Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Acacia karroo
(sweet thorn)

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Datasheet

Acacia karroo (sweet thorn)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Acacia karroo
  • Preferred Common Name
  • sweet thorn
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. karroo is able to produce seeds prolifically, from an early age, is resistant to fire and forms dense thorny thickets that out compete native flora and are a source of potential injury to people and animals. The species can behave invasively in it...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Sweet thorn planted in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe after 12 years (6 m high; d.b.h. 10 cm).
TitlePlanted A. karroo tree
CaptionSweet thorn planted in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe after 12 years (6 m high; d.b.h. 10 cm).
CopyrightD.P. Gwaze
Sweet thorn planted in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe after 12 years (6 m high; d.b.h. 10 cm).
Planted A. karroo treeSweet thorn planted in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe after 12 years (6 m high; d.b.h. 10 cm).D.P. Gwaze
A. karroo bark: longitudinally fissured, can be either reddish brown to dark brown/black and rough, or pale greyish-white to greyish-brown and smooth. The latter often with scattered, persistent spines (Ross, 1979).
TitleBark
CaptionA. karroo bark: longitudinally fissured, can be either reddish brown to dark brown/black and rough, or pale greyish-white to greyish-brown and smooth. The latter often with scattered, persistent spines (Ross, 1979).
CopyrightD.P. Gwaze
A. karroo bark: longitudinally fissured, can be either reddish brown to dark brown/black and rough, or pale greyish-white to greyish-brown and smooth. The latter often with scattered, persistent spines (Ross, 1979).
BarkA. karroo bark: longitudinally fissured, can be either reddish brown to dark brown/black and rough, or pale greyish-white to greyish-brown and smooth. The latter often with scattered, persistent spines (Ross, 1979).D.P. Gwaze
Pods are brown, linear, falcate, usually constricted between the seeds, glabrous or with apices of lobes pubescent. Size: (4)5-10.5(21) x 0.5-0.7(1.1) cm.
TitleMature pod
CaptionPods are brown, linear, falcate, usually constricted between the seeds, glabrous or with apices of lobes pubescent. Size: (4)5-10.5(21) x 0.5-0.7(1.1) cm.
CopyrightD.P. Gwaze
Pods are brown, linear, falcate, usually constricted between the seeds, glabrous or with apices of lobes pubescent. Size: (4)5-10.5(21) x 0.5-0.7(1.1) cm.
Mature podPods are brown, linear, falcate, usually constricted between the seeds, glabrous or with apices of lobes pubescent. Size: (4)5-10.5(21) x 0.5-0.7(1.1) cm.D.P. Gwaze
Leaves: typically glabrous, linear to obovate-oblong, twice-compound with 2-6 pairs of pinnae, each with 5-27 pairs of leaflets.
TitleLeaves and thorns
CaptionLeaves: typically glabrous, linear to obovate-oblong, twice-compound with 2-6 pairs of pinnae, each with 5-27 pairs of leaflets.
CopyrightD.P. Gwaze
Leaves: typically glabrous, linear to obovate-oblong, twice-compound with 2-6 pairs of pinnae, each with 5-27 pairs of leaflets.
Leaves and thornsLeaves: typically glabrous, linear to obovate-oblong, twice-compound with 2-6 pairs of pinnae, each with 5-27 pairs of leaflets.D.P. Gwaze

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Acacia karroo Hayne

Preferred Common Name

  • sweet thorn

Other Scientific Names

  • Acacia dekindtiana A. Chev.
  • Acacia eburnea sensu auct.
  • Acacia hirtella E. Mey.
  • Acacia horrida var. transvaalensis Burtt Davy
  • Acacia inconflagrabilis Gerstner
  • Acacia karroo var. transvaalensis (Burtt Davy) Burtt Davy
  • Acacia natalitia E. Mey.

