Invasive Species Compendium

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Angiopteris evecta
(king fern)

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Datasheet

Angiopteris evecta (king fern)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 05 June 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Angiopteris evecta
  • Preferred Common Name
  • king fern
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Pteridophyta
  •       Family: Marattiaceae
  •         Genus: Angiopteris
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Angiopteris evecta is often cultivated as an ornamental in gardens, parks, and botanical gardens for its large rhizomes and gigantic fronds. It has repeatedly escaped from cultivation and has the potential to e...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Angiopteris evecta (king fern); habit.  Brooklyn Botanic Garden, New York, USA. October 2016.
TitleHabit
CaptionAngiopteris evecta (king fern); habit. Brooklyn Botanic Garden, New York, USA. October 2016.
Copyright©Krzysztof Ziarnek (Kenraiz)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Angiopteris evecta (king fern); habit.  Brooklyn Botanic Garden, New York, USA. October 2016.
HabitAngiopteris evecta (king fern); habit. Brooklyn Botanic Garden, New York, USA. October 2016.©Krzysztof Ziarnek (Kenraiz)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Angiopteris evecta (king fern); habit. Papaikou, Hawaii, USA. April 2008.
TitleHabit
CaptionAngiopteris evecta (king fern); habit. Papaikou, Hawaii, USA. April 2008.
Copyright©Brewbooks/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Angiopteris evecta (king fern); habit. Papaikou, Hawaii, USA. April 2008.
HabitAngiopteris evecta (king fern); habit. Papaikou, Hawaii, USA. April 2008.©Brewbooks/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Angiopteris evecta (king fern); habit. Lyon Arboretum, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.
TitleHabit
CaptionAngiopteris evecta (king fern); habit. Lyon Arboretum, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by Daderot/via wikipedia
Angiopteris evecta (king fern); habit. Lyon Arboretum, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.
HabitAngiopteris evecta (king fern); habit. Lyon Arboretum, Hawaii, USA. January 2008.Public Domain - Released by Daderot/via wikipedia
Angiopteris evecta (king fern); habit, planted as an ornamental. Hana Hwy Kailua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2005.
TitleHabit
CaptionAngiopteris evecta (king fern); habit, planted as an ornamental. Hana Hwy Kailua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2005.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Angiopteris evecta (king fern); habit, planted as an ornamental. Hana Hwy Kailua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2005.
HabitAngiopteris evecta (king fern); habit, planted as an ornamental. Hana Hwy Kailua, Maui, Hawaii, USA. January 2005.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Angiopteris evecta (king fern); habit, showing upper surface of fronds. Royal Botanic Garden Sydney, Australia. May 2019.
TitleHabit
CaptionAngiopteris evecta (king fern); habit, showing upper surface of fronds. Royal Botanic Garden Sydney, Australia. May 2019.
Copyright©Margaret R. Donald/via wikepedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Angiopteris evecta (king fern); habit, showing upper surface of fronds. Royal Botanic Garden Sydney, Australia. May 2019.
HabitAngiopteris evecta (king fern); habit, showing upper surface of fronds. Royal Botanic Garden Sydney, Australia. May 2019.©Margaret R. Donald/via wikepedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Angiopteris evecta (king fern); upper surface of fronds. Royal Botanic Garden Sydney, Australia. May 2019.
TitleFronds
CaptionAngiopteris evecta (king fern); upper surface of fronds. Royal Botanic Garden Sydney, Australia. May 2019.
Copyright©Margaret R. Donald/via wikepedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Angiopteris evecta (king fern); upper surface of fronds. Royal Botanic Garden Sydney, Australia. May 2019.
FrondsAngiopteris evecta (king fern); upper surface of fronds. Royal Botanic Garden Sydney, Australia. May 2019.©Margaret R. Donald/via wikepedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Angiopteris evecta (king fern); habit, showing fronds. Sori visible on pinnae margins. Papaikou, Hawaii, USA. April 2008.
TitleHabit
CaptionAngiopteris evecta (king fern); habit, showing fronds. Sori visible on pinnae margins. Papaikou, Hawaii, USA. April 2008.
Copyright©Brewbooks/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Angiopteris evecta (king fern); habit, showing fronds. Sori visible on pinnae margins. Papaikou, Hawaii, USA. April 2008.
HabitAngiopteris evecta (king fern); habit, showing fronds. Sori visible on pinnae margins. Papaikou, Hawaii, USA. April 2008.©Brewbooks/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Angiopteris evecta (king fern); habit, showing large stipes and plant base. Huelo, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
TitleHabit
CaptionAngiopteris evecta (king fern); habit, showing large stipes and plant base. Huelo, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Angiopteris evecta (king fern); habit, showing large stipes and plant base. Huelo, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
HabitAngiopteris evecta (king fern); habit, showing large stipes and plant base. Huelo, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Angiopteris evecta (king fern); sori on pinna.  Kerala, India. February 2014.
TitleSori
CaptionAngiopteris evecta (king fern); sori on pinna. Kerala, India. February 2014.
Copyright©V.R. Vinayaraj/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Angiopteris evecta (king fern); sori on pinna.  Kerala, India. February 2014.
SoriAngiopteris evecta (king fern); sori on pinna. Kerala, India. February 2014.©V.R. Vinayaraj/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Angiopteris evecta (king fern); sori. Papaikou, Hawaii, USA. April 2008
TitleSori
CaptionAngiopteris evecta (king fern); sori. Papaikou, Hawaii, USA. April 2008
Copyright©Brewbooks/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Angiopteris evecta (king fern); sori. Papaikou, Hawaii, USA. April 2008
SoriAngiopteris evecta (king fern); sori. Papaikou, Hawaii, USA. April 2008©Brewbooks/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Angiopteris evecta (G. Forst.) Hoffm.

