Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Eucalyptus deglupta
(kamarere)

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Datasheet

Eucalyptus deglupta (kamarere)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 15 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Eucalyptus deglupta
  • Preferred Common Name
  • kamarere
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Typical near even aged stand on bank of the River Toiru, New Britain, Papua New Guinea.
TitleMature stand
CaptionTypical near even aged stand on bank of the River Toiru, New Britain, Papua New Guinea.
CopyrightJohn Davidson/Eucalyptus & Forestry Services
Typical near even aged stand on bank of the River Toiru, New Britain, Papua New Guinea.
Mature standTypical near even aged stand on bank of the River Toiru, New Britain, Papua New Guinea.John Davidson/Eucalyptus & Forestry Services
Bark on lower trunk: Note scale bar.
TitleBark
CaptionBark on lower trunk: Note scale bar.
CopyrightJohn Davidson/Eucalyptus & Forestry Services
Bark on lower trunk: Note scale bar.
BarkBark on lower trunk: Note scale bar.John Davidson/Eucalyptus & Forestry Services
Adult leaves showing opposite to sub-opposite arrangement.  The leaf marked X has been turned to show the underside.
TitleFoliage
CaptionAdult leaves showing opposite to sub-opposite arrangement. The leaf marked X has been turned to show the underside.
CopyrightJohn Davidson/Eucalyptus & Forestry Services
Adult leaves showing opposite to sub-opposite arrangement.  The leaf marked X has been turned to show the underside.
FoliageAdult leaves showing opposite to sub-opposite arrangement. The leaf marked X has been turned to show the underside.John Davidson/Eucalyptus & Forestry Services
Young buds in terminal and axillary panicles with outer opercula already lost.
TitleFlower buds
CaptionYoung buds in terminal and axillary panicles with outer opercula already lost.
CopyrightJohn Davidson/Eucalyptus & Forestry Services
Young buds in terminal and axillary panicles with outer opercula already lost.
Flower budsYoung buds in terminal and axillary panicles with outer opercula already lost.John Davidson/Eucalyptus & Forestry Services
Buds immediately before anthesis, inner opercula ready to be shed.
TitleFlower buds
CaptionBuds immediately before anthesis, inner opercula ready to be shed.
CopyrightJohn Davidson/Eucalyptus & Forestry Services
Buds immediately before anthesis, inner opercula ready to be shed.
Flower budsBuds immediately before anthesis, inner opercula ready to be shed.John Davidson/Eucalyptus & Forestry Services
Flowers two days after anthesis.
TitleFlower buds
CaptionFlowers two days after anthesis.
CopyrightJohn Davidson/Eucalyptus & Forestry Services
Flowers two days after anthesis.
Flower budsFlowers two days after anthesis.John Davidson/Eucalyptus & Forestry Services
Tip of branch bearing a heavy crop of maturing capsules.
TitleMaturing fruits
CaptionTip of branch bearing a heavy crop of maturing capsules.
CopyrightJohn Davidson/Eucalyptus & Forestry Services
Tip of branch bearing a heavy crop of maturing capsules.
Maturing fruitsTip of branch bearing a heavy crop of maturing capsules.John Davidson/Eucalyptus & Forestry Services
Near mature capsules approximately 5mm in diameter.
TitleMaturing fruits
CaptionNear mature capsules approximately 5mm in diameter.
CopyrightJohn Davidson/Eucalyptus & Forestry Services
Near mature capsules approximately 5mm in diameter.
Maturing fruitsNear mature capsules approximately 5mm in diameter.John Davidson/Eucalyptus & Forestry Services
Woody capsules after seeds have been shed. Approximately 4mm in diameter each with four thin deltoid exsert valves.
TitleWoody capsules
CaptionWoody capsules after seeds have been shed. Approximately 4mm in diameter each with four thin deltoid exsert valves.
CopyrightJohn Davidson/Eucalyptus & Forestry Services
Woody capsules after seeds have been shed. Approximately 4mm in diameter each with four thin deltoid exsert valves.
Woody capsulesWoody capsules after seeds have been shed. Approximately 4mm in diameter each with four thin deltoid exsert valves.John Davidson/Eucalyptus & Forestry Services
1. tree habit
2. flowering twig
TitleLine artwork
Caption1. tree habit 2. flowering twig
CopyrightPROSEA Foundation
1. tree habit
2. flowering twig
Line artwork1. tree habit 2. flowering twigPROSEA Foundation
Provenances from the north-eastern tip of mainland Papua New Guinea.  
1. Shape and arrangement of leaves and inflorescences 
2. Green capsule side view 
3. Green capsule end view 
4. Median longitudinal section of flower 5. Inner operculum 
6. Transverse section of ovary 
7. End view of open capsule
TitleLine drawing
CaptionProvenances from the north-eastern tip of mainland Papua New Guinea. 1. Shape and arrangement of leaves and inflorescences 2. Green capsule side view 3. Green capsule end view 4. Median longitudinal section of flower 5. Inner operculum 6. Transverse section of ovary 7. End view of open capsule
CopyrightN. Howcroft.
Provenances from the north-eastern tip of mainland Papua New Guinea.  
1. Shape and arrangement of leaves and inflorescences 
2. Green capsule side view 
3. Green capsule end view 
4. Median longitudinal section of flower 5. Inner operculum 
6. Transverse section of ovary 
7. End view of open capsule
Line drawingProvenances from the north-eastern tip of mainland Papua New Guinea. 1. Shape and arrangement of leaves and inflorescences 2. Green capsule side view 3. Green capsule end view 4. Median longitudinal section of flower 5. Inner operculum 6. Transverse section of ovary 7. End view of open capsuleN. Howcroft.

