Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Eudocima fullonia
(fruit-piercing moth)

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Datasheet

Eudocima fullonia (fruit-piercing moth)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Eudocima fullonia
  • Preferred Common Name
  • fruit-piercing moth
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Eggs of a Eudocima sp. parasitized by a Trichogramma sp.
TitleParasitized eggs
CaptionEggs of a Eudocima sp. parasitized by a Trichogramma sp.
CopyrightH.A.C. Fay
Eggs of a Eudocima sp. parasitized by a Trichogramma sp.
Parasitized eggsEggs of a Eudocima sp. parasitized by a Trichogramma sp.H.A.C. Fay
Final instar larva of E. fullonia (dark form) on its menisperm host plant, Tinospora smilacina.
TitleLarva
CaptionFinal instar larva of E. fullonia (dark form) on its menisperm host plant, Tinospora smilacina.
CopyrightH.A.C. Fay
Final instar larva of E. fullonia (dark form) on its menisperm host plant, Tinospora smilacina.
LarvaFinal instar larva of E. fullonia (dark form) on its menisperm host plant, Tinospora smilacina.H.A.C. Fay
TitleAdult female
Caption
CopyrightH.A.C. Fay
Adult femaleH.A.C. Fay
Adult male of E. fullonia piercing a mandarin.
TitleAdult piercing fruit
CaptionAdult male of E. fullonia piercing a mandarin.
CopyrightH.A.C. Fay
Adult male of E. fullonia piercing a mandarin.
Adult piercing fruitAdult male of E. fullonia piercing a mandarin.H.A.C. Fay
Male (left) and female (right) E. fullonia on a green mandarin fruit.
TitleAdults
CaptionMale (left) and female (right) E. fullonia on a green mandarin fruit.
CopyrightH.A.C. Fay
Male (left) and female (right) E. fullonia on a green mandarin fruit.
AdultsMale (left) and female (right) E. fullonia on a green mandarin fruit. H.A.C. Fay
Two adult male E. fullonia above and E. salaminia on papaya fruit.
TitleAdults of Eudocima spp.
CaptionTwo adult male E. fullonia above and E. salaminia on papaya fruit.
CopyrightH.A.C. Fay
Two adult male E. fullonia above and E. salaminia on papaya fruit.
Adults of Eudocima spp.Two adult male E. fullonia above and E. salaminia on papaya fruit.H.A.C. Fay
A sectioned manadarin showing the internal damage (see arrow) caused by fruitpiercing moth feeding.
TitleInternal fruit damage
CaptionA sectioned manadarin showing the internal damage (see arrow) caused by fruitpiercing moth feeding.
CopyrightH.A.C. Fay
A sectioned manadarin showing the internal damage (see arrow) caused by fruitpiercing moth feeding.
Internal fruit damageA sectioned manadarin showing the internal damage (see arrow) caused by fruitpiercing moth feeding.H.A.C. Fay
A mandarin exhibiting fruit rot around the fruitpiercing moth feeding site.
TitleFruit damage
CaptionA mandarin exhibiting fruit rot around the fruitpiercing moth feeding site.
CopyrightH.A.C. Fay
A mandarin exhibiting fruit rot around the fruitpiercing moth feeding site.
Fruit damageA mandarin exhibiting fruit rot around the fruitpiercing moth feeding site.H.A.C. Fay
Fruit fall in citrus following fruitpiercing moth attack.
TitleFruit fall
CaptionFruit fall in citrus following fruitpiercing moth attack.
CopyrightH.A.C. Fay
Fruit fall in citrus following fruitpiercing moth attack.
Fruit fallFruit fall in citrus following fruitpiercing moth attack.H.A.C. Fay
Net protecting a row of citrus trees.
TitleProtected crop
CaptionNet protecting a row of citrus trees.
CopyrightH.A.C. Fay
Net protecting a row of citrus trees.
Protected cropNet protecting a row of citrus trees.H.A.C. Fay

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Eudocima fullonia (Clerck, 1764)

Preferred Common Name

  • fruit-piercing moth

Other Scientific Names

  • Noctua dioscoreae Fabricius
  • Ophideres fullonia Clerck
  • Ophideres fullonica Linnaeus
  • Ophideres obliterans Walker
  • Othreis fullonia Clerck
  • Othreis fullonica Linnaeus
  • Othreis pomona Hübner
  • Phalaena (Attacus) fullonica Linnaeus
  • Phalaena (Noctua) phalonia Linnaeus
  • Phalaena pomona Cramer

