subglabrous and prominently lenticellate. Leaves moderately large, bipinnate, the pinnae 8-60 pairs opposite on the rachis, many leaflets. Petiole about 1 cm long, pubescent, canaliculate above, bearing a longitudinally extended, crateriform gland slightly above the middle; rachis similar, gland-bearing only at terminal 1 to few rachial nodes; pinnae 2-3 cm long; leaflets linear or linear-oblong, mostly about 3 mm long and scarcely 1 mm wide, rounded or obtuse apically, obliquely rounded to subtruncate basally, glabrous or lightly pubescent, only the costa prominent; stipules modified as spines. Inflorescence of axillary, pedunculate heads, solitary or few-fasciculate; peduncles about 1 cm long; head orbicular, dense, less than 1 cm in diameter; floral bracts linear- spatulate, about 1 mm long. Flowers small; calyx funnelform, about 1 mm long, tomentulose apically; corolla tubular-funnelform, about 2 mm long, glabrous except on the prominent lobes; stamens free, about 3 mm long. Legume variable, lineal, reported up to 10 cm long and 12 mm wide, straight or somewhat curved, usually puberulent and glandular. Seeds 5.0-6.5 x 3.6-5.3 mm, smooth (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017).

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Tree
Woody

Distribution

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The native distribution range of V. macracantha is still uncertain. It is considered native to northern South America, the USA and the Caribbean, but some authors also list it as native to Mexico and northern Central America (IABIN, 2016; ILDIS, 2017; USDA-NRCS, 2017). It has been introduced into a range of different countries (see distribution table) and is considered invasive in Cuba and Chile.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

IraqPresentIntroducedILDIS (2017)

North America

AnguillaPresentNativeBroome et al. (2007)
Antigua and BarbudaPresentNativeBroome et al. (2007)
BahamasPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
BarbadosPresentNativeBroome et al. (2007)
BelizePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba
-Sint EustatiusPresentNativeBroome et al. (2007)
British Virgin IslandsPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
CubaPresentNative and IntroducedInvasiveOviedo Prieto et al. (2012); Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)Both native and introduced in the country
Dominican RepublicPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
GrenadaPresentNativeBroome et al. (2007)
GuadeloupePresentNativeBroome et al. (2007)
GuatemalaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
HaitiPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
HondurasPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
JamaicaPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
MartiniquePresentNativeBroome et al. (2007)
MexicoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)Campeche, Chiapas, Colima, Guerrero, Michoacán, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Veracruz
PanamaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2017)Cultivated
Puerto RicoPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNativeBroome et al. (2007)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
Turks and Caicos IslandsPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
United StatesPresentNativeCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2017)
-GeorgiaPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2017)
-New MexicoPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS (2017)

South America

ArgentinaPresentILDIS (2017)Status in the country not certain
BoliviaPresentILDIS (2017)Status in the country not certain
ChilePresentIntroducedInvasiveIABIN (2016); ILDIS (2017)Status in the country not certain
ColombiaPresentILDIS (2017)Status in the country not certain
EcuadorPresentILDIS (2017)Status in the country not certain
French GuianaPresentIntroducedFunk et al. (2007); ILDIS (2017)Status in the country not certain
GuyanaPresentIntroducedFunk et al. (2007); ILDIS (2017)Status in the country not certain
ParaguayPresentILDIS (2017)Status in the country not certain
PeruPresentILDIS (2017)Status in the country not certain
SurinamePresentILDIS (2017)Status in the country not certain
VenezuelaPresentFunk et al. (2007); ILDIS (2017)Status in the country not certain

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of new introductions and invasion by this species appears to be high, mostly in areas where domestic livestock (particularly cattle) is present and can disperse seeds. Peccaries are also potential seed dispersers across the landscape and into different habitats (Beck, 2005).

Habitat

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V. macracantha can be found growing in shrubby vegetation, successional fields, roadsides, thorn-scrub forests, dry forests, savannas, dry deciduous forests, coastal areas, disturbed areas and rocky slopes, at elevations from sea level up to 1700 m (Seigler and Ebinger, 1988; 2005).

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

There are several reports showing that V. macracantha can hybridize with V. cochliacantha and with V. pennatula, particularly in pastures and other disturbed habitats in Veracruz, Mexico (Ebinger and Seigler, 1987; 1992). It has been also suggested that V. macracantha may occasionally hybridize with various species of ant-acacia, particularly V. chiapensis (Janzen, 1974; Ebinger and Seigler, 1987; 1992; Seigler and Ebinger, 1995).