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Eucalyptus deglupta Blume

Preferred Common Name

  • kamarere

Other Scientific Names

  • Eucalyptus multiflora (A. Rich.) A. Gray
  • Eucalyptus naudiniana F. Muell.
  • Eucalyptus schlechteri Diels

International Common Names

  • English: Mindanao gum

Local Common Names

  • Indonesia: leda
  • Indonesia/Moluccas: aren
  • Indonesia/Sulawesi: galang
  • Philippines: amamanit; bagras; banikag

Trade name

  • kamarere

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Myrtales
  •                         Family: Myrtaceae
  •                             Genus: Eucalyptus
  •                                 Species: Eucalyptus deglupta

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresent Planted
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HainanPresent Planted
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-DelhiPresent Planted
IndonesiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Irian JayaPresentPlanted, Natural
-JavaPresent Planted
-KalimantanPresent Planted
-MoluccasPresentPlanted, Natural
-SulawesiPresentPlanted, Natural
-SumatraPresent Planted
MalaysiaPresent
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent Planted
-SabahPresent Planted
-SarawakPresent Planted
PhilippinesPresentPlanted, Natural
SingaporePresent Planted
Sri LankaPresent Planted
ThailandPresent Planted
VietnamPresent Planted

Africa

CameroonPresent Planted
CongoPresent Planted
Côte d'IvoirePresent Planted
KenyaPresent Planted
MadagascarPresent Planted
MauritiusPresent Planted
UgandaPresent Planted
ZimbabwePresent Planted

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresent Planted
CubaPresent Planted
Puerto RicoPresent Planted

South America

BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AmazonasPresent Planted

Oceania

American SamoaPresent Planted
AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-QueenslandPresent Planted
FijiPresent Planted
Papua New GuineaUnconfirmed recordPlanted, NaturalCAB Abstracts
Solomon IslandsUnconfirmed record Planted

References

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Acosta R; Morejon JM, 1981. Effect of site preparation method on growth of Eucalyptus deglupta on marshland soil. [Influencia de la preparacion de los suelos cenagosos sobre el crecimiento del Eucalyptus deglupta.] Ciencia y Tecnica en la Agricultura, Mecanizacion de la Agricultura, recd. 1984, 4(2):57-63; 1 pl.; 5 ref.

Barnard RC, 1953. Experience with exotic tree species in Malaya. Malay Forester 16(1):29-40.