International Common Names

  • English: fruit-sucking moth

Local Common Names

  • Australia: orange-piercing moth
  • France: papillonpiqueur de fruits
  • Germany: Früchtestechende Noctuiden

EPPO code

  • EUDOFU (Eudocima fullonia)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Noctuidae
  •                             Genus: Eudocima
  •                                 Species: Eudocima fullonia

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentWaterhouse and Norris (1987); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
BeninPresentAtachi et al. (1989); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
CameroonPresentWaterhouse and Norris (1987); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
Congo, Republic of thePresentWaterhouse and Norris (1987); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
Côte d'IvoirePresentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
GhanaPresentBox (1941); Waterhouse and Norris (1987); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
GuineaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
KenyaPresentWaterhouse and Norris (1987); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
LiberiaPresentWaterhouse and Norris (1987); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
MadagascarPresentWaterhouse and Norris (1987); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
MalawiPresentWaterhouse and Norris (1987); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
MozambiquePresentWaterhouse and Norris (1987); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
NamibiaPresentWaterhouse and Norris (1987); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
NigeriaPresentGolding (1945); Waterhouse and Norris (1987); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
RéunionPresentWaterhouse and Norris (1987); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
São Tomé and PríncipePresentWaterhouse and Norris (1987); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
Sierra LeonePresentHargreaves (1936); Waterhouse and Norris (1987); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
TanzaniaPresentWaterhouse and Norris (1987); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
UgandaPresentWaterhouse and Norris (1987); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
ZimbabwePresentYounghusband (1979); Waterhouse and Norris (1987); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)

Asia

BhutanPresentWaterhouse and Norris (1987); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
BruneiPresentWaterhouse (1993); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
CambodiaPresentCABI (Undated a)
ChinaPresentCai Huang and Geng ZongTiao (1997); Li LiYing et al. (1997); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-AnhuiPresent, WidespreadLi LiYing et al. (1997); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-FujianPresent, WidespreadLi LiYing et al. (1997); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-GuangdongPresent, WidespreadLi LiYing et al. (1997); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-GuangxiPresent, WidespreadLi LiYing et al. (1997); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-HainanPresent, WidespreadLi LiYing et al. (1997); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-HubeiPresent, WidespreadLi LiYing et al. (1997); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-HunanPresent, WidespreadLi LiYing et al. (1997); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-JiangsuPresent, WidespreadLi LiYing et al. (1997); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-JiangxiPresent, WidespreadLi LiYing et al. (1997); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-SichuanPresent, WidespreadLi LiYing et al. (1997); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-YunnanPresent, WidespreadLi LiYing et al. (1997); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-ZhejiangPresent, WidespreadLi LiYing et al. (1997); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
Hong KongPresentWaterhouse and Norris (1987); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
IndiaPresent, WidespreadMoore (1881); Waterhouse and Norris (1987); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-Andhra PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-AssamPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-BiharPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-GujaratPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-KarnatakaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-KeralaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-Madhya PradeshPresentBaghel et al. (1987); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-MaharashtraPresentMote et al. (1991); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-OdishaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-PunjabPresentSandhu et al. (1980); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-RajasthanPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-SikkimPresentMoore (1881); Waterhouse and Norris (1987); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-Tamil NaduPresentDeshpande et al. (1991); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-Uttar PradeshPresentGUPTA (1969); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-West BengalPresentMoore (1881); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
IndonesiaPresent, WidespreadWaterhouse (1993); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-Irian JayaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-JavaPresentMoore (1881); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-Lesser Sunda IslandsPresentEPPO (2014)
-Maluku IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-SulawesiPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-SumatraPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
JapanPresentWaterhouse and Norris (1987); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-HonshuPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-KyushuPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-ShikokuPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
LaosPresentCABI (Undated a)
MalaysiaPresentWaterhouse (1993); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentMoore (1881); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-SabahPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-SarawakPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
MongoliaPresentWaterhouse and Norris (1987); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
MyanmarPresentAPPPC (1987); Waterhouse (1993); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
NepalPresentBänziger (1987); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
North KoreaPresent, Few occurrencesBänziger (1987); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
PakistanPresentWaterhouse (1993); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
PhilippinesPresentWaterhouse (1993); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
SingaporePresentWaterhouse and Norris (1987); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
South KoreaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
Sri LankaPresentMoore (1881); Baptist (1944); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
TaiwanPresentMoore (1881); Waterhouse (1993); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
ThailandPresent, WidespreadBanziger (1982); Waterhouse (1993); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
VietnamPresent, WidespreadWaterhouse (1993); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)