Reproductive Biology

V. macracantha is a monoecious species. Flowers are visited and pollinated by bees (Apidae: Nannotrigona testaceicornis), wasps (Chalcidae: Metadontia spp.) and flies (Syrphidae: Allograpia spp.) (Ruiz-Zapata and Kalin-Arroyo, 1978). Mating system analyses performed with plants sampled across Argentina have shown high levels of outcrossing and no biparental inbreeding for this species (Casiva et al., 2004).

Physiology and Phenology

In Mexico and Central America the species has been recorded flowering and fruiting during the rainy season, from May to January (Seigler and Ebinger, 1988; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017).

Associations

The larvae and pupae of the species Chileoptilia yaroella (Gracillariidae), Ithome tiaynai (Cosmopterigidae), Cyclophora nanaria [Cyclophora nanularia], Eupithecia yubitzae (Geometridae), Hemiargus ramon, Leptotes trigemmatus, Ministrymon azia (Lycaenidae) and Cydia largo (Tortricidae) have been reported feeding on flowers of V. macracantha in Chile (Vargas and Landry, 2005; Vargas and Parra, 2009).

As many other species within the Fabaceae, V. macracantha is a nitrogen-fixing species that nodulates frequently over its natural range and forms mycorrhizal associations.

Environmental Requirements

V. macracantha is adapted to grow in drylands and semiarid habitats, in tropical and subtropical regions, with mean annual rainfall ranging from 250 to 2000 mm and mean annual temperature between 15°C and 32°C (IABIN, 2016; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
30 35 0 1700

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 15 32

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall2502000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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V. macracantha spreads by seed. Seeds are dispersed by livestock that eat the pods and by human activity (Casiva et al., 2004; Randall, 2017). Peccaries can also disperse seeds over long distances (Beck, 2005).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Disturbanceoften naturalized along roadside and disturbed sites Yes Yes Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
Foragecultivated for fodder Yes Yes Seigler and Ebinger, 1988
Hedges and windbreaksused as ornamental and hedge plant for its thorns Yes Yes Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017
Medicinal useused in traditional Mexican medicine Yes Seigler and Ebinger, 1988

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Mailseeds are available online Yes Yes
Livestockdisperse seeds after eating pods Yes Yes Casiva et al., 2004

Environmental Impact

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V. macracantha is a thorny weedy species that grows forming dense thickets primarily in disturbed sites and dry habitats. It is also reported as a weed in agricultural lands (IABIN, 2016Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017Randall, 2017). Because V. macracantha is a nitrogen-fixing species, it has the potential to modify soil nitrogen levels, with negative impacts on nutrient balances and cycling in invaded areas. Consequently, in Cuba, it is considered a “habitat transformer” species (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - smothering
  • Hybridization
  • Rapid growth
  • Produces spines, thorns or burrs
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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V. macracantha is cultivated as a fodder plant and for firewood. In South America, it is often used as an auxiliary plant in timber plantations (Hanelt, 2001). In Mexico, its leaves and thorns are used in traditional medicine (Seigler and Ebinger, 1988; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017). It is also used as an ornamental and hedge plant (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017; Randall, 2017).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Amenity
  • Boundary, barrier or support

Fuels

  • Fuelwood

Ornamental

  • garden plant

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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V. macracantha looks similar to V. farnesiana; these two species have solid stipular spines. However, V. macracantha can be distinguished from V. farnesiana by its larger, multi-pinnular leaves (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017).

V. macracantha and Acacia aroma usually occur in sympatry and are morphologically very similar, with flowers grouped in globose inflorescences. The main difference between these two species is the length and shape of their thorny stipules. In A. aroma they are 0.80 ± 0.50 cm long (mean ± SD), conical and circular in cross section, while in V. macracantha they are 1.67 ± 0.79 cm long, laterally compressed and rhomboidal in cross section. No genetic differentiation has been detected between these species (Casiva et al., 2002; 2004).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

There is no information available for the mitigation or/and control of V. macracantha. However, herbicides containing 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and triclopyr have been recommended for the control of other Vachellia species that also behave as invaders (Weber, 2003).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1-1192.

