Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Corymbia citriodora
(lemon-scented gum)



Corymbia citriodora (lemon-scented gum)


  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Corymbia citriodora
  • Preferred Common Name
  • lemon-scented gum
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. citriodora is a medium-sized to large tree that has been widely introduced in tropical and subtropical regions of the world to be used as an ornamental, in reforestation projects, and for production of timber, pulp, and essential oils...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report


Top of page
Central Queensland, Australia.
TitleNatural stand
CaptionCentral Queensland, Australia.
CopyrightDoug Boland/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Central Queensland, Australia.
Natural standCentral Queensland, Australia.Doug Boland/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Smooth, pale pink bark of a mature tree.
CaptionSmooth, pale pink bark of a mature tree.
CopyrightDoug Boland/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Smooth, pale pink bark of a mature tree.
BarkSmooth, pale pink bark of a mature tree.Doug Boland/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
TitleBark decorticating in flakes.
CopyrightIan Brooker/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Bark decorticating in flakes.Ian Brooker/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products


Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Corymbia citriodora (Hook.) K. D. Hill & L. A. S. Johnson

Preferred Common Name

  • lemon-scented gum

Other Scientific Names

  • Corymbia citriodora subsp. variegata (F.Muell.) A.R.Bean & M.W.McDonald
  • Corymbia variegata (F.Muell.) K.D.Hill & L.A.S.Johnson
  • Eucalyptus citriodora Hook.
  • Eucalyptus maculata var. citriodora (Hook.) Bailey
  • Eucalyptus melissiodora Lindl.
  • Eucalyptus variegata F.Muell.

International Common Names

  • English: citron-scent gum; Lemon gum tree
  • Spanish: eucalipto
  • French: Eucalyptus a odeur de citron

Local Common Names

  • Australia: lemon-scented iron gum; spotted gum; spotted iron gum
  • Germany: Zitronen- Eukalyptus
  • Italy: Eucalipto a profumo di limone
  • Puerto Rico: eucalipto de limón; eucalipto de pantano; eucalipto oloroso

EPPO code

  • EUCCI (Eucalyptus citriodora)

Trade name

  • lemon-scented gum

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

C. citriodora is a medium-sized to large tree that has been widely introduced in tropical and subtropical regions of the world to be used as an ornamental, in reforestation projects, and for production of timber, pulp, and essential oils (Doran, 1999; Orwa et al., 1999). It has escaped from cultivation and spread into new habitats, becoming naturalized and invasive in disturbed areas and open forests. Once established, this species has the potential to out-compete native vegetation through the production of allelopathic substances which completely inhibit the germination, growth and establishment of native plants (Nishimura et al., 1984; Evaristo et al., 2011). It also represents an environmental concern in invaded areas due to its’ slow decomposition rate (Rezende et al., 2001), which also prevents the germination and growth of native species. Other concerns are related to the capability of C. corymbia to reduce ground-water availability, modify soil nutrients and increase the risk of soil erosion (Schneider, 2003). 

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Myrtales
  •                         Family: Lithomyrtus
  •                             Genus: Corymbia
  •                                 Species: Corymbia citriodora

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page
C. citriodora belongs to a group of eucalypts known as the spotted gums which also includes C. maculata and C. henryi. Formerly in the genus Eucalyptus, E. citriodora was placed in the informal subgenus Corymbia (which comprises the bloodwood group of eucalypts) by Pryor and Johnson (1971). In a major taxonomic revision, Hill and Johnson (1995) placed the bloodwoods in the new genus Corymbia, with 113 described species; 33 of them new species. A new section, Politaria, was erected within Corymbia to accommodate the spotted gums.
C. citriodora, C. maculata, C. henryi and a new species C. variegata are closely related. C. variegata, reinstated from synonymy, caters for the populations in northern New South Wales and south-eastern Queensland, which are morphologically more or less intermediates between C. citriodora and C. maculata, but whose leaves are not lemon-scented. In regions where the distributions of C. citriodora and C. variegata overlap, intergrading populations occur, where there is a gradient in the amount of citronellal in the leaves.
Hybrids have been manipulated in India, where they have proved to be substantially more vigorous than the parents (Chadha et al., 1992). Hill and Johnson (1995) reported the occurrence of occasional natural hybrids between lemon-scented gum and C. catenaria and with C. watsoniana subsp. capillata.