Batista MP; Borges JF; Franco MAB, 1982. Avaliacao do crescimiento inicial de una essencia nativa en comparacao con outras exoticas, no nordeste do Para, Brasil. Sao Paulo, Brazil: Instituto Florestal, Campos do Jordao 16A. Part 2.

Boland DJ; Davidson J; Howcroft N, 1977. Eucalyptus deglupta Blume and Araucaria cunninghamii Lambert. Provenance seed collections in Irian Jaya, Indonesia, 3-17 June 1975. Forest Genetic Resources Information, No. 6, 3-15; also Forestry Occasional Paper (1977) No. 1; 5 ref.

Booth TH; Jovanovic T, 2000. Improving descriptions of climatic requirements in the CABI Forestry Compendium. A report for the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research. CSIRO - Forestry and Forest Products, Client Report No. 758.

Bowen MR; Eusebio TV, 1982. Seed handling practices: four fast-growing hardwoods for humid tropical plantations in the eighties. Malaysian Forester, recd. 1984, 45(4):534-547.

Chong TK; Jones N, 1982. Fast growing hardwood plantations on logged-over forest sites in Sabah. The Malaysian Forester, 45(4): 558-575.

Chudnoff M, 1984. Tropical timbers of the world. Agriculture Handbook, USDA, No. 607, Madison, USA: Forest Products Laboratory, US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.

Cossalter C, 1977. Location and ecological data of some provenances of Eucalyptus deglupta Blume in the Celebes and Ceram Islands - characteristics of the natural stands. Forest Genetic Resources Information, No.6, 16-23; also Forestry Occasional Paper (1977) No. 1.

Dalton J; Davidson J, 1974. Time of establishment of seedlings of Eucalyptus deglupta at two locations in Papua New Guinea. Tropical Forestry Research Note, Papua New Guinea, No. SR. 25, 19 pp.; 9 ref.

Davidson J, 1968. Forest tree improvement in New Guinea. II. Kamarere [Eucalyptus deglupta]. 1968. pp. 8. [9 refs. (Pap. 9th Commonw. For. Conf., New Delhi 1968).]. Department of Forests, Port Moresby.

Davidson J, 1968b. Improving production from Eucalyptus deglupta in the Territory of Papua New Guinea. Perth, Australia: Fifth Conference of the Institute of Foresters of Australia.

Davidson J, 1972. Variation, association and inheritance of morphological and wood characters in a tree improvement programme for Eucalyptus deglupta Blume. Thesis for Degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Canberra, Australia: Australian National University.

Davidson J, 1973. A description of Eucalyptus deglupta. Tropical Forestry Research Note, Papua New Guinea, No. SR.7, 23 pp.; 7 ref.

Davidson J, 1973. A technique for rooting seedling cuttings of Eucalyptus deglupta Blume. Tropical Forestry Research Note, Papua New Guinea, No. SR. 8, 10 pp.; 5 ref.

Davidson J, 1973. A tree improvement programme for Eucalyptus deglupta in Papua New Guinea (a summary of progress). Davidson, J. (Natural variation in Eucalyptus deglupta and its effect on choice of criteria for selection in a tree improvement programme. Tropical-Forestry-Research-Note,-Papua-New-Guinea):No,SR.3, 5 pp.; 1 ref.

Davidson J, 1973. Conservation of the gene resources of tropical Eucalyptus deglupta. Tropical Forestry Research Note, Papua New Guinea, No. SR. 12, 10 + 11 pp.; 22 ref.

Davidson J, 1973. Forest tree improvement - Kamarere. Davidson, J. (Improving production from Eucalyptus deglupta in the territory of Papua New Guinea. Tropical-Forestry-Research-Note,-Papua-New-Guinea):No. SR. 6, 14 pp.; 8 ref.

Davidson J, 1973. Improving production from Eucalyptus deglupta in the territory of Papua New Guinea. Tropical Forestry Research Note, Papua New Guinea, No. SR 5, 9 pp.; 4 ref.

Davidson J, 1973. Incompatibility symptoms in grafts of Eucalyptus deglupta Blume. Davidson, J. (Techniques of grafting Eucalyptus deglupta Blume. Tropical-Forestry-Research-Note,-Papua-New-Guinea):No. SR. 11, 8 pp.; 10 ref.