Preferred Common Name

  • king fern

Other Scientific Names

  • Polypodium evectum G. Forst.

International Common Names

  • English: giant fern; king's fern; mule's-foot fern; oriental vessel fern
  • Chinese: lian zuo jue

Local Common Names

  • Cook Islands: e'e
  • Cuba: helecho elefante
  • French Polynesia: nahe
  • Niue: polato
  • Palau: bersarm; demarm; dermarm
  • Samoa: nase; oli oli
  • Tonga: hulufe tano; hulufe vai; ponga

Summary of Invasiveness

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Angiopteris evecta is often cultivated as an ornamental in gardens, parks, and botanical gardens for its large rhizomes and gigantic fronds. It has repeatedly escaped from cultivation and has the potential to easily colonize new ecosystems. It is currently listed as invasive in Hawaii, Jamaica and Costa Rica where it can be found naturalized and spreading mostly in wet valleys and on slopes in montane and lowland rainforests. In Cuba it is considered an invasive species with the potential to “transform” natural ecosystems.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Pteridophyta
  •             Family: Marattiaceae
  •                 Genus: Angiopteris
  •                     Species: Angiopteris evecta

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Marattiaceae comprises 6 genera and about 110-148 species that diverged from other fern groups very early in their evolutionary history. The genus Angiopteris comprises 75 species distributed across tropical Asia, the Pacific and Madagascar (Mabberley, 1997; Rolleri, 2002; Stevens, 2012). Species within the genus Angiopteris are of evolutionary interest, because they are eusporangiate and have a fossil history dating back to the Jurassic (Christenhusz and Toivonen, 2008). However, the diversity of this genus is still uncertain and it has been suggested that hybridization or allopolyploidy plays a part in the complexity of Angiopteris. Chloroplast DNA sequence data suggest that there may be only a small number of species with highly plastic morphology (Stevens, 2012; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018).

Description

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Rhizome forming a massive, somewhat spherical trunk 60-90 cm high and 45 cm in diameter. Stipes thick and fleshy, to 2 m long, the base swollen and bearing two flat, rounded, dark brown, leathery, stipule-like outgrowths 5-10 cm long. Lamina 2- to 4-pinnate, glabrous, very large and spreading, to over 7 m long and to 2.5 m wide, the pinnae 30 cm wide; ultimate segments shortly stalked, commonly (8-) 10-13 (-20) cm long, (0.8-) 1.5-2.5 (-4) cm wide, linear, the base unequally wedge-shaped to more or less rounded, especially on the basal side, the margins shallowly toothed, often with a long, narrow, acuminate, more deeply toothed apex. Veins close, making a wide angle with the midrib, free, simple or once forked near the base, with pale, translucent false-veins running between them for a short distance from the margin. Sori without indusia, consisting of 3-7 pairs of sporangia clustered along the lateral veins near the margin. Description based on Andrews (1990) and PIER (2018).