International Common Names

  • English: Cape thorn tree; karroo thorn; mimosa thorn
  • French: mimosa à longues épines; mimosa hérissé

Local Common Names

  • Australia: gum arabic tree; sour thorn; umbrella thorn; white thorn
  • Botswana: mooka
  • Germany: Akazie, Süssdorn-; Akazie, Weissdorn-
  • Italy: acacia orrida; mimosa karroo
  • South Africa: Cape gum; cassie; doorn boom; doringboom; mookana; piquants blancs; soetdoring; umuNga
  • Zimbabwe: isinga; mubayamhondoro; muunga

EPPO code

  • ACAKA (Acacia karroo)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page A. karroo is able to produce seeds prolifically, from an early age, is resistant to fire and forms dense thorny thickets that out compete native flora and are a source of potential injury to people and animals. The species can behave invasively in its native range and Aubrey and Reynolds (2002) claim that this can occur as a consequence of overgrazing and it is described as a weed of pasture land (ILDIS, 2004). A. karroo has been declared a noxious weed in several states of Australia and was previously a problem in New South Wales where it was the subject of an eradication programme. Binggeli (1999) classes it as a potentially invasive species.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Mimosoideae
  •                                 Genus: Acacia
  •                                     Species: Acacia karroo

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Acacia karroo is in the tribe Acacieae of the large genus Acacia, also containing the other African acacias.

Description

Top of page A. karroo varies from a shrub up to 2 m tall to a tree more than 20 m in height, with distinctive white thorns and attractive yellow flowers. It is quite variable morphologically and regional variations are described by Barnes et al. (1996). Bark is rough, dark, red-brown to blackish. The leaves bipinnate, typical of many legumes, light green, up to 120 mm long and about 50 mm wide, composed of 8-20 pairs of small oblong leaflets. Thorns are paried and straight, conspicuous white in colour, often 10 cm long, sometimes up to 25 cm, occurring especially on the lower branches. Flowers yellow, in round inflorescences 10-15 mm in diameter, in clusters of between four and six, and are sweetly scented. Fruit are pods, up to 160 mm long and 10 mm wide, sickle-shaped, woody and slightly constricted between the seeds. The tree is usually evergreen but loses its leaves in droughts or in very cold or dry localities.

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Tree
Woody

Distribution

Top of page A. karroo is the most widespread acacia in southern Africa. It occurs naturally in Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe, between 15°S and 34°S.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Planted Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentNativeCABI (Undated b)
BotswanaPresentNativeCABI (Undated b)
EswatiniPresentNativeCABI (Undated b)
LesothoPresentNativeCABI (Undated b)
LibyaPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated b)
MalawiPresentNativeCABI (Undated b)
MauritiusPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated b)
MoroccoPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated b)
MozambiquePresentNativeCABI (Undated b)
NamibiaPresentNativeCABI (Undated b)
South AfricaPresentNativeCarr (1976); CABI (Undated)
ZambiaPresentNativeCABI (Undated)Original citation: Aubrey and Reynolds (2002)
ZimbabwePresentNativeDrummond (1981); CABI (Undated)

Asia

IndiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-RajasthanPresentIntroducedPlantedCABI (Undated b)
IraqPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated b)
IsraelPresentIntroducedPlantedCABI (Undated b)

Europe

FrancePresentIntroducedCABI (Undated b)
ItalyPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-SicilyPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated b)
PortugalPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated b)
SpainPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated b)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated b)
-New South WalesAbsent, EradicatedFNCW (2001)
-QueenslandAbsent, EradicatedFNCW (2001)
-South AustraliaPresentIntroducedFNCW (2001)
-Western AustraliaAbsent, EradicatedFNCW (2001)

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page In it uncertain when A. karroo was introduced to Australia, but it has since spread to become an invasive weed. It has also been introduced to northern Africa and elsewhere, presumably for its noted multipurpose value. A. karroo is a notifiable weed (W1) in New South Wales, the presence of which must be notified to the Local Control Authority within three days of detection, and which must be destroyed (NWSEC, 1998). It is listed as a P1/P2 noxious weed in the Agriculture and Related Resources Protection Act in Western Australia, meaning that it is not yet widely established in the state, and should be eradicated and should not be traded, sold or moved (NWSEC, 1998). Similarly it is listed as a P1/P2 weed in Queensland where its introduction is illegal, and where any plants present in the state must be destroyed (NWSEC, 1998). It has recently been declared a State Prohibited Weed in Victoria, i.e. a species posing a serious threat to state environmental, economic and social values and not present, or occurring in sufficiently small numbers that eradication can be achieved. A. karroo is believed to have been eradicated from New South Wales and Queensland (FNCW, 2001).