Davidson J, 1973. Natural variation in Eucalyptus deglupta and its effect on choice of criteria for selection in a tree improvement programme. Tropical Forestry Research Note, Papua New Guinea, No. SR.2, 9 pp.; 3 ref.

Davidson J, 1973. Some physiological aspects of rooting cuttings of Eucalyptus deglupta Blume. Davidson, J. (A technique for rooting seedling cuttings of Eucalyptus deglupta Blume. Tropical-Forestry-Research-Note,-Papua-New-Guinea):No. SR. 10, 18 pp.; 10 ref.

Davidson J, 1973. Techniques of grafting Eucalyptus deglupta Blume. Tropical Forestry Research Note, Papua New Guinea, No. SR. 9, 9 pp.; 7 ref.

Davidson J, 1973k. Provenance trials of Eucalyptus deglupta in Papua New Guinea. Tropical Forestry Research Note SR17. Boroko, Papua New Guinea: Department of Forests.

Davidson J, 1973l. Decayed wood in living trees of Eucalyptus deglupta Blume. Capetown, South Africa: Meeting of IUFRO, Division 5, Working Party S5. 0 1. 9.

Davidson J, 1973m. The association between wood basic density and some measurable wood parameters and possibilities of growing wood of optimum density in tropical plantations of Eucalyptus deglupta Blume. Capetown, South Africa: Meeting of IUFRO, Division 5, Working Party S5. 01. 9.

Davidson J, 1973n. Provenance trials of Eucalyptus deglupta in Papua New Guinea. Nairobi, Kenya: Combined meeting of IUFRO Working Parties S2. 0 3. 1 and S2. 0 2. 8.

Davidson J, 1974. Decayed wood in living trees of Eucalyptus deglupta Blume. Tropical Forestry Research Note, Papua New Guinea, No. SR. 18, 31, Boroko, Papua New Guinea: Department of Forests. pp.; 19 ref.

Davidson J, 1974a. Reproduction of Eucalyptus deglupta by cuttings. New Zealand Journal of Forest Science, 4(2): 191-203.

Davidson J, 1974b. Grafting Eucalyptus deglupta. New Zealand Journal of Forest Science, 4(2): 204-210.

Davidson J, 1975. Use of principal components, factor analysis and varimax rotation to describe variability in wood of Eucalyptus deglupta Blume. Wood Science and Technology, 9(4):275-291; 15 ref.

Davidson J, 1977a. Exploration, collection, evaluation, conservation and utilization of the gene resources of tropical Eucalyptus deglupta Bl. Proceedings of the Third World Consultation on Forest Tree Breeding, Canberra, Australia. Documents Vol. 1: 75-102.

Davidson J, 1977b. Advances from international co-operation on tropical Eucalyptus. Proceedings of the Third World Consultation on Forest Tree Breeding, Canberra, Australia. Documents Vol. 1: 355-369.

Davidson J, 1977c. Problems of vegetative propagation of Eucalyptus. Proceedings of the Third World Consultation on Forest Tree Breeding, Canberra, Australia. Documents Vol. 2: 857-882.

Davidson J, 1977d. Breeding Eucalyptus deglupta - a case study. Proceedings of the Third World Consultation on Forest Tree Breeding, Canberra, Australia. Documents, Vol. 2: 1187-1203.

Davidson J, 1981. Eucalyptus deglupta Blume. In: Data Book on Endangered Forest Tree Species and Provenances. Rome, Italy: FAO and UNEP, 22-24.

Davidson J, 1983a. Provenance trials of Eucalyptus deglupta in Papua New Guinea. Sao Paulo, Brazil: Silvicultura, 31: 434-440.

Davidson J, 1983b. Progress in breeding Eucalyptus deglupta. Sao Paulo, Brazil: Silvicultura, 31: 529-533.

Davidson J, 1983c. Forestry in Papua New Guinea: A case study of the Gogol woodchip project near Madang. In: Hamilton LS, ed. Forest and Watershed Development and Conservation in Asia and the Pacific. Boulder, Colorado, USA: Westview Press, 19-138.