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Shrub
Tree
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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Angiopteris evecta is native to New Guinea, Australia, Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia. It has been introduced as an ornamental plant in tropical Asia, Madagascar, the United States, Mexico, Costa Rica and the West Indies (GRIIS, 2018; ISSG, 2018PIER, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 05 Jun 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

MadagascarPresentIntroducedISSG (2018); USDA-ARS (2018)

Asia

BangladeshPresentHaque et al. (2016)
Hong KongPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
IndiaPresentMali et al. (2016)Growing in the Western Ghats
IndonesiaPresentNative and IntroducedISSG (2018)
-Irian JayaPresentNativeChristenhusz and Toivonen (2008)
-JavaPresentIntroducedISSG (2018)
-Maluku IslandsPresentIntroducedChristenhusz and Toivonen (2008)Ambon Island
LaosPresentKorea National Arboretum (2016)
MalaysiaPresentISSG (2018); USDA-ARS (2018)
MyanmarPresentThant Shin (2017)
SingaporePresentNativeChong et al. (2009)
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedISSG (2018); USDA-ARS (2018)
TaiwanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2018)
ThailandPresentIntroducedISSG (2018); USDA-ARS (2018)
VietnamPresentIntroducedISSG (2018); USDA-ARS (2018)

North America

Costa RicaPresentIntroducedInvasiveChristenhusz and Toivonen (2008)
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasiveOviedo Prieto and González-Oliva (2015)
JamaicaPresentIntroducedInvasiveChristenhusz and Toivonen (2008)
MexicoPresentIntroducedChristenhusz and Toivonen (2008)Cultivated
United StatesPresentIntroducedISSG (2018)
-CaliforniaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedISSG (2018)
-FloridaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedISSG (2018)
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2018)

Oceania

American SamoaPresentNativePIER (2018)
AustraliaPresentNativeKerrigan and Cowie (2006)
-New South WalesPresentNativeKerrigan and Cowie (2006)
-Northern TerritoryPresentNativeKerrigan and Cowie (2006)
-QueenslandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
Cook IslandsPresentNativePIER (2018)
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentNativeHerrera et al. (2010)
-KosraePresentNativePIER (2018)
-PohnpeiPresentNativeHerrera et al. (2010)
-YapPresentNativeHerrera et al. (2010)
French PolynesiaPresentNativeFlorence et al. (2013)
GuamPresentNativePIER (2018)
New CaledoniaPresentNativePIER (2018)
NiuePresentNativePIER (2018)
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentNativePIER (2018)
PalauPresentNativePIER (2018)
Papua New GuineaPresentNativePIER (2018)
PitcairnPresentNativePIER (2018)
SamoaPresentNativePIER (2018)
Solomon IslandsPresentNativePIER (2018)
TongaPresentNativePIER (2018)

History of Introduction and Spread

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In Jamaica, A. evecta was probably introduced from Tahiti in 1793 and was first planted in the Botanic Gardens of Bath. During the 1860s, cuttings were planted across the island. The oldest herbarium collection of A. evecta in Jamaica is from 1956 and the species was first reported as naturalized in 1976. In Jamaica, A. evecta is listed as “very common” and continues spreading mostly throughout the eastern half of the island. It is commonly found in the Rio Grande Valley and throughout the Blue and John Crow Mountains. It has been found at an elevation of 1,250 m at the Portland Gap and as far west as Fern Gully (Adams, 1972; Christenhusz and Toivonen, 2008).   

In Hawaii, A. evecta was introduced from Tahiti to Oahu in 1927. It was originally planted in in the Lyon Arboretum where it soon became a pest and quickly escaped into adjacent natural areas. In 1968, it was reported occurring across Oahu’s forested ridges and valleys. In 1992, it was collected on the island of Hawaii, in the Waiakea Forest Reserve and plants have also been found naturalized outside the Hawaii Tropical Botanical Garden, where this species is also cultivated. On Hawaii, A. evecta now inhabits the niches formerly occupied by endemic Hawaiian ferns and other native plants. In 1994, A. evecta was reported spreading into lowland wet forests on the island of Maui where it is now sparsely naturalized (Wilson, 1996; Christenhusz and Toivonen, 2008).