Risk of Introduction

Top of page Like other Acacia spp., A. karroo has been promoted for soil improvement and as a fodder crop. As the species is known to behave invasively in its native range, and in its exotic range (e.g. Australia) introduction to other countries/regions is likely to carry a risk of the species becoming invasive, particularly where other factors (such as overgrazing) are likely to occur.

Habitat

Top of page A. karroo is the most widespread acacia in southern Africa and occupies a diverse range of environments from acacia savannahs and woodlands on hills and rocky soils to the banks of dry watercourses. These habitats include scrub forest, bushland and thickets, more specifically Karroo-Namib scrub forest, the Kalahari-Highveld regional transition zone and the Tongaland-Pondoland regional transition zone (ILDIS, 2004). Aubrey and Reynolds (2002) state that it is generally found in low ground to highveld altitudinal zones. It can also dominate riverbed vegetation (DEH, 2005).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Biology and Ecology

Top of page Genetics

In is unknown whether any systematic selection or genetic improvement work has been undertaken on A. karroo, but noting the widespread appreciation of its many valued products in its native range, it is likely there has been some traditional selection of improved material.

Physiology and Phenology

A. karroo is a relatively short-lived African acacia, which may live for up to 40 years (Aubrey and Reynolds, 2002). In South Africa, the pods start to split and open seeds in January (Anon., 2001). New (1984) reports that young seedlings are vulnerable to temperature changes and dessication, and that colonization of South African veldt is promoted by long periods of sufficient moisture in combination with high temperatures. However, very high soil temperature may kill seedlings. A. karroo does not require shade, shelter or protection from fire, and plants more than one year old are able to regenerate after fire (Aubrey and Reynolds, 2002). Trees are able to coppice vigorously and produce root suckers.

Reproductive Biology

The first flowers are produced when the plant is two or three years old (Anon., 2001). The flowers are attractive to insects and are insect pollinated (Aubrey and Reynolds, 2002). Pods split open on the tree, releasing the seeds which are dispersed by wind and can also be distributed in animal dung, namely by stock and game that feed on the pods (Aubrey and Reynolds, 2002). The seeds are able to withstand heat allowing A. karroo to re-establish after fire (CRC Weed Management, 2002). The Australian Government (DEH, 2005) cite information quantifying the prolific seeding ability of this species, and the long viability of the seeds. Seeds are orthodox.

Environmental Requirements

A. karroo is generally a subtropical species in southern Africa, preferring mean annual temperatures of 12-24°C, and being replaced by A. seyal in more tropical climates. It can. however, tolerate mean maximum temperatures of the hottest month as high as 40°C and a dry season of up to 9 months, but will also tolerate frosts and an absolute minimum temperature of -12°C. Mean annual rainfall ranges are from as low as 200 mm up to 1500 mm. A. karro tolerates a wide range of soil types including shallow and saline soils. It is found from sea level to altitudes up to 1800 m.

Associations

A. karroo fixes nitrogen. In its native range, grasses and other plants utilize the higher nitrogen resources found below the shade of this tree (Aubrey and Reynolds, 2002).

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
-15 -34 0 1800

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -13
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 12 24
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 30 40
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) -2 12

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration39number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall2001500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • impeded
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy

Special soil tolerances

  • saline
  • shallow

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page Aubrey and Reynolds (2002) reports that A. karroo is affected by a number of fungi and parasites including mistletoes, but that none are considered to seriously affect tree growth.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page The pods and seeds may be blown by the wind, but it more likely that spread is facilitated by being eaten by mammals and distributed in dung (CRC Weed Management, 2002). Concerning long-distance dispersal, A. karroo has been deliberately introduced to countries in Asia, Europe, Australasia and Indian Ocean islands for use as a fodder plant, an ornamental and for soil stabilization and improvement.

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Crop production None
Environment (generally) Negative
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production None
Human health None
Livestock production Negative
Native fauna Negative
Native flora None
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Environmental Impact

Top of page Lubke and Bredenkamp (1998) report that overgrazing can lead to invasion of A. karroo into grassland, forming dense thickets at the expense of grass species. The species' ability to fix nitrogen is likely to lead to changed patterns of nutrient cycling where it occurs as an alien invasive species.