Beck, H., 2005. Seed predation and dispersal by peccaries throughout the neotropics and its consequences: a review and synthesis. In: Seed fate: predation, dispersal and seedling establishment, [ed. by Forget, P. M., Lambert, J. E., Hulme, P. E., Vander Wall, S. B.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing. 77-115. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20053005236 doi: 10.1079/9780851998060.0077

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Casiva, P. V., Saidman, B. O., Vilardi, J. C., Cialdella, A. M., 2002. First comparative phenetic studies of Argentinean species of Acacia (Fabaceae), using morphometric, isozymal, and RAPD approaches. American Journal of Botany, 89(5), 843-853. doi: 10.3732/ajb.89.5.843

Casiva, P. V., Vilardi, J. C., Cialdella, A. M., Saidman, B. O., 2004. Mating system and population structure of Acacia aroma and A. macracantha (Fabaceae). American Journal of Botany, 91(1), 58-64. doi: 10.3732/ajb.91.1.58

Ebinger JE, Seigler DS, 1987. A new species of ant-acacia (Fabaceae) from Mexico. The Southwestern Naturalist, 32, 245-249.

Ebinger, J. E., Seigler, D. S., 1992. Ant-acacia hybrids of Mexico and Central America. Southwestern Naturalist, 37(4), 408-414. doi: 10.2307/3671793

Ebinger, J. E., Seigler, D. S., Clarke, H. D., 2000. Taxonomic revision of South American species of the genus Acacia subgenus Acacia (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae). Systematic Botany, 25(4), 588-617. doi: 10.2307/2666723

Funk, V., Hollowell, T., Berry, P., Kelloff, C., Alexander, S. N., 2007. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution 55, 584 pp.

Hanelt P, 2001. Mansfeld's Encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops (except ornamentals), Berlin, Germany: Springer.

IABIN, 2016. Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network. http://www.oas.org/en/sedi/dsd/iabin/

ILDIS, 2017. International Legume Database and Information Service: World Database of Legumes (version 10). Reading, UK: School of Plant Sciences, University of Reading.http://www.ildis.org/

Isely, D., 1973. Leguminosae of the United States. 1. Subfamily Mimosoideae. In: Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden , 25(1) . 1-152.

Janzen, D. H., 1974. Swollen-thorn Acacias of Central America. In: Smithsonian Contributions to Botany , (No.13) . 131 pp.

Maslin BR, 2008. Generic and subgeneric names in Acacia following retypification of the genus. Muelleria, 26(1), 7-9.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2017. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/

Orchard, A. E., Maslin, B. R., 2005. The case for conserving Acacia with a new type. Taxon, 54(2), 509-512. doi: 10.2307/25065384

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96

Randall, R. P., 2017. A global compendium of weeds, (Ed.3) [ed. by Randall, R. P.]. Perth, Australia: R. P. Randall.iii + 3653 pp.

Ruiz-Zapata T, Kalin-Arroyo MT, 1978. Plant reproductive ecology of a secondary deciduous tropical forest in Venezuela. Biotropica, 10, 221-230.

Seigler DS, Ebinger JE, 1988. Acacia macracantha, A. pennatula, and A. cochliacantha (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) species complexes in Mexico. Systematic Botany, 1, 7-15.

Seigler DS, Ebinger JE, 2005. New combinations in the genus Vachellia (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) from the New World. Phytologia, 87, 139-178.

Seigler, D. S., Ebinger, J. E., 1995. Taxonomic revision of the ant-acacias (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae, Acacia, series Gummiferae) of the New World. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 82(1), 117-138. doi: 10.2307/2399983

Thiele, K. R., Funk, V. A., Iwatsuki, K., Morat, P., Peng ChingI, Raven, P. H., Sarukhán, J., Seberg, O., 2011. The controversy over the retypification of Acacia Mill. with an Australian type: a pragmatic view. Taxon, 60(1), 194-198.

USDA-ARS, 2017. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

USDA-NRCS, 2017. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center.http://plants.usda.gov/

Vargas, H. A., Landry, B., 2005. A new genus and species of Gracillariidae (Lepidoptera) feeding on flowers of Acacia macracantha Willd. (Mimosaceae) in Chile. Acta Entomologica Chilena, 29(1), 47-57.

Vargas, H. A., Parra, L. E., 2009. Survey of anthophagous lepidopteran larvae associated with Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae) in northern Chile. (Prospección de lepidópteros antófagos asociados a Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae) en el norte de Chile). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 53(2), 291-293. HTTP://www.scielo.br/rbent doi: 10.1590/S0085-56262009000200012

Weber, E., 2003. Invasive plant species of the world: a reference guide to environmental weeds, [ed. by Weber, E.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.viii + 548 pp.

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. In: Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander S N, 2007. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. 55, 584 pp.

IABIN, 2016. Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network., http://www.oas.org/en/sedi/dsd/iabin/

ILDIS, 2017. International Legume Database and Information Service: World Database of Legumes (version 10)., Reading, UK: School of Plant Sciences, University of Reading. http://www.ildis.org/

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

USDA-ARS, 2017. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2017. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Contributors

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27/11/17 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, USA

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