North America

United StatesPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-HawaiiPresentHeu and Funasaki (1985); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)

Oceania

American SamoaPresentSands et al. (1993); Waterhouse (1997); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
AustraliaPresentTryon (1898); Mosse-Robinson (1968); Waterhouse and Norris (1987); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-New South WalesPresentWaterhouse and Norris (1987); Sands and Schotz (1989); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-Northern TerritoryPresentAnon (1968); Waterhouse and Norris (1987); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
-QueenslandPresent, WidespreadTryon (1898); Waterhouse and Norris (1987); Fay and Halfpapp (1993); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
Christmas IslandPresentWaterhouse and Norris (1987); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
Cook IslandsPresentAPPPC (1987); Waterhouse (1997); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentWaterhouse (1997); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
FijiPresentSands et al. (1993); Waterhouse (1997); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
French PolynesiaPresentWaterhouse (1997); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
GuamPresentSands et al. (1993); Waterhouse (1997); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
New CaledoniaPresentWaterhouse (1997); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
New ZealandAbsent, Formerly presentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
NiuePresentAPPPC (1987); Waterhouse (1997); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
Norfolk IslandAbsent, Formerly presentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentSands et al. (1993); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
PalauPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
Papua New GuineaPresentSands et al. (1993); Waterhouse (1997); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
SamoaPresentSands et al. (1993); Waterhouse (1997); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
Solomon IslandsPresentWaterhouse (1997); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
TongaPresentAPPPC (1987); Sands et al. (1993); Waterhouse (1997); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
VanuatuPresentAPPPC (1987); Sands et al. (1993); Waterhouse (1997); CABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)
Wallis and FutunaPresentCABI and EPPO (2001); EPPO (2020)

Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / external feeding
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / obvious exit hole
Fruit / ooze
Fruit / premature drop

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Euplectrus Parasite Larvae
Ooencyrtus Parasite Eggs
Ooencyrtus cochereaui Parasite Eggs
Ooencyrtus crassulus Parasite Eggs
Ooencyrtus papilionis
Telenomus Parasite Eggs
Telenomus lucullus Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma chilonis Parasite Eggs
Winthemia Parasite Larvae
Winthemia caledoniae Parasite Larvae Fiji; Tonga Citrus; tomatoes

References

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Anon, 1968. Conference of the Commonwealth and State Entomologists in Canberra 1967. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO, 79-80.

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Atachi P; Desmidts M; Durnez C, 1989. Fruit-piercing moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) as citrus pests in Benin: a description of their damage and morphology. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 37(3):111-120

Baghel BS; Sarnaik DA; Nadkarni PG, 1987. Efficacy of different control measures against the fruit sucking moth (Ophideres spp.) in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) var. Nucellar. Journal of Farming Systems, 3(3-4):72-75

Banziger H, 1982. Fruit-piercing moths (Lep., Noctuidae) in Thailand: a general survey and some new perspectives. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 55(3/4):213-240

Banziger H, 1987. Biological and taxonomic studies on immature and adult fruit-piercing moths in Nepal, with reference to Thailand. Natural History Bulletin Siam Society, 35:1-17

Baptist BA, 1944. The fruit-piercing moth (Othreis fullonica L.) with special reference to its economic importance. Indian Journal Entomology, 6:1-13.

Bosch JE, 1971. Fruit piercing moth research. Rhodesia Agricultural Journal, 68(1):19-21

Box HE, 1941. Citrus moth investigations. Report on investigations carried out from December 1939 to August 1941. Gold Coast,Colonial Development Fund: Asuansi.

CABI/EPPO, 2001. Eudocima fullonia. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Map No. 377. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Cai Huang; Geng ZongTiao, 1997. Occurrence and control of Ophideres fullonica Linnaeus. Plant Protection, 23(2):33-34.

CIE, 1977. Commonwealth Institute of Entomology, Distribution Maps of Pests: Series A (Agricultural), Map No. 377, Othreis fullonia (Cl.). Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Cochereau P, 1974. Complexe parasitaire, en Nouvelle-Caledonie, d'un papillon piqueur de fruits: Othreis fullonia Clerck (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Catocalinae). Cahiers ORSTOM Serie Biologie, No.25:35-65.