In Costa Rica, A. evecta was introduced from Jamaica in the 1950s. In 1965 it was planted in the Wilson Botanical Garden and since then many cuttings have been dispersed to other gardens across the country. It was reported as naturalized in 1999 and first collected in the wild in 2003. It seems that this species is spreading because hundreds of thousands of mostly young plants have been recorded growing in the rainforests surrounding the Wilson Botanical Garden (Christenhusz and Toivonen, 2008).

In Cuba, A. evecta was introduced from Jamaica in 1979 and planted in the National Botanical Garden (Jardín Botánico Nacional). In 1993, a cutting of this plant was transplanted to the Jardín de los Helechos in Santiago de Cuba. The first herbarium collection of a naturalized plant was made in 2008. The specimen collected was growing in a rainforest in La Cordillera de la Gran Piedra (Caluff and Shelton, 2009).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Costa Rica Jamaica 1950 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No Christenhusz and Toivonen (2008) Planted in the Wilson Botanical Garden
Jamaica French Polynesia 1793 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No Christenhusz and Toivonen (2008) Planted in the Botanic Gardens of Bath
Hawaii French Polynesia 1927 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No Wilson (1996) Planted in the Lyon Arboretum
Cuba Jamaica 1979 Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes No Caluff and Shelton (2009) Planted in the Jardin Botanico Nacional

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of new introductions of Angiopteris evecta is very high. Since this species is cultivated throughout the tropics and has repeatedly escaped from cultivation, it is expected to become more widespread in the near future. An analysis of the potential future distribution range of A. evecta combining environmental models and historical records shows that this species could be cultivated over a much wider range than where it currently is grown and that it has the potential to easily colonize new ecosystems (Christenhusz and Toivonen, 2008).

Habitat

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Juveniles of A. evecta thrive in both sunny and shady locations, allowing this species to spread in dark primary forests as well as in open secondary vegetation. It can be found growing in moist forests, rainforests, cloud forests, moist lowlands, broad-leaved forests, wet valleys, ravines, montane slopes and along roadsides. Along streams it grows in almost permanently humid conditions and rhizomes are adapted to waterlogging (Christenhusz and Toivonen, 2008; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018; PIER, 2018).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for A. evecta is 2n=80, 160. Polyploidy has also been suggested for this species (Singh and Roy, 1988; Rajkumar, 2001; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018).

Reproductive Biology

Like other ferns, A. evecta alternates between independent gametophyte and sporophyte stages. Spores that are produced by the sporophyte stage (the spore producing plant or fern) germinate and produce the gametophyte (gamete producing plant), usually called the “prothallium”, which is a short-lived, heart-shaped, liverwort-like structure, that bears both sex organs, the archegonium and antheridium. After gamete production and fertilization, which only happens in humid environments, a new sporophyte (fern) emerges. Apparently, it is many years before A. evecta is capable of producing spores, but once it becomes well established, adult leaves may produces spores in large numbers for many years (Christenhusz and Toivonen, 2008; ISSG, 2018).

Longevity

Angiopteris evecta is described as a “long-lived fern”. Apparently the original plant introduced to Costa Rica and planted in the Wilson Botanical Garden in 1965 is still alive (Christenhusz and Toivonen, 2008).

Population Size and Structure

In areas within its native distribution range (e.g. Australia, Singapore), A. evecta is sometimes listed as a “rare” and/or “threatened” species.  In the Australian Northern Territory, this species is listed as vulnerable since remnant populations are small (~250 plants) and occur in restricted habitats (e.g., along springs in rainforest and in sandstone valleys) (Kerrigan and Cowie, 2006). In Singapore, A. evecta is listed as a vulnerable species (Chong et al., 2009).

Associations

A study performed on the island of Moorea in French Polynesia suggests that A. evecta may facilitate the germination of Miconia calvescens, a small tree species listed as invasive on this island. On this island, seedlings and saplings of M. calvescens have often been recorded growing on the rhizomes of A. evecta. This study suggests that A. evecta has quickly decomposing leaves, which can induce the germination and the recruitment of M. calvescens in forest understoreys dominated by A. evecta by preventing the accumulation of leaf litter on the ground and enabling more sunlight to reach the seed bank (Lee, 2017).