Davidson J, 1986. Eucalyptus deglupta Bl. In: Databook on Endangered Tree and Shrub Species and Provenances. FAO Forestry Paper No. 77. Rome, Italy: FAO, 262-270.

Davidson J, 1988. Breeding eucalypts in tropical countries. In: Newman RL, ed, Proceedings International Australian Bicentennial Forestry Conference, Albury-Wodonga, Australia, 25 April-1 May 1988. Canberra, Australia; Institute of Foresters of Australia. Vol. 5: 1-21.

Davidson J, 1992. Tree breeding and propagation - Some concepts. In: Vivekanandan K, Davidson J, Kashio M, eds. Tree Breeding and Propagation. 2 Vols. UNDP/FAO Regional Project on Tree Breeding and Propagation. Bangkok, Thailand: FAO/RAPA, Vol 1: 39-67.

Davidson J, 1993. Domestication and breeding programme for Eucalyptus in the Asia-Pacific region. UNDP/FAO Regional Project on Improving Productivity of Man-Made Forests Through Application of Technological Advances in Tree Breeding and Propagation (RAS/91/004-FORTIP). Los Baños, Philippines: FAO of the United Nations.

Davidson J, 1993b. Proceedings of the regional symposium on recent advances in mass clonal multiplication of forest trees for plantation programmes, 1-8 December 1992, Cisarua, Bogor, Indonesia. 1993, viii + 392 pp.; refs at ends of papers. Copies available from Chief Technical Adviser-Project Coordinator, UNDP-FAO Project RAS-91-004, PO Box 157, College, Laguna 4031, Philippines. RAS-91-004 Field Document No. 4.

Davidson J, 1995. Ecological aspects of Eucalyptus plantations. In: White K, Ball J, Kashio M, eds. Proceedings of the Regional Expert Consultation on Eucalyptus 4-8 October 1993. Bangkok, Thailand: FAO/RAPA, Vol 1: 35-73.

Davidson J, 1996. Developing PLANTGRO plant files for forest trees. In: Booth TH, ed. Matching Trees and Sites, Proceedings of an international workshop held in Bangkok 27-30 March 1995, Canberra, Australia: ACIAR Proceedings, No. 63: 93-96.

Davidson J, 1996b. Off site and out of sight! How bad cultural practices are offsetting genetic gains in forestry. In: Dieters MJ, Matheson AC, Nikles DG, Harwood CE, Walker SM, eds. Tree Improvement for Sustainable Tropical Forestry, Proceedings of QFRI - IUFRO Conference, Caloundra, Queensland, Australia, 27 October - 1 November 1996. 288-294.

Davidson J; Fairlamb J, 1973. Provenance trials of Eucalyptus deglupta in Papua New Guinea. Tropical Forestry Research Note, Papua New Guinea, No. SR. 17, 17 pp.; 4 ref.

Davidson J; Howcroft NHS, 1973. Papua New Guinea tree improvement and introduction progress report 1972. Tropical Forestry Research Note, Papua New Guinea, No. SR. 1, 15 pp.; 4 ref.

Division of Utilization, 1970. Properties and uses of Papua and New Guinea timbers. Hohola, Papua New Guinea: Forest Products Research Centre, Department of Forests.

Eldridge KG; Davidson J, 1988. Strategies used for domestication and improvement of eucalypts for plantations. Albury-Wodonga, Australia: Australian Bicentennial Forestry Conference.

Eldridge KG; Davidson J; Harwood CE; Van Wyk G, 1993. Eucalypt domestication and breeding. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, xix + 288 pp. 27 pp. of ref.

FAO, 1979. Eucalyptus for planting. FAO Forestry Series No. 11. Rome, Italy: FAO.

Fenton R; Roper RE; Watt GR, 1977. Lowland tropical hardwoods. An annotated bibliography of selected species with plantation potential. Wellington, New Zealand: External Aid Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Ferguson JHA, 1950. Eucalyptus deglupta Bl. Tectona 40 (1), (51-61).