Cochereau P, 1977. Biology and ecology of populations in New Caledonia of a fruit-piercing moth: Othreis fullonia Clerck (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Catocalinp). Travaux et Documents de l'O.R.S.T.O.M., No. 71:322 pp.

Common IFB, 1990. Moths of Australia. Leiden, Netherlands: E. J. Brill, v + 535 pp.

Comstock JA, 1963. A fruit-piercing moth of Samoa and the South Pacific Islands. Canadian Entomologist, 95(2):218-222.

Denton GRW; Muniappan R; Marutani M; McConnell J; Lali TS, 1989. Biology and natural enemies of the fruit-piercing moth Othreis fullonia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Guam. In: Johnson MW, Ullman DE, Vargo A, eds. Agricultural Development in the American Pacific, Crop Protection Conference Proceedings, Honolulu, 18-19 May 1989. Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Research Extension Series, 150-154.

Deshpande RR; Nadkarni PG; Shrivastava RC; Parsai SK, 1991. Economics of treatments of sweet oranges for the protective measures against the fruit sucking moth, Othreis fullonica and O. materna (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Bhartiya Krishi Anusandhan Patrika, 6(3/4):151-154; 3 ref.

Dodia JF; Yadav DN; Patel RC, 1986. Management of fruit sucking moth, Othreis fullonia Cl. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in citrus orchards at Anand (Gujarat). Gujarat Agricultural University Research Journal, 11(2):72-73

Edwards ED, 1996. Noctuidae. In: Neilsen ES, Edwards ED, Rangsi TV, eds. Checklist of the Lepidoptera of Australia. Monographs on Australian Lepidoptera, Volume 4. Canberra, Australia: CSIRO Division of Entomology, 291-333.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Fay H, 1997. Fruit Piercing Moth on Citrus: A Perspective Including Control Developments. DPI Note, Agdex 220/622. The State of Queensland: Department of Primary Industries.

Fay HAC, 1994. The relative acceptabilities of three Australian Menispermaceae as food plants for larvae of the fruitpiercing moth, Othreis fullonia. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 72(1):67-75; 19 ref.

Fay HAC, 1996. Evolutionary and taxonomic relationships between fruit-piercing moths and the Menispermaceae. Australian Systematic Botany, 9(2):227-233; 29 ref.

Fay HAC; Halfpapp KH, 1991. Potential methods for the control of fruit-piercing moths (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) in tropical Australia. Proceedings of the First Asia-Pacific Conference of Entomology, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 8-13 November 1989. Bangkok, Thailand: The Entomology and Zoology Association of Thailand, 204-208.

Fay HAC; Halfpapp KH, 1993. Differential habitat affinities of five species of fruitpiercing moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in their utilization of Tinospora smilacina Benth. as a larval host plant in north Queensland. Australian Journal of Ecology, 18(4):451-462

Fay HAC; Halfpapp KH, 1993. Non-odorous characteristics of lychee (Litchi chinensis) and carambola (Averrhoa carambola) pertaining to fruitpiercing moth susceptibility. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 33(2):227-231; 17 ref.

Fay HAC; Halfpapp KH, 1998. Development of a baiting technique for fruitpiercing moths based on feeding attractants. In: Zalucki MP, Drew RAI, White GG, eds. Proceedings of the Sixth Australasian Applied Entomological Research Conference, Brisbane, Australia, 29 September-2 October 1998. Volume 2. Brisbane: University of Queensland Printers (addendum).

Fay HAC; Waite GK, 1989. Chronology of lychee pest management. In: Campbell TP, Sing NC, eds. Proceedings of the Second National Lychee Seminar, Cairns, 21-23 September 1989. Earlville, Australia: Far North Queensland Lychee Growers' Association, 79-84.

Golding FD, 1945. Fruit-piercing Lepidoptera in Nigeria. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 36:181-184.

Gupta BP, 1969. Pests of citrus in hilly region of Uttar Pradesh. Progressive Horticulture, 1(3):55-63.

Hargreaves E, 1936. Fruit-piercing Lepidoptera in Sierra Leone. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 27:589-605.

Heu RA; Funasaki GY, 1985. New state records. Hawaii Pest Report, 5(1-4):17 pp.

Kalshoven LGE; Laan PA van der (Reviser and translator), 1981. Pests of crops in Indonesia (revised). Jakarta, Indonesia: Ichtiar Baru, 701 pp.