Environmental Requirements

Angiopteris evecta grows best in moist and warm habitats with the annual mean temperature ranging from 19°C to 27°C, and annual precipitation ranging from 1000 mm to 5447 mm. It is adapted to grow at elevations from near sea level to 1492 m and it prefers humus-rich and acid soils (Christenhusz and Toivonen, 2008; ISSG, 2018; PIER, 2018). In China, it has been recorded growing mostly on volcanic soils (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
30 25

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 19 27

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration10005447number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil reaction

  • acid

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Fusarium Pathogen not specific Mali et al., 2016 N

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Heavy infestations by the moth Herpetogramma platycapna have been recorded on fronds of A. evecta. The moth rolls the frond into a ball-shaped shelter and the larvae feed inside this structure (Morse, 2009; Ghazali et al., 2014). Foliar diseases caused by Fusarium have also been observed on A. evecta (Mali et al., 2016). 

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Angiopteris evecta spreads by spores and vegetatively by rhizomes. The adult leaves are covered in thousands of sporangia, each of which produces about 1,440 spores. The fleshy stipules at the base of the petioles can also grow into new plants when the stipules break off and find suitable ground. This form of vegetative reproduction enables the formation of dense stands (Christenhusz and Toivonen, 2008; ISSG, 2018; PIER, 2018).

Natural Dispersal

The spores of A. evecta may be dispersed by wind and water (Wilson, 1996; Christenhusz and Toivonen, 2008).

Intentional Introduction

Angiopteris evecta has been intentionally introduced worldwide to be grown as an ornamental fern (Christenhusz and Toivonen, 2008; ISSG, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoosOften cultivated in botanical gardens Yes Yes Christenhusz and Toivonen, 2008
Escape from confinement or garden escapeIt has repeatedly escaped from cultivation Yes Christenhusz and Toivonen, 2008
Garden waste disposalSpores, plant fragments, rhizomes Yes Christenhusz and Toivonen, 2008
HorticultureCultivated worldwide as an ornamental fern Yes Yes Christenhusz and Toivonen, 2008
Intentional releaseHorticulture Yes Yes Christenhusz and Toivonen, 2008
Medicinal useUsed in traditional medicine Yes Yes Shil and Choudhury, 2009
Ornamental purposesCultivated worldwide as an ornamental fern Yes Yes Christenhusz and Toivonen, 2008

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSpores, plant fragments, rhizomes Yes Christenhusz and Toivonen, 2008
WaterSpores Yes Yes Christenhusz and Toivonen, 2008
WindSpores Yes Yes Christenhusz and Toivonen, 2008

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive

Environmental Impact

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Angiopteris evecta often grows forming dense stands with the potential to dramatically alter ecosystems by displacing and shading out native vegetation. Currently, it is listed as invasive in Costa Rica, Jamaica, Cuba and Hawaii where it has established abundant and aggressive populations that are spreading and threatening local flora and native biodiversity (Wilson, 1996; Christenhusz and Toivonen, 2008; Oviedo Prieto and Gonzalez-Oliva, 2015). In Hawaii, this species is apparently filling many of the niches formerly occupied by endemic Hawaiian ferns and other native plants (Funk, 1987; Wilson, 1996; Christenhusz and Toivonen, 2008).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Gregarious
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Hybridization
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Angiopteris evecta is often cultivated as an ornamental fern. Due to the large rhizomes and gigantic leaves it is one of the most common fern species cultivated in botanical gardens worldwide. The starchy rhizomes are consumed by humans and also used as a source of essential oil to perfume coconut oil (Christenhusz and Toivonen, 2008). In India, the rhizomes and leaves are used in traditional medicine (Shil and Choudhury, 2009; Mali et al., 2016).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo

Human food and beverage

  • Flour/starch
  • Root crop

Materials

  • Essential oils

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Restrictions and regulations are recommended for the cultivation and international trade of A. evecta as a way to discourage further introductions and invasions (Christenhusz and Toivonen, 2008).

References

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Adams, C. D., 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica, Mona, Jamaica: University of the West Indies.848 pp.