Top of page

Medium-sized to large, straight stemmed tree, 25-40 m tall,  with smooth, pale grey, cream or pink, powdery bark throughout, decorticating in flakes. Foliage is fine, somewhat sparse in the crown and emits a strong lemon-scent after rain or when abraded. The lemon-scented leaves are very useful in identifying the species. There is only one other species in the genus with this characteristic. It is the ironbark, E. staigeriana, which is easily separated from C. citriodora based on morphology, oil chemistry, and partly on natural distribution (Brooker and Kleinig, 1994;  Hill and Johnson, 1995; Boland et al.,1984; Anderson, 1993).

Stems, petioles and leaves (particularly veins) are setose with bristle glands up to 0.5 cm long, in both the seedling and juvenile leaf stages. Leaves strongly lemon-scented when crushed, alternate, petiolate, ovate, lanceolate to broad-lanceolate, 14-21(30) × 2-5(8) cm, pale green and peltate, setose,becoming glabrous. Seedling leaves opposite for a few pairs then alternate, petiolate, peltate, ovate, 6.5-17 × 2.3-7.5 cm, pale green, slightly discolorous, setose. Inflorescences clustered on short, leafless shoots in axils of leaves towards ends of branchlets, 3-flowered; peduncles 0.3-0.7 cm long. Buds pedicellate, clavate, to 1 × 0.6 cm, no scar; operculum conical to slightly beaked, 0.3-0.4 cm long, 0.4-0.5 cm wide; flowers creamy white; fruit on pedicels 0.1-0.6 cm long, truncate-ovoid to urceolate, often warty, 0.8-1.5 cm long, 0.7-1.1 cm diameter; 3-locular; disc approximately 0.2 cm wide, seeds glossy red-black, dorsiventrally compressed, keeled on dorsal side, hilum ventral, minute cracks in the seed coat, 0.2-0.3 mm long, 1.5-2.5 mm wide (Boland et al., 1980; Hill and Johnson, 1995).


Top of page

C. citriodora is endemic to temperate and tropical eastern Australia, where it occurs mainly in Queensland. Slee et al. (2006) give the distribution as starting north from Coffs Harbour in New South Wales, but in their taxonomic treatment of the species, Corymbia variegata is treated as a chemotype of C. citriodora rather than as a separate species.

C. citriodora has been extensively planted as an ornamental tree in many regions of the world, and has been planted for commercial purposes in South America (mainly in Brazil), China, India, Sri Lanka, Central America, the West-Indies, and most countries in southern Africa. In South-East Asia it is mainly planted in Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam (Doran, 1999; Orwa et al., 1999; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; Govaerts, 2014; PROTA, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Feb 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Planted Reference Notes


Congo, Republic of thePresentIntroduced
South AfricaPresentPlanted
-Zanzibar IslandPresentPlanted
ZimbabwePresentIntroduced1904As: Eucalyptus citriodora


ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Andhra PradeshPresentPlanted
-Tamil NaduPresentPlanted
-Uttar PradeshPresentPlanted
IndonesiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentPlanted
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedcultivated


RussiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Russia (Europe)PresentPlanted

North America

Costa RicaPresentIntroducedPlanted
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced
El SalvadorPresentIntroduced
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.


AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentPlanted
-Northern TerritoryPresentPlanted
-South AustraliaPresentPlanted
-Western AustraliaPresentPlanted
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced

South America

-Minas GeraisPresentPlanted
-Sao PauloPresentPlanted
-Easter IslandPresentIntroduced

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

C. citriodora was introduced during the middle of the 19th century in India, China, and Brazil (Shiva et al., 1987; Doran, 1999; FAO, 2014). In Thailand it was introduced in 1949, but commercial plantations no longer exist (Doran, 1999). In the West Indies, it was first recorded in 1936 in Guadeloupe and in 1946 in Martinique (US National Herbarium). In Hawaii, by 1960 about 127,000 trees were planted in forest reserves (Little and Skolmen, 2003). 


Top of page

In its native range, C. citriodora grows in dry sclerophyll forest and woodlands in hilly country, mainly on lighter loamy soils or skeletal soils (Slee et al., 2006). It prefers elevations from 80 to 800 m altitude and can survive a severe dry season (Orwa et al., 1999). 