Social Impact

Top of page It is difficult to handle due to its thorns which may cause injury to people or animals.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts tourism
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Produces spines, thorns or burrs
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

Top of page A. karroo is of great socio-economic importance in the seasonally dry to arid regions of southern Africa. It fixes nitrogen, provides shade, stabilizes sand dunes and disturbed areas and is resistant to fire, drought, frost, termites and salinity. When pruned or after losing peripheral thorny branches, A. karroo only has a moderately dense crown that provides a suitable environment for sustained production of nutritious perennial grasses such as Panicum maximum and Cenchrus ciliaris (Barnes et al., 1996). Due to the presence of thorns, it is used and promoted as a living hedge. However, its use as an urban ornamental is limited as its invasive root system means that it is unsuitable for planting near buildings or paved pathways.

The wood is reddish brown, hard, moderately heavy and makes excellent fuel as it burns brightly and evenly with little smoke or odour, producing good coals and little ash. It is however, noted for its multipurpose nature, and that in southern Africa it is highly regarded, with almost every tree part being used in some way.

The leaves, flowers and pods are good fodder, although it has a high tannin content that may impair accessibility of protein in livestock rumens. It yields clear gum of high quality, although the only country in which it is collected and used as a substitute for gum arabic (gum from A. senegal) is Zimbabwe (Barnes et al., 1996). It is a good tree for bees (Carr, 1976; Timberlake, 1980), providing large quantities of pollen and nectar and can flower three or four times a year.

The bark can be used for tanning leather and the inner bark makes good cord, twine and rope. A. karroo roots are prescribed as an aphrodisiac in Zimbabwe and for treating pain in the digestive tract, rheumatism, convulsions and gonorrhoea (Gelfand et al., 1993). Thorns were used as needles for stitching cloth, and even by insect collectors to 'fix' their specimens.

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Boundary, barrier or support
  • Revegetation
  • Soil improvement

Fuels

  • Charcoal
  • Fuelwood

General

  • Ornamental

Human food and beverage

  • Honey/honey flora

Materials

  • Carved material
  • Dye/tanning
  • Fibre
  • Gum/resin
  • Miscellaneous materials
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical

Wood Products

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Charcoal

Furniture

Roundwood

  • Building poles
  • Posts
  • Roundwood structures

Woodware

  • Industrial and domestic woodware
  • Tool handles

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page ILDIS (2004) reports similarity of A. karroo to A. nilotica subsp. adstringens when not in fruit, noting that records from Mauritius included Acacia nilotica subsp. adstringens.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

No information on the control of A. karroo specifically is available from the literature, though it may be assumed that similar treatments as used on other invasive acacia species may be appropriate.

References

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Anon, 2001. Acacia karroo, No. 120. Pretoria, South Africa: University of Pretoria, Manie van der Schijff Botanical Garden. http://www.up.ac.za/academic/botany/garden/species/120.html.

Aubrey A; Reynolds Y, 2002. Acacia karroo Hayne. South Africa National Botanical Institute (SANBI), Witwatersrand National Botanical Garden. http://www.plantzafrica.com/plantab/acaciakar.htm.

Barnes RD; Filer DL; Milton SJ, 1996. Acacia karroo: monograph and annotated bibliography. Tropical Forestry Papers, No. 32:ix + 77 pp.; 258 ref.

Bembridge TJ, 1966. Eradication of Thorn trees. Rhod. agric. J. 63 (4), (86-8). [2 refs.].

Binggeli P, 1999. Invasive woody plants. http://members.lycos.co.uk/WoodyPlantEcology/invasive/index.html.

Carr JD, 1965. The propagation of indigenous trees. Trees in South Africa, 17(2):30-40.

Carr JD, 1976. The South African Acacias. Johannesburg, South Africa: Conservation Press.

Chidari G; Charambaguwa F; Matsvimbo P; Mhiripiri A; Kamanya P; Muza W; Muyombo T; Chanakira J; Mutsvanga X; Mvumbe A; Nyamadzawo P; Fortmann L; Drummond RB; Nabane N, 1992. The use of indigenous trees in Mhondoro district. Occasional paper-NRM No. 5. Zimbabwe: University of Zimbabwe, Centre for Applied Social Sciences.