Kitching IJ, 1984. An historical review of the higher classification of the Noctuidae (Lepidoptera). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Entomology, 49(3):153-234

Kumar K; Lal SN, 1983. Studies on the biology, seasonal abundance and host-parasite relationship of fruit sucking moth Othreis fullonia (Clerck) in Fiji. Fiji Agricultural Journal, 45(2):71-77.

Li LiYing; Wang Ren; Waterhouse DF, 1997. The distribution and importance of arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture and forestry plantations in southern China. The distribution and importance of arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture and forestry plantations in southern China., x + 185 pp.; [ACIAR monograph No. 46]; 5 pp. of ref.

Maddison PA, 1982. Fruit-piercing moth. South Pacific Commission Advisory Leaflet, 14. New Caledonia: South Pacific Commission.

Mohite AS; Umarkar SP; Shinde JS, 1995. Laboratory screening of some organosynthetic insecticides against third instar larvae of fruit sucking moth, Othreis materna (Linn.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Indian Journal of Entomology, 57(2):89-93; 9 ref.

Moore F, 1881. VI. On the genera and species of the lepidopterous subfamily Ophiderinae inhabiting the Indian region. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London, 11:63-75.

Mosse-Robinson I, 1968. Fruit-sucking moths (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae). Australian Zoologist, 14:290-293.

Mote UN; Tambe AB; Patil CS, 1991. Observations on incidence and extent of damage of fruit sucking moths on pomegranate fruits. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities, 16(3):438-439

Muniappan R; Denton GRW; Marutani M; Lali TS; Kimmons CA, 1993. Fruit piercing moths in Micronesia and their natural enemies. Micronesica, No. 4 suppl:33-39

Nomura K; Oya S; Watanabe I; Kawamura H, 1965. Studies on orchard illumination against fruit-piercing moths I. Analysis of illumination effects, and influence of light elements on moths' activities. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, 9:179-186.

Ohmasa Y; Wakamura S; Kozai S; Sugie H; Horiike M; Hirano C; Mori S, 1991. Sex pheromone of the fruit-piercing moth, Oraesia excavata (Butler) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): isolation and identification. Applied Entomology and Zoology, 26(1):55-62

Poole RW, 1989. Noctuidae, Part 1. In: Heppner JB, ed. Lepidopterum Catalogues. Brill. Leiden.

Sandhu GS; Batra RC; Sohi AS, 1980. Note on the incidence of fruit sucking moths in the Punjab. Indian Journal of Entomology, 42(3):531-532

Sands DPA; Chan RC; Fahey WO; Jones P; Khan S, 1996. Biology and control of fruit piercing moths. In: CSIRO Entomology Report of Research, 1993-95: Pest Management. Australia: CSIRO.

Sands DPA; Chan RR, 1996. Survivorship of Australian Othreis fullonia on Erythrina variegata: hypotheses for development of host-plant biotypes in the Pacific. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 80(1):145-148; 9 ref.

Sands DPA; Liebregts WJMM; Broe RJ, 1993. Biological control of the fruit piercing moth, Othreis fullonia (Clerck) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the Pacific. Micronesica, No. 4 suppl:25-31

Sands DPA; Schotz M, 1989. Advances in research on fruit piercing moths of subtropical Australia. In: Battan D, ed. Proceedings of the Fourth Australasian Conference on Tree and Nut Crops, Lismore, NSW, Australia, 14-20 August 1988. Lismore, Australia: Exotic Fruit Growers Association, 378-383.

Tryon H, 1898. Orange-piercing moths. Queensland Agricultural Journal, 2:308-315.

Vock N, 1990. Gamgee trap still the best control for destructive moth. Queensland, Australia: Country Mail.

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Distribution References

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Tryon H, 1898. Orange-piercing moths. Queensland Agricultural Journal. 308-315.

Waterhouse D F, 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR. v + 141 pp.

Waterhouse D F, 1997. The major invertebrate pests and weeds of agriculture and plantation forestry in the southern and western Pacific. In: The major invertebrate pests and weeds of agriculture and plantation forestry in the southern and western Pacific. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR). vi + 93 pp.

Waterhouse D F, Norris K R, 1987. Biological control: Pacific prospects. In: Biological control: Pacific prospects. [Biological control: Pacific prospects.], Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press. viii + 454pp.

Younghusband J E, 1979. The life history and description of the fruit-piercing moth, Elygea (Othreis) materna Billberg, with brief notes on the related species Othreis fullonia (Clerck) and O. divitiosa Wlk. Rhodesia Agricultural Journal. 76 (3), 119-121.

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