Biology and Ecology

Top of page


C. citriodora is an outcrossing diploid with 11 chromosomes (Healey et al., 2014).

Reproductive Biology

C. citriodora is a cross-pollinated tree. It has nectar-rich flowers, which are visited and pollinated by flies, ants and, in particular, bees. The periodicity of reproduction on this species seems to be altered when it is planted outside its natural range (Orwa et al., 1999). In Australia, flowering has been recorded in January, April-August, October and December (Slee et al., 2006).

Environmental Requirements

C. citriodora grows mainly in warm humid areas and coastal regions with mean maximum temperature of about 30-32°C, mean minimum temperatures of about 9-12°C, and  mean annual rainfall of about 650-1600 mm. It is drought tolerant and can grow in areas with a long dry season (i.e., up to 7 months with less than 40 mm/month). C. citriodora can be found growing on poor, gravelly soils, podsols, residual Podsols, sandy soils, heavy soils, and clay soils (Doran, 1999; Orwa et al., 1999).


This species is found mainly in open forest or woodland formations (Boland et al., 1984). Common associated eucalypt species, depending on location, are Eucalyptus acmenoidesE. alba, E. cloeziana, E. crebra, E. exserta, E. melanophloia, E. tereticornis, and a range of bloodwood species including Corymbia clarksoniana.

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

Top of page
Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
16 -26 0 1800

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -3 -3
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 17 28
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 28 39
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 8 22


Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration07number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall6502500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

Within its native distribution range in Australia, C. citriodora has remained relatively free of diseases and pests. However, there is evidence that outside its native distribution range (i.e., Brazil), this species has been damaged by a range of diseases such as: leaf spot caused by Cylindrocladium spp., a rust (Puccinia psidii), and a stem canker (Cryphonectria cubensis), and infections by Endothia havanensis. In China, gummosis induced by Cytospora sp. and Macrophoma sp. has caused severe damage. In India, it is susceptible to a range of diseases including: Cylindrocladium seedling blight, a rust (Melampsora sp.), pink disease (Corticium salmonicolor), and Ganoderma root rot. The root rot fungus Pseudophaeolus baudonii attacked plantings of C. citriodora in Ghana causing 50% mortality over 3 years. Most problems arise on sites with high rainfall and humidity. C. citriodora is also very susceptible to termites. In India, Microcerotermes minor can cause up to 30% mortality and Odontotermes horni over 10%.  A range of defoliating insects and a stem borer (Apate indistincta) have been noted causing occasional damage to plantations (Doran, 1999). 

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

C. citriodora spreads by seeds. In Australia, it bears seed only every 3-5 years, while in Brazil where it grows as an exotic species, it fruits abundantly every year. Seeds can be dispersed by wind, water, and by humans (Orwa et al., 1999).  

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
ForestryUsed for timber Yes Yes Doran (1999)
Habitat restoration and improvementPlanted for land reclamation Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Hedges and windbreaks Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Industrial purposesThe citronellal-rich oil is a preferred natural source for the production of hydroxycitronellal, cit Yes Yes Doran (1999)
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
Timber trade Yes Yes Doran (1999)

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds from cultivation Yes Yes Orwa et al. (2009)
WaterSeeds Yes Yes Doran (1999)
WindSeeds Yes Yes Doran (1999)

Impact Summary

Top of page
Cultural/amenity Positive and negative
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

Top of page

C. citriodora is an invasive tree that has been widely introduced in tropical and subtopical regions of the world (Doran, 1999; Orwa et al., 1999). The allelopathy activity of this species together with its slow decomposition rate are factors inhibiting the germination, growth and establishment of native plants in invaded areas (Nishimura et al., 1984; Rezende et al., 2001; Evaristo et al., 2011). This species also has the capability to reduce ground-water availability, modify soil nutrients, displace native vegetation, and increase the risk of soil erosion (Schneider, 2003).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of hydrology
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Allelopathic
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult/costly to control


Top of page

C. citriodora has been widely introduced to be used as an ornamental, in timber production and to extract essential oil. The perfumed essential oil extracted from the leaves of C. citriodora is widely used in less expensive perfumes, soaps and disinfectants. This essential oil has antibacterial and insecticidal activity. The citronellal-rich oil is a preferred natural source for the production of hydroxycitronellal, citronellylnitrile and menthol.