Figueroa JC; Whitmore JL, 1980. Three species of Eucalyptus tested in Puerto Rico, five years after outplanting. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry, 4(4):169-174; 3 pl.; 14 ref.

Goudet JP, 1974. Experimental plantations of species for papermaking in the San-Pedro region, Ivory Coast 1971-1974. [Plantations experimentales d'especes papetieres dans la region de San-Pedro (1971-1974).] 1974, 84 pp. + 1 fig., 9 photos, 3 maps.

Grijpma P, 1969. Eucalyptus deglupta, a promising forest species for the humid tropics of Latin America. Turrialba 19 (2), (267-83). [48 refs.].

Harries ED; Phillips FH; Logan AF, 1997. The pulping and papermaking potential of plantation-grown Eucalyptus deglupta from Papua New Guinea. Part 1. Pulpwood characteristics. Journal of Tropical Forest Products, 2(2):199-215.

Heather WA, 1955. The Kamarere forests of New Britain. Emp. For. Rev. 34 (3), (255-78 + 8 photos). 29 refs.

Hillis WE; Brown AG, 1984. Eucalypts for wood production. Melbourne, Australia: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation.

Howcroft N; Davidson J, 1974. Papua New Guinea tree introduction and improvement. Progress Report 1972-1974. Tropical Forestry Research Note, Papua New Guinea, No. SR. 26, 9 pp.; 1 ref.

Lama Gutierrez G de la, 1976. Atlas of eucalypts. Vol. 2. Ecology and drawings of flower buds and fruits. [Atlas del eucalipto. Tomo II. Ecologia y dibujos de capullos y frutos.] 1976, recd. 1980, 384 pp.; 1 fig. (col.), 3 maps (col.).

Lamb D; Lago D; Mosimbi M, 1974. Heart rot in plantation stands of Eucalyptus deglupta (Blume) growing on alluvial soils. Tropical Forestry Research Note SR20. Boroko, Papua New Guinea: Department of Forests.

Lamprecht H, 1986. Waldbau in den Tropen [Silviculture in the Tropics]. Hamburg: Paul Parey.

Leon-Boado E de, 1976. Germination of bagras (Eucalyptus deglupta) using different soil media. Philippine Forestry Journal, 1: 34-37.

Luton JR; Roberts H, 1980. Preliminary assessment of provenance susceptibility in Eucalyptus deglupta to Agrilus opulentus attack [in Papua New Guinea]. Tropical Forestry Research Note, Office of Forests, Papua New Guinea, No. 38:ii + 5 pp.

Macfarlane R; Jackson GVH: Marten KD, 1976. Die-back of Eucalyptus in the Solomon Islands. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 55(2):133-139

Navarro C, 1985. Biomass production by an eight-year-old plantation of Eucalyptus deglupta in Turrialba, Costa Rica. [Produccion de biomasa de Eucalyptus deglupta en una plantacion de ocho anos en Turrialba, Costa Rica.] Silvoenergia, Proyecto Lena y Fuentes Alternas de Energia, CATIE, Costa Rica, No. 8, 4 pp.; 9 ref.

Pape R, 1973. New Horizons: Forestry in Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea: Ministry of Forests.

Penfold AR; Willis JL, 1961. The Eucalypts. Botany, cultivation, chemistry, and utilization. pp. xx + 551. Leonard Hill [Books] Limited, London; Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York.

Phillips FH; Logan AF; Harries ED, 1997. The pulping and papermaking potential of plantation-grown Eucalyptus deglupta from Papua New Guinea. Part 2. Sulphate and NSSC pulps from wood of various ages. Journal of Tropical Forest Products, 3(1):20-42.

Pryor LD, 1976. Biology of eucalypts. Institute of Biology's Studies in Biology 61. London: Edward Arnold Ltd. 1976, v + 82 pp.; B.

Pryor LD; Johnson LAS, 1971. A classification of the eucalypts. Canberra, Australia: Australian National University, pp. 102.

Ruskin FR, 1983. Firewood crops. Shrub and tree species for energy production. Volume 2. 1983, vii + 92 pp.; 36 pl. BOSTID Report No. 40. Washington DC, USA: National Academy Press. 6 pp. ref.