Clarke J, 1994. Building on indigenous natural resource management: forestry practices in Zimbabwe's communal lands. 1994, xi + 55 pp.

Coates-Palgrave K, 1996. Trees of Southern Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: C. S. Struik Publishers.

CRC Weed Management, 2002. Thorny issue at the Waite. Australia: CRC Weed Management (Cooperative Research Centre for Australian Weed Management). http://www.weeds.crc.org.au/documents/thorny_issue.pdf.

DEH, 2005. Weeds on the National Environmental Alert list. Australian Government, Department of the Environment and Heritage, Canberra, Australia. http://www.deh.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive/weeds/alert-list.html.

Drummond RB, 1981. Common trees of the central watershed woodlands of Zimbabwe. Salisbury, Zimbabwe: Natural Resources Board.

Eberhard AA, 1990. Fuelwood calorific values in South Africa. South African Forestry Journal, No. 152, 17-22; 5 ref.

FNCW, 2001. W1 Category noxious weeds in the far north coast weeds county district. New South Wales, Australia: Far North Coast Weeds (FNCW), Far North Coast County Council. http://www.fncw.nsw.gov.au/noxious/w1.html.

Gelfland M; Mavi S; Drummond RB; Ndemera EB, 1993. The traditional medical practitioner in Zimbabwe. Gweru, Zimbabwe: Mambo Press.

Goldsmith B; Carter DT, 1981. The indigenous timbers of Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Bulletin of Forestry Research, 9.

ILDIS, 2004. International Legume Database and Information Service. University of Southamptom, UK. http://www.ildis.org/.

Lubke R; Bredenkamp G, 1998. Eastern Thorn Bushveld. Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism. http://www.ngo.grida.no/soesa/nsoer/Data/vegrsa/veg16.htm.

Muller TH, 1979. Acacia species cultivated in the National Botanic Garden, Salisbury, Rhodesia. International Group for the Study of Mimosoideae Bulletin, 7:36-39.

Ncube S; Dube JS; Hove L, 1992. Value of browse, wild fruits as livestock feed. The Farmer (Zimbabwe), 60(18):7-8.

New TR, 1984. A biology of acacias. Melbourne, Australia; Oxford University Press, 153pp.

New TR, 1984. A biology of the acacias. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

NWSEC, 1998. Noxious Weeds List for Australian States and Territories. National Weeds Strategy Executive Committee. http://www.weeds.org.au/docs/weednet6.pdf.

Pardy Aa, 1952. Notes on indigenous trees and shrubs of S. Rhodesia. Reprs. from Rhod. agric. J. 49 (2) (74...84 + 12 plates).

Ross JH, 1979. A conspectus of African Acacia species. Memoirs of the Botanical Survey of South Africa, No. 44, v + 155 pp.; 2 pl. (col.); 76 ref.

Scott JD, 1967. Bush encroachment in South Africa. South African Journal of Science, 63:311-314.

Timberlake J, 1980. Handbook of Botswana Acacias. Gaborone, Botswana: Ministry of Agriculture, Division of Land Utilisation.

Timberlake JR; Nobanda N; Mapaure; I, (1993). Vegetation survey of the communal lands north and west Zimbabwe. Kirkia, 14(2):171-270.

van Aarde RJ; Smit AM; Claassens AS, 1998. TI: Soil characteristics of rehabilitating and unmined Coastal Dunes at Richards Bay, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Restoration Ecology, 6(1): 102-110.

Venter F; Venter JA, 1996. Making the most of indigenous trees. Pretoria, South Africa: Briza Publications.

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Carr J D, 1976. The South African Acacias. In: The South African Acacias. Johannesburg, South Africa: Conservation Press (Pty.) Ltd. 323 pp.

Drummond RB, 1981. Common trees of the central watershed woodlands of Zimbabwe., Salisbury, Zimbabwe: Natural Resources Board.

FNCW, 2001. W1 Category noxious weeds in the far north coast weeds county district., New South Wales, Australia: Far North Coast Weeds (FNCW), Far North Coast County Council. http://www.fncw.nsw.gov.au/noxious/w1.html

Distribution Maps

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