The timber of C. citriodora is used for light and heavy construction (i.e., bridge construction, flooring, cladding, tool handles and case manufacturing). The wood of young trees has been successfully used for pulp and paper. In Brazil, large plantations have been established for charcoal production.

This species has been planted as an ornamental in parks and in reforestation projects. It is a favorite source of nectar and pollen in apiculture and gives a light amber honey (Doran et al., 1999; Orwa et al., 1999). 

Uses List

Top of page


  • Amenity
  • Land reclamation
  • Revegetation
  • Shade and shelter
  • Windbreak


  • Biofuels
  • Charcoal
  • Fuelwood


  • Ornamental

Human food and beverage

  • Honey/honey flora
  • Spices and culinary herbs


  • Carved material
  • Essential oils
  • Fibre
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Wood Products

Top of page



  • Cases


  • Building poles
  • Posts

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Beams
  • Bridges
  • Engineering structures
  • Flooring
  • For heavy construction
  • For light construction


  • Industrial and domestic woodware
  • Tool handles

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page

C. citriodora is very similar and closely related to Corymbia maculata and C. variegata; in some classifications, they are treated as the same species. C. citriodora is distinguished by the lemon scent of the leaves. C. citriodora also differs from C. maculata in having “slightly narrower crown leaves, less mottled bark and juvenile leaves that are still setose to scabrid (feel rough) on comparatively taller coppice growth” (Slee et al., 2006). C. henryi is also similar, but has generally larger and coarser juvenile and adult leaves and larger buds and fruit (Slee et al., 2006).


Top of page

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.

Adegbehin JO, 1983. A preliminary survey of growth of eucalyptus species in the Sudan and Guinea zones and montane areas of Nigeria. International Tree Crops Journal, 2(3-4):273-289; 19 ref.

Agnihotri Y; Sadhu Singh; Sud AD; Singh S, 1989. Growth statistics of different species of Eucalyptus tried in Shivalik foothills. Indian Journal of Forestry, 12(1):25-28; 5 ref.

Anderson E, 1993. Plants of Central Queensland. Brisbane, Australia: Department of Primary Industries. Queensland Government Printer.

Ayling RD; Martins PJ, 1981. The growing of eucalypts on short rotation in Brazil. Forestry Chronicle, 57(1):9-16; 5 pl.; 32 ref.

Barros NF; Novais RF; Neves JCL; Leal PGL; Jordaan JV, 1992. Fertilising eucalypt plantations on the Brazilian savannah soils. Papers presented at the IUFRO symposium: Intensive forestry: the role of eucalypts, held in Durban, South Africa, September 1991. South-African-Forestry-Journal, No. 160, 7-12; 22 ref.

Baruah P; Sharma RK; Singh RS; Ghosh AC; Baruah P, 1996. Fungicidal activity of some naturally occurring essential oils against Fusarium moniliforme. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 8:411-412.

Blake ST; Roff C, 1988. Honey Flora of Queensland. Brisbane, Australia: Department of Primary Industries.

Boland DJ; Brooker MIH; Chippendale GM; Hall N; Hyland BPM; Johnston RD; Kleinig DA; Turner JD, 1984. Forest trees of Australia. 4th ed. Melbourne, Australia:Thomas Nelson and CSIRO. xvi + 687 pp.; 77 ref.

Boland DJ; Brooker MIH; Turnbull JW; Kleinig DA, 1980. Eucalyptus seed. Canberra, Australia: Division of Forest Research, CSIRO. xii + 191 pp.; 63 pl.; 212 ref.

Boland DJ; Brophy JJ; House APN, 1991. Eucalyptus leaf oils: use, chemistry, distillation and marketing. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press. xii + 252 pp.; 7pp. of ref.

Booth TH; Nix HA; Hutchinson MF; Jovanovic T, 1988. Niche analysis and tree species introduction. Forest Ecology and Management, 23(1):47-59; 29 ref.

Booth TH; Pryor LD, 1991. Climatic requirements of some commercially important eucalypt species. Forest Ecology and Management, 43(1-2):47-60; 31 ref.