Schaller M; Schroth G; Beer J; Jiménez F, 2003. Species and site characteristics that permit the association of fast-growing trees with crops: the case of Eucalyptus deglupta as coffee shade in Costa Rica. Forest Ecology and Management, 175(1/3):205-215.

Scott L, 1982. Germinating eucalypt seeds. Combined Proceedings, International Plant Propagators' Society, publ. 1983, 32: 357-362; 1 pl.; 12 ref.

Soerianegara I; Lemmens RHMJ, eds. , 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 5(1). Timber trees: major commercial timbers. Wageningen, Netherlands: Pudoc Scientific Publishers. Also published by PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. pp. 610.

Streets RJ, 1962. Exotic forest trees in the British Commonwealth. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.

Tagudar ET; Gianan N, 1970. Development of a Eucalyptus deglupta (Blume) plantation inside the Bislig Bay Lumber Company, Inc. Occ. Pap. Bur. For. Philippines No. 40 . Manila, Philippines: Forest Research Division, Bureau of Forestry. pp. 5.

Takizawa T, 1999. Wood quality and working properties of tropical fast-growing trees (2) Eucalyptus deglupta and E. robusta. Tropical Forestry, No. 44:81-85.

Tan KC; Jones N, 1982. Fast growing hardwood plantations on logged-over forest sites in Sabah. Malaysian Forester, recd. 1984, 45(4):558-575; 10 ref.

Tomboc CC, 1977. Growth, yield and economic rotation of bagras (Eucalyptus deglupta) pulp timber in the PICOP plantations (Mindanao). Part 2: Yield prediction model. Sylvatrop, 2(2):117-126; 12 ref.

Turnbull J, 1974. Kamarere. Eucalyptus deglupta Blume. Forest Tree Series, Forestry and Timber Bureau, Australia, No. 175, Canberra, Australia: Department of Primary Industry, Forestry and Timber Bureau. 4 pp.

Ugalde Arias LA, 1980. Yield and assortments from two selective thinning intensities in Eucalyptus deglupta at Turrialba, Costa Rica. [Rendimiento y aprovechamiento de dos intensidades de raleos selectivos en Eucalyptus deglupta Blume en Turrialba, Costa Rica.] 1980, xix + 127 pp.; Publ. by Programa de Recursos Naturales Renovables, CATIE; 79 ref.

Viado GB, 1979. The varicose borer, Agrilus sp. (Coleoptera : Buprestidae), of bagras (Eucalyptus deglupta). Sylvatrop, 4(1):45-47; 1 pl.

Wadsworth FH, 1960. Records of forest plantation growth in Mexico, the West Indies, and Central and South America. Second annual report of the section on planting. Regional committee on forest research, Latin American Forestry Commission, Food and Agriculture Organization, United Nations. Carib. For. 21 (Suppl.), 1960. pp. 272 [+ 16]. 1 ref.

Webb DB; Wood PJ; Smith JP; Henman GS, 1984. A guide to species selection for tropical and sub-tropical plantations. Tropical Forestry Papers, No. 15. Oxford, UK: Commonwealth Forestry Institute, University of Oxford.

Webb LJ, 1977. Ecological considerations and safeguards in the modern use of tropical lowland rain forests as a source of pulpwood: example, the Madang area PNG. 1977, Indooroopilly, Queensland, Australia: Rain Forest Ecology Section, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. 36 pp.; 73 ref.

White KJ; Cameron AL-[Compilers], 1965. Silvicultural techniques in Papua New Guinea: forest plantations. Bull. Div. Silv. Dep. For. Papua & N. Guinea No. 1, 1965. pp. 99.

Wilcox MD, 1997. A Catalogue of the Eucalypts. Auckland, New Zealand: Groome Pöyry Ltd.

Woessner RA; Lopes OMN, 1981. Growth of Eucalyptus deglupta Bl. at Jari on different soils up through age three. Jari, Brazil: Jari Florestal.

Wormsley JS; McAdam JB, 1975. The forests and forest conditions in the Territories of Papua and New Guinea. Boroko, Papua New Guinea: Department of Forests.

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