Andrews SB, 1990. Ferns of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries.

Caluff MG, Shelton G, 2009. (Angiopteris evecta (Marattiaceae, Pteridophyta), nuevo registro para la pteridoflora cubana). Revista del Jardín Botánico Nacional, 30-31, 247-249.

Chong, K. Y., Tan, H. T. W., Corlett, R. T., 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species, Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore.273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Christenhusz, M. J. M., Toivonen, T. K., 2008. Giants invading the tropics: the oriental vessel fern, Angiopteris evecta (Marattiaceae). Biological Invasions, 10(8), 1215-1228. doi: 10.1007/s10530-007-9197-7

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Funk E, 1987. Spontaneous spread of Angiopteris evecta (Marattiales) in the central Ko’olau Mountains, O’ahu, Hawai’i. Newsletter of the Hawaiian Botanical Society, 26, 58-59.

Ghazali, S. Z., Md-Zain, B. M., Maideen, H., Maimon, A., Yaakop, S., 2014. A first record of gregarious moth pest, Herpetogramma platycapna (Meyrick) of fern species, Angiopteris evecta (G. Forst.) Hoffm from Malaysia. Malaysian Applied Biology Journal, 43(2), 105-109. http://www.mabjournal.com/images/43_2_Dec_2014/43_2_13.pdf

GRIIS, 2018. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species. http://www.griis.org/

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Mali, A. M., Patil, V. B., Pise, N. M., Ade, A. B., 2016. First report of leaf spot caused by Fusarium sp. NFCCI 2882 on Angiopteris evecta: a king fern from Western Ghats, India. Plant Disease, 100(3), 646. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-04-15-0427-PDN

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Oviedo Prieto, R., González-Oliva, L., 2015. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2015. (Lista nacional de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2015). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 9(Special Issue No. 2), 1-88. http://repositorio.geotech.cu/jspui/bitstream/1234/1476/4/Lista%20nacional%20de%20plantas%20invasoras%20de%20Cuba-2015.pdf

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Distribution References

CABI, 2020. CABI Distribution Database: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chong K Y, Tan H T W, Corlett R T, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Christenhusz M J M, Toivonen T K, 2008. Giants invading the tropics: the oriental vessel fern, Angiopteris evecta (Marattiaceae). Biological Invasions. 10 (8), 1215-1228. DOI:10.1007/s10530-007-9197-7

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer J-Y, 2013. Nadeaud botanical database of the Herbarium of French Polynesia. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP))., https://nadeaud.ilm.pf/

Haque AKMK, Khan SA, Uddin SN, Rahim MA, 2016. Taxonomic checklist of the pteridophytes of Rajkandi Reserve Forest, Moulvibazar, Bangladesh. Jahangirnagar University Journal of Biological Sciences. 5 (2), 27-40.

Herrera K, Lorence D H, Flynn T, Balick M J, 2010. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia with Local Names and Uses. Allertonia. 1-192. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23193787

ISSG, 2018. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). In: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database/welcome/

Kerrigan R, Cowie I, 2006. Threatened species of the Northern Territory. Angiopteris evecta., Darwin, Australia: Northern Territory Government of Australia. https://nt.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0016/208411/angiopteris-evecta.pdf

Korea National Arboretum, 2016. A checklist of plants in Lao PDR. Gyeonggi-do, Korea Republic: Korea National Arboretum.

Mali A M, Patil V B, Pise N M, Ade A B, 2016. First report of leaf spot caused by Fusarium sp. NFCCI 2882 on Angiopteris evecta: a king fern from Western Ghats, India. Plant Disease. 100 (3), 646. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-15-0427-PDN

Oviedo Prieto R, González-Oliva L, 2015. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2015. (Lista nacional de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2015). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 9 (Special Issue No. 2), 1-88. http://repositorio.geotech.cu/jspui/bitstream/1234/1476/4/Lista%20nacional%20de%20plantas%20invasoras%20de%20Cuba-2015.pdf

PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Thant Shin, 2017. Ethnobotanical study of plant resources in Southern Shan State, Myanmar (PhD thesis). Kanagawa, Japan: Nihon University.

USDA-ARS, 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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26/03/2018 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA 

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