Bootle KR, 1983. Wood in Australia: types, properties and uses. Sydney, Australia: McGraw-Hill Book Company, viii + 443pp.; many ref.

Brooker MIH; Kleinig DA, 1994. Field Guide to Eucalypts. Vol. 3. Northern Australia. Sydney, Australia: Inkata Press.

Brundrett M; Bougher N; Dell B; Grove T; Malajczuk N, 1996. Working with mycorrhizas in forestry and agriculture. Working with mycorrhizas in forestry and agriculture., ix + 374 pp.; [ACIAR Monograph No. 32]; Many ref.

Cardoso May L, 1973. Gummosis of eucalyptus in Brazil (Preliminary note). [A gomose do eucalipto no Brasil (Nota Previa).] Publicacao Instituto Florestal, No. 2, 11 pp.

Chadha KM; Patnaik SS; Gurumurthi K, 1992. Country report - India. In: Tree Breeding and Propagation Part 11. Regional Review and Country Reports. Field Document No. 2, FAO/UNDP Project RAS/88/025. Bangkok, Thailand: FAO, 49-68.

Clemson A, 1985. Honey and pollen flora. Honey and pollen flora., iv + 263 pp.; [B].

Coppen JJW, 1995. Flavours and Fragrances of Plant Origin. Non-Wood Forest Products 1. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations.

Coppen JJW; Hone GA, 1992. Eucalyptus oils: A review of production and markets. Natural Resources Institute Bulletin 56.

Darrow WK, 1997. Eucalypt site-species trials in Zululand: results at four years of age. ICFR Bulletin Series, No. 3/97.

Davidson J, 1993. Domestication and breeding programme for Eucalyptus in the Asia-Pacific region. UNDP/FAO Regional Project on Improving Productivity of Man-Made Forests Through Application of Technological Advances in Tree Breeding and Propagation (RAS/91/004-FORTIP). Los Baños, Philippines: FAO of the United Nations.

Day RK; Rudgard SA; Nair KSS, 1994. Asian tree pests: An overview. FORSPA Publication 12. Bangkok, Thailand: FAO.

Doran JC, 1999. Corymbia citriodora (Hook.) Hill & L.A.S. Johnson. In: Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 19: Essential-oil plants [ed. by Oyen, L. P. A. \Nguyen Xuan Dung]. Leiden, The Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher, 89-95.

Doran JC; Turnbull JW, 1997. Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics. Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics., viii + 384 pp.; [refs].

Evans J, 1992. Plantation forestry in the tropics: tree planting for industrial, social, environmental, and agroforestry purposes. Oxford, UK: Clarenden Press. Ed. 2, xv + 403 pp.; 32 pp. of ref.

Evaristo VT; Braga JMA; Nascimento MT, 2011. Atlantic forest regeneration in abandoned plantations of eucalypt (Corymbia citriodora (Hook.) K.D. Hill and L.A.S. Johnson) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Interciencia, 36(6):431-436.

Flora of Australia, 2014. Flora of Australia Online.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.

Gakuru S; Foua Bi K, 1995. Compared effect of four plant essential oils against cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus Fab. and rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae L. Tropicultura, 13:143-146.

Govaerts R, 2014. World Checklist of Myrtaceae. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Gurgel Filho OA, 1973. Biology of the growth of pure even-aged forest stands, and conclusions for thinning. Brasil Florestal, 4(13):37-42; NLL; 8 ref.

Gurgel Filho OA; Corsini CA, 1973. Silvicultural characters of Eucalyptus citriodora. (Caracteres silviculturais do Eucalyptus citriodora) Brasil Florestal, 4(14):14-18; BLL; 2 ref.

Hartney VJ, 1982. Tissue culture of Eucalyptus. Combined Proceedings, International Plant Propagators' Society, 32: 98-109.

Healey A; Furtado A; Henry RJ, 2014. Structural genomics of eucalypts. In: Genetics, genomics and breeding of eucalypts [ed. by Henry, R. J.]. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press, 103-120.

Hill KD; Johnson LAS, 1995. Systematic studies in the eucalypts 7. A revision of the bloodwoods, genus Corymbia (Myrtaceae). Telopea, 6(2-3):185-504; 3 pp. of ref.

Hussain SS; Ahmed M; Siddiqui MF; Khan N; Rao TA, 2010. Ediphytes of Karachi. Fuuast Journal of Biology, 1:87-91.

Jacobs MR, 1955. Growth habits of the Eucalypts. Commonwealth Forestry and Timber Bureau, Canberra, Australia: Government Printer. pp. 262. 175 refs.

Jacobs MR, 1981. Eucalypts for planting. Eucalypts for planting., Ed. 2:xxiv + 677 pp. + 36 pl.; [B].

Kapoor ML; Sharma VK, 1984. Hybrids between Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. and E. torelliana F. v. Muell. in India. Silvae Genetica, 33(2-3):42-46; 4 pl.; 12 ref.

Keating WG; Bolza E, 1982. Characteristics, properties and uses of timbers. Volume 1. South-east Asia, Northern Australia and the Pacific. xxi + 362 pp.; 24 pl. (col.); 146 ref. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press.

Koriesh EM; El-Fattah YMA; El-Dayem MA; El-Etriby MA, 2003. Micropropagation of juvenile Eucalyptus citriodora. Acta Horticulturae [Biotechnology in horticultural crop improvement: achievements, opportunities and limitations. Proceedings of the XXVI International Horticultural Congress, Toronto, Canada, 11-17 August 2002.], No.625:283-288.

Krngner TL; Guerrini IA; Auer CG, 1990. An epidemic of leaf spot caused by Cylindrocladium spp. and its relation to the growth of species/provenances of Eucalyptus in Tucuruf, Parß. IPEF, Instituto de Pesquisas e Estudos Florestais, No. 43-44:74-78; 7 ref.

Kung FS, 1980. Fertilization and coppice studies on the essential oil production of Eucalyptus citriodora. Bulletin, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, No. 343, i + 6 pp.; En captions; 10 ref.

Laurie MV, 1974. Tree planting practices in African savannas. FAO Forestry Development Paper, No. 19, xi + 185 pp. + 3 maps; 5 pp. of ref.

Lawrence BM, 1996. Progress in essential oils. Perfumer and Flavorist, 21(6):55-63; 37 ref.

Liang K; Zhou WL; Zhong CL; Yang ZJ, 1994. Trials of eucalypt species [Eucalyptus urophylla, E. tereticornis, E. camaldulensis and E. grandis] and provenances in the eastern region of Hainan Island [Guangdong]. In: Brown AG, ed. Australian tree species research in China: proceedings of an international workshop held at Zhangzhou, Fujian Province, PRC, 2-5 November 1992, ACIAR Proceedings No. 48: 77-85; 4 ref.

Little Jr EL; Skolmen RG, 2003. Common forest trees of Hawaii (native and introduced). Washington, D.C., USA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, 321 pp. [Agricultural Handbook No. 679.]

Mascarenhas AF; Khuspe SS; Nadgauda RS; Gupta PK; Khan BM, Hanover JW (ed. ), Keathley DE, 1988. Potential of cell culture in plantation forestry programs. Genetic manipulation of woody plants. 1988, 391-412; Basic Life Sciences, Vol. 44; New York: Plenum Press, 68 ref.

Mohd Yasid S; Lee SS; Lapeyrie F; Yazid SM, 1996. Mycorrhizal inoculation of Hopea odorata (Dipterocarpaceae) in the nursery. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 9:276-278.

Nishimura H; Nakamura T; Mizutani J, 1984. Allelopathic effects of p-menthane-3-8-diols in Eucalyptus citriodora.. Phytochemistry, 23(12):2777-2779.

Ofosu-Asiedu A, 1975. A new disease of eucalypts in Ghana. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 65(2):285-289

Orwa C; Mutua A; Kindt R; Jamnadass R; Simons A, 2009. Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. World Agroforestry Centre.

Oviedo Prieto R; Herrera Oliver P; Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.

Palmer ER; Gibbs JA; Ganguli S; Dutta AP, 1990. Pulping characteristics of Eucalyptus species grown in Malawi. Bulletin Overseas Development Natural Resources Institute, No. 33, iii + 46 pp.; 6 ref.

Pattnaik S; Subramanyam VR; Rath CC, 1995. Effect of essential oils on the viability and morphology of Escherichia coli (SP-11). Microbios, 84(340):195-199; [3 pl.]; 5 ref.

Penfold AR; Morrison FR, 1950. The Eucalyptus oils. In: Guenther E, ed. The Essential Oils Vol. IV. New York, USA: D. Van Nostrand Co. Inc., 437-525.

Penfold AR; Willis JL, 1961. The Eucalypts. Botany, cultivation, chemistry, and utilization. pp. xx + 551. Leonard Hill [Books] Limited, London; Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York.

Pereira M, 1987. Formation of base populations of Eucalyptus citriodora. [Formacao de populacoes base de Eucalyptus citriodora Hook.] Brasil Florestal, 19(62):13-18; 11 ref.

Poynton RJ, 1979. Report to the Southern African Regional Commission for the Conservation and Utilization of the Soil (SARCCUS) on tree planting in southern Africa. Vol. 2. The eucalypts. Pretoria, South Africa: Department of Forestry. xvi + 882 pp.; ISBN 0-621-04763-5; 208 ref.

PROTA, 2014. PROTA4U web database. Grubben GJH, Denton OA, eds. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.

Pryor LD; Johnson LAS, 1971. A classification of the eucalypts. Canberra, Australia: Australian National University, pp. 102.

Pukittayacamee P; Saelim S; Bhodthipuks J, 1993. Seed collection period for selected tree species in Thailand. Leaflet. Muak-Lek: ASEAN-Canada Forest Tree Seed Centre Project, 2 pp.

Rao BRR; Singh SP; Rao EVSP; Chandrasekhara G; Ramesh S; Rajeswara Rao BR; Prakasa Rao EVS, 1984. A note on the influence of location, season and strain on Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. oil. Indian Perfumer, 28(3-4):153-155; 3 ref.

Rezende JLP; Garcia QS; Scotti MRMML, 2001. Laboratory decomposition of Dalbergia nigra All. ex. Benth and Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex. Maiden leaves in forest and eucalypt plantation soils. Acta Botanica Brasilica, 15(3):305-312.

Richardson SD, 1990. Forests and Forestry in China. Washington DC, USA: Island Press.

Schneider MF, 2003. [English title not available]. (Conseqüências da acumulação de folhas secas na plantação de eucalipto em zitundo, Distrito de Matutuíne.) Bol Inv Florest, 1:37-42.

Sehgal HS, 1984. Disease problems of eucalypts in India. Indian Forester, 109(12):909-916

Sen Sarma PK; Thakur ML, 1983. Insect pests of Eucalyptus and their control. Indian Forester, 109:864-878.

Seshagiri Sirsi; Shivashankar K; Narayana MR, 1984. Effects of levels and methods of nitrogen application on herbage and oil yield of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. Indian Forester, 110(12):1177-1183; 10 ref.

Shashikala S; Rao RV, 2009. Radial and axial variation in specific gravity and anatomical properties of plantation grown Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. Journal of the Institute of Wood Science, 19(2):84-90.

Sheikh MI; Siddiqui KM; Rehman S, 1989. Ipil ipil (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit) in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Forestry, 39(1):15-25.

Shepherd KR, 1986. Plantation sylviculture. The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. 322pp.; 25pp. of ref.

Shiva MP; Jaffer KR; Mehra SN; Sachidanand; Singh NP; Chaudhari DC, 1988. Trend of essential oil yield and citronellal content in Eucalyptus citriodora from coppiced and pollarded crops at different periodicity at Dehradun. Indian Perfumer, 32(1):29-39.

Shiva MP; Rubab Jaffer; Jaffer R, 1990. Prospects by models for raising aromatic plants in different forestry programmes for economic uplift. Indian Forester, 116(2):168-176; 8 ref.

Shiva V; Bandyopadhyay J, 1987. Ecological Audit of Eucalyptus Cultivation. Dehradun, India: Research Foundation for Science, Technology and Ecology.

Singh HP; Shalinder Kaur; Kirti Negi; Savita Kumari; Varinder Saini; Batish DR; Kohli RK, 2012. Assessment of in vitro antioxidant activity of essential oil of Eucalyptus citriodora (lemon-scented Eucalypt; Myrtaceae) and its major constituents. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 48(2):237-241.

Slee AV; Brooker MIH; Duffy SM; West JG, 2006. EUCLID: Eucalpyts of Australia, Third Edition. Collingwood, Australia: CSIRO Publishing.

Soerianegara I; Lemmens RHMJ, eds. , 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 5(1). Timber trees: major commercial timbers. Wageningen, Netherlands: Pudoc Scientific Publishers. Also published by PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. pp. 610.

Streets RJ, 1962. Exotic forest trees in the British Commonwealth. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.

Trigg JK, 1996. Evaluation of eucalyptus-based repellent against Anopheles spp. in Tanzania. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 12(2, Part 1):243-246.

Trigg JK, 1996. Evaluation of eucalyptus-based repellent against Culicoides impunctatus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Scotland. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, 12(2):Part 1, 329-330; 3 ref.

Turnbull JW, 1981. Eucalyptus in China. Australian Forestry, 44(4):222-234; 5 pl.; 27 ref.

Turnbull JW; Doran JC, 1987. Seed development and germination in the Myrtaceae. Germination of Australian native plant seed., 46-57, 186-198; 57 ref.

Turnbull JW; Pryor LD, 1984. Choice of species and seed sources. In: Hillis WE, Brown AG, eds. Eucalypts for Wood Production. Sydney, Australia: CSIRO, Australia and Academic Press, 6-65.

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.

USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center.

Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press/Bishop Museum Press, 1919 pp.

Warren RG, 1991. Practical aspects of marketing essential oils. In: Boland DJ, Brophy JJ, House APN, eds. Eucalyptus Leaf Oils: Use, Chemistry, Distillation and Marketing. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press, 195-202.

Wasuwanich P, 1989. Phenological investigation of Australian tree species in field trials in Thailand. Unpublished report. Bangkok, Thailand: Royal Forest Department.

Weiss EA, 1997. Essential oil crops. Essential oil crops., xi + 600 pp.; [ref. at ends of chapters].

Wilcox MD, 1997. A Catalogue of the Eucalypts. Auckland, New Zealand: Groome Pöyry Ltd.

Yeh FC; Brune A; Cheliak WM; Chipman DC, 1983. Mating system of Eucalyptus citriodora in a seed-production area. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 13(6):1051-1055; 20 ref.

Zobel BJ; Van Wyk G; Stahl P, 1987. Growing exotic forests. New York, USA; Wiley Interscience. xx + 508pp.; 73 pp. of ref.

Zuo HQ; Wang ZS, 1989. A study on gummosis of Eucalyptus citriodora. Forest Pest and Disease, No. 3:11-13

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp.

Anon, 1997. Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics. [ed. by Doran J C, Turnbull J W]. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR). viii + 384 pp.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Cho S E, Park J H, Lee S H, Lee C K, Shin H D, 2016. Occurrence of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera pannosa on lemon eucalyptus. Forest Pathology. 46 (3), 264-266. DOI:10.1111/efp.12277

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.

Govaerts R, 2014. World Checklist of Myrtaceae., Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Hussain SS, Ahmed M, Siddiqui MF, Khan N, Rao TA, 2010. Ediphytes of Karachi. In: Fuuast Journal of Biology, 1 87-91.

Mapondera T S, Burgess T, Matsuki M, Oberprieler R G, 2012. Identification and molecular phylogenetics of the cryptic species of the Gonipterus scutellatus complex (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Gonipterini). Australian Journal of Entomology. 51 (3), 175-188. DOI:10.1111/j.1440-6055.2011.00853.x

Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Simons A, 2009. Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. In: World Agroforestry Centre,

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

PROTA, 2014. PROTA4U web database., [ed. by Grubben GJH, Denton OA]. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.

Rodas C A, Roux J, Maier W, Granados G M, Bolaños M D, McTaggart A R, Wingfield M J, 2015. First report of Puccinia psidii on Corymbia citriodora and Eucalyptus in Colombia. Forest Pathology. 45 (6), 534-536. DOI:10.1111/efp.12223

Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435.

USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team.

Wagner W L, Herbst D R, Sohmer S H, 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai'i, Vols. 1 & 2. Honolulu, USA: University of Hawai'i Press/Bishop Museum Press. 1918 + [1] pp.

Links to Websites

Top of page
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway source for updated system data added to species habitat list.


Top of page

06/03/15 Updated by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map
Select a dataset
Map Legends
  • CABI Summary Records
Map Filters
Third party data sources: