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Datasheet

Corymbia citriodora
(lemon-scented gum)

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Datasheet

Corymbia citriodora (lemon-scented gum)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Corymbia citriodora
  • Preferred Common Name
  • lemon-scented gum
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. citriodora is a medium-sized to large tree that has been widely introduced in tropical and subtropical regions of the world to be used as an ornamental, in reforestation projects, and for production of timbe...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Central Queensland, Australia.
TitleNatural stand
CaptionCentral Queensland, Australia.
CopyrightDoug Boland/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Central Queensland, Australia.
Natural standCentral Queensland, Australia.Doug Boland/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Smooth, pale pink bark of a mature tree.
TitleBark
CaptionSmooth, pale pink bark of a mature tree.
CopyrightDoug Boland/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Smooth, pale pink bark of a mature tree.
BarkSmooth, pale pink bark of a mature tree.Doug Boland/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
TitleBark decorticating in flakes.
Caption
CopyrightIan Brooker/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Bark decorticating in flakes.Ian Brooker/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Corymbia citriodora (Hook.) K. D. Hill & L. A. S. Johnson

Preferred Common Name

  • lemon-scented gum

Other Scientific Names

  • Corymbia citriodora subsp. variegata (F.Muell.) A.R.Bean & M.W.McDonald
  • Corymbia variegata (F.Muell.) K.D.Hill & L.A.S.Johnson
  • Eucalyptus citriodora Hook.
  • Eucalyptus maculata var. citriodora (Hook.) Bailey
  • Eucalyptus melissiodora Lindl.
  • Eucalyptus variegata F.Muell.

International Common Names

  • English: citron-scent gum; Lemon gum tree
  • Spanish: eucalipto
  • French: Eucalyptus a odeur de citron

Local Common Names

  • Australia: lemon-scented iron gum; spotted gum; spotted iron gum
  • Germany: Zitronen- Eukalyptus
  • Italy: Eucalipto a profumo di limone
  • Puerto Rico: eucalipto de limón; eucalipto de pantano; eucalipto oloroso

EPPO code

  • EUCCI (Eucalyptus citriodora)

Trade name

  • lemon-scented gum

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. citriodora is a medium-sized to large tree that has been widely introduced in tropical and subtropical regions of the world to be used as an ornamental, in reforestation projects, and for production of timber, pulp, and essential oils (Doran, 1999; Orwa et al., 1999). It has escaped from cultivation and spread into new habitats, becoming naturalized and invasive in disturbed areas and open forests. Once established, this species has the potential to out-compete native vegetation through the production of allelopathic substances which completely inhibit the germination, growth and establishment of native plants (Nishimura et al., 1984; Evaristo et al., 2011). It also represents an environmental concern in invaded areas due to its’ slow decomposition rate (Rezende et al., 2001), which also prevents the germination and growth of native species. Other concerns are related to the capability of C. corymbia to reduce ground-water availability, modify soil nutrients and increase the risk of soil erosion (Schneider, 2003). 

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Myrtales
  •                         Family: Myrtaceae
  •                             Genus: Corymbia
  •                                 Species: Corymbia citriodora

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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C. citriodora belongs to a group of eucalypts known as the spotted gums which also includes C. maculata and C. henryi. Formerly in the genus Eucalyptus, E. citriodora was placed in the informal subgenus Corymbia (which comprises the bloodwood group of eucalypts) by Pryor and Johnson (1971). In a major taxonomic revision, Hill and Johnson (1995) placed the bloodwoods in the new genus Corymbia, with 113 described species; 33 of them new species. A new section, Politaria, was erected within Corymbia to accommodate the spotted gums.
 
C. citriodora, C. maculata, C. henryi and a new species C. variegata are closely related. C. variegata, reinstated from synonymy, caters for the populations in northern New South Wales and south-eastern Queensland, which are morphologically more or less intermediates between C. citriodora and C. maculata, but whose leaves are not lemon-scented. In regions where the distributions of C. citriodora and C. variegata overlap, intergrading populations occur, where there is a gradient in the amount of citronellal in the leaves.
 
Hybrids have been manipulated in India, where they have proved to be substantially more vigorous than the parents (Chadha et al., 1992). Hill and Johnson (1995) reported the occurrence of occasional natural hybrids between lemon-scented gum and C. catenaria and with C. watsoniana subsp. capillata.

Description

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Medium-sized to large, straight stemmed tree, 25-40 m tall,  with smooth, pale grey, cream or pink, powdery bark throughout, decorticating in flakes. Foliage is fine, somewhat sparse in the crown and emits a strong lemon-scent after rain or when abraded. The lemon-scented leaves are very useful in identifying the species. There is only one other species in the genus with this characteristic. It is the ironbark, E. staigeriana, which is easily separated from C. citriodora based on morphology, oil chemistry, and partly on natural distribution (Brooker and Kleinig, 1994;  Hill and Johnson, 1995; Boland et al.,1984; Anderson, 1993).

Stems, petioles and leaves (particularly veins) are setose with bristle glands up to 0.5 cm long, in both the seedling and juvenile leaf stages. Leaves strongly lemon-scented when crushed, alternate, petiolate, ovate, lanceolate to broad-lanceolate, 14-21(30) × 2-5(8) cm, pale green and peltate, setose,becoming glabrous. Seedling leaves opposite for a few pairs then alternate, petiolate, peltate, ovate, 6.5-17 × 2.3-7.5 cm, pale green, slightly discolorous, setose. Inflorescences clustered on short, leafless shoots in axils of leaves towards ends of branchlets, 3-flowered; peduncles 0.3-0.7 cm long. Buds pedicellate, clavate, to 1 × 0.6 cm, no scar; operculum conical to slightly beaked, 0.3-0.4 cm long, 0.4-0.5 cm wide; flowers creamy white; fruit on pedicels 0.1-0.6 cm long, truncate-ovoid to urceolate, often warty, 0.8-1.5 cm long, 0.7-1.1 cm diameter; 3-locular; disc approximately 0.2 cm wide, seeds glossy red-black, dorsiventrally compressed, keeled on dorsal side, hilum ventral, minute cracks in the seed coat, 0.2-0.3 mm long, 1.5-2.5 mm wide (Boland et al., 1980; Hill and Johnson, 1995).

Distribution

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C. citriodora is endemic to temperate and tropical eastern Australia, where it occurs mainly in Queensland. Slee et al. (2006) give the distribution as starting north from Coffs Harbour in New South Wales, but in their taxonomic treatment of the species, Corymbia variegata is treated as a chemotype of C. citriodora rather than as a separate species.

C. citriodora has been extensively planted as an ornamental tree in many regions of the world, and has been planted for commercial purposes in South America (mainly in Brazil), China, India, Sri Lanka, Central America, the West-Indies, and most countries in southern Africa. In South-East Asia it is mainly planted in Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam (Doran, 1999; Orwa et al., 1999; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; Govaerts, 2014; PROTA, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Planted Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009)cultivated
AngolaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
BotswanaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
BurundiPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
CameroonPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
Congo, Republic of thePresentIntroducedPROTA (2014); CABI (Undated)
EgyptPresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009)cultivated
EritreaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
EswatiniPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
EthiopiaPresentIntroducedPROTA (2014); CABI (Undated)
GambiaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009)
GhanaPresentIntroducedPROTA (2014); Orwa et al. (2009); CABI (Undated)
KenyaPresentPlantedOrwa et al. (2009)
LibyaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009)
MadagascarPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
MalawiPresentIntroducedPROTA (2014); CABI (Undated)
MoroccoPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2014)
MozambiquePresentIntroducedPROTA (2014); CABI (Undated)
NigeriaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009); CABI (Undated)
RwandaPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2014); CABI (Undated)
SeychellesPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
South AfricaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
SudanPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2014); CABI (Undated)
-Zanzibar IslandPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
TunisiaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009)
UgandaPresentIntroducedPROTA (2014); CABI (Undated)
ZambiaPresentIntroducedPROTA (2014); CABI (Undated)
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedPROTA (2014); CABI (Undated)

Asia

BangladeshPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
ChinaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2014); CABI (Undated)
-GuangxiPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2014); CABI (Undated)cultivated
-HunanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2014)cultivated
-JiangxiPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2014)cultivated
-SichuanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
-YunnanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
-ZhejiangPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee (2014)
IndiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Andhra PradeshPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
-AssamPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
-HaryanaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
-KarnatakaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
-MaharashtraPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
-PunjabPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
-Tamil NaduPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
-Uttar PradeshPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
IndonesiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-JavaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009)cultivated
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
MyanmarPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
NepalPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
PakistanPresentIntroducedInvasiveHussain et al. (2010); CABI (Undated)
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009); CABI (Undated)cultivated
TaiwanPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
ThailandPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
VietnamPresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009); CABI (Undated)cultivated

Europe

AlbaniaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009)cultivated
CyprusPresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009)cultivated
GreecePresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009)cultivated
ItalyPresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009)cultivated
MaltaPresentIntroducedOrwa et al. (2009)cultivated
PortugalPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
RussiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Russia (Europe)PresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
SpainPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)

North America

Costa RicaPresentIntroducedPlantedCABI (Undated b)
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasiveOviedo Prieto et al. (2012); CABI (Undated)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2014)
GuatemalaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2014); CABI (Undated)
-HawaiiPresentPlantedWagner et al. (1999)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
-Northern TerritoryPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
-QueenslandPresentPlantedDoran and Turnbull (1997); Wagner et al. (1999)
-South AustraliaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
-VictoriaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
-Western AustraliaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
FijiPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2014)

South America

ArgentinaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
BrazilPresentCABI (Undated b)
-Minas GeraisPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
-Sao PauloPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
ChilePresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
-Easter IslandPresentIntroducedGovaerts (2014)
ColombiaPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)
ParaguayPresentPlantedCABI (Undated b)

History of Introduction and Spread

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C. citriodora was introduced during the middle of the 19th century in India, China, and Brazil (Shiva et al., 1987; Doran, 1999; FAO, 2014). In Thailand it was introduced in 1949, but commercial plantations no longer exist (Doran, 1999). In the West Indies, it was first recorded in 1936 in Guadeloupe and in 1946 in Martinique (US National Herbarium). In Hawaii, by 1960 about 127,000 trees were planted in forest reserves (Little and Skolmen, 2003). 

Habitat

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In its native range, C. citriodora grows in dry sclerophyll forest and woodlands in hilly country, mainly on lighter loamy soils or skeletal soils (Slee et al., 2006). It prefers elevations from 80 to 800 m altitude and can survive a severe dry season (Orwa et al., 1999). 

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

C. citriodora is an outcrossing diploid with 11 chromosomes (Healey et al., 2014).

Reproductive Biology

C. citriodora is a cross-pollinated tree. It has nectar-rich flowers, which are visited and pollinated by flies, ants and, in particular, bees. The periodicity of reproduction on this species seems to be altered when it is planted outside its natural range (Orwa et al., 1999). In Australia, flowering has been recorded in January, April-August, October and December (Slee et al., 2006).

Environmental Requirements

C. citriodora grows mainly in warm humid areas and coastal regions with mean maximum temperature of about 30-32°C, mean minimum temperatures of about 9-12°C, and  mean annual rainfall of about 650-1600 mm. It is drought tolerant and can grow in areas with a long dry season (i.e., up to 7 months with less than 40 mm/month). C. citriodora can be found growing on poor, gravelly soils, podsols, residual Podsols, sandy soils, heavy soils, and clay soils (Doran, 1999; Orwa et al., 1999).

Associations

This species is found mainly in open forest or woodland formations (Boland et al., 1984). Common associated eucalypt species, depending on location, are Eucalyptus acmenoidesE. alba, E. cloeziana, E. crebra, E. exserta, E. melanophloia, E. tereticornis, and a range of bloodwood species including Corymbia clarksoniana.

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
16 -26 0 1800

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -3 -3
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 17 28
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 28 39
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 8 22

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration07number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall6502500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Within its native distribution range in Australia, C. citriodora has remained relatively free of diseases and pests. However, there is evidence that outside its native distribution range (i.e., Brazil), this species has been damaged by a range of diseases such as: leaf spot caused by Cylindrocladium spp., a rust (Puccinia psidii), and a stem canker (Cryphonectria cubensis), and infections by Endothia havanensis. In China, gummosis induced by Cytospora sp. and Macrophoma sp. has caused severe damage. In India, it is susceptible to a range of diseases including: Cylindrocladium seedling blight, a rust (Melampsora sp.), pink disease (Corticium salmonicolor), and Ganoderma root rot. The root rot fungus Pseudophaeolus baudonii attacked plantings of C. citriodora in Ghana causing 50% mortality over 3 years. Most problems arise on sites with high rainfall and humidity. C. citriodora is also very susceptible to termites. In India, Microcerotermes minor can cause up to 30% mortality and Odontotermes horni over 10%.  A range of defoliating insects and a stem borer (Apate indistincta) have been noted causing occasional damage to plantations (Doran, 1999). 

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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C. citriodora spreads by seeds. In Australia, it bears seed only every 3-5 years, while in Brazil where it grows as an exotic species, it fruits abundantly every year. Seeds can be dispersed by wind, water, and by humans (Orwa et al., 1999).  

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
ForestryUsed for timber Yes Yes Doran, 1999
Habitat restoration and improvementPlanted for land reclamation Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Hedges and windbreaks Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Industrial purposesThe citronellal-rich oil is a preferred natural source for the production of hydroxycitronellal, cit Yes Yes Doran, 1999
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
Timber trade Yes Yes Doran, 1999

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds from cultivation Yes Yes Orwa et al., 2009
WaterSeeds Yes Yes Doran, 1999
WindSeeds Yes Yes Doran, 1999

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive and negative
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

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C. citriodora is an invasive tree that has been widely introduced in tropical and subtopical regions of the world (Doran, 1999; Orwa et al., 1999). The allelopathy activity of this species together with its slow decomposition rate are factors inhibiting the germination, growth and establishment of native plants in invaded areas (Nishimura et al., 1984; Rezende et al., 2001; Evaristo et al., 2011). This species also has the capability to reduce ground-water availability, modify soil nutrients, displace native vegetation, and increase the risk of soil erosion (Schneider, 2003).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of hydrology
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Allelopathic
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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C. citriodora has been widely introduced to be used as an ornamental, in timber production and to extract essential oil. The perfumed essential oil extracted from the leaves of C. citriodora is widely used in less expensive perfumes, soaps and disinfectants. This essential oil has antibacterial and insecticidal activity. The citronellal-rich oil is a preferred natural source for the production of hydroxycitronellal, citronellylnitrile and menthol.

The timber of C. citriodora is used for light and heavy construction (i.e., bridge construction, flooring, cladding, tool handles and case manufacturing). The wood of young trees has been successfully used for pulp and paper. In Brazil, large plantations have been established for charcoal production.

This species has been planted as an ornamental in parks and in reforestation projects. It is a favorite source of nectar and pollen in apiculture and gives a light amber honey (Doran et al., 1999; Orwa et al., 1999). 

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Land reclamation
  • Revegetation
  • Shade and shelter
  • Windbreak

Fuels

  • Biofuels
  • Charcoal
  • Fuelwood

General

  • Ornamental

Human food and beverage

  • Honey/honey flora
  • Spices and culinary herbs

Materials

  • Carved material
  • Essential oils
  • Fibre
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Wood Products

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Charcoal

Containers

  • Cases

Roundwood

  • Building poles
  • Posts

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Beams
  • Bridges
  • Engineering structures
  • Flooring
  • For heavy construction
  • For light construction

Woodware

  • Industrial and domestic woodware
  • Tool handles

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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C. citriodora is very similar and closely related to Corymbia maculata and C. variegata; in some classifications, they are treated as the same species. C. citriodora is distinguished by the lemon scent of the leaves. C. citriodora also differs from C. maculata in having “slightly narrower crown leaves, less mottled bark and juvenile leaves that are still setose to scabrid (feel rough) on comparatively taller coppice growth” (Slee et al., 2006). C. henryi is also similar, but has generally larger and coarser juvenile and adult leaves and larger buds and fruit (Slee et al., 2006).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Adegbehin JO, 1983. A preliminary survey of growth of eucalyptus species in the Sudan and Guinea zones and montane areas of Nigeria. International Tree Crops Journal, 2(3-4):273-289; 19 ref.

Agnihotri Y; Sadhu Singh; Sud AD; Singh S, 1989. Growth statistics of different species of Eucalyptus tried in Shivalik foothills. Indian Journal of Forestry, 12(1):25-28; 5 ref.

Anderson E, 1993. Plants of Central Queensland. Brisbane, Australia: Department of Primary Industries. Queensland Government Printer.

Ayling RD; Martins PJ, 1981. The growing of eucalypts on short rotation in Brazil. Forestry Chronicle, 57(1):9-16; 5 pl.; 32 ref.

Barros NF; Novais RF; Neves JCL; Leal PGL; Jordaan JV, 1992. Fertilising eucalypt plantations on the Brazilian savannah soils. Papers presented at the IUFRO symposium: Intensive forestry: the role of eucalypts, held in Durban, South Africa, September 1991. South-African-Forestry-Journal, No. 160, 7-12; 22 ref.

Baruah P; Sharma RK; Singh RS; Ghosh AC; Baruah P, 1996. Fungicidal activity of some naturally occurring essential oils against Fusarium moniliforme. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 8:411-412.

Blake ST; Roff C, 1988. Honey Flora of Queensland. Brisbane, Australia: Department of Primary Industries.

Boland DJ; Brooker MIH; Chippendale GM; Hall N; Hyland BPM; Johnston RD; Kleinig DA; Turner JD, 1984. Forest trees of Australia. 4th ed. Melbourne, Australia:Thomas Nelson and CSIRO. xvi + 687 pp.; 77 ref.

Boland DJ; Brooker MIH; Turnbull JW; Kleinig DA, 1980. Eucalyptus seed. Canberra, Australia: Division of Forest Research, CSIRO. xii + 191 pp.; 63 pl.; 212 ref.

Boland DJ; Brophy JJ; House APN, 1991. Eucalyptus leaf oils: use, chemistry, distillation and marketing. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press. xii + 252 pp.; 7pp. of ref.

Booth TH; Nix HA; Hutchinson MF; Jovanovic T, 1988. Niche analysis and tree species introduction. Forest Ecology and Management, 23(1):47-59; 29 ref.

Booth TH; Pryor LD, 1991. Climatic requirements of some commercially important eucalypt species. Forest Ecology and Management, 43(1-2):47-60; 31 ref.

Bootle KR, 1983. Wood in Australia: types, properties and uses. Sydney, Australia: McGraw-Hill Book Company, viii + 443pp.; many ref.

Brooker MIH; Kleinig DA, 1994. Field Guide to Eucalypts. Vol. 3. Northern Australia. Sydney, Australia: Inkata Press.

Brundrett M; Bougher N; Dell B; Grove T; Malajczuk N, 1996. Working with mycorrhizas in forestry and agriculture. Working with mycorrhizas in forestry and agriculture., ix + 374 pp.; [ACIAR Monograph No. 32]; Many ref.

Cardoso May L, 1973. Gummosis of eucalyptus in Brazil (Preliminary note). [A gomose do eucalipto no Brasil (Nota Previa).] Publicacao Instituto Florestal, No. 2, 11 pp.

Chadha KM; Patnaik SS; Gurumurthi K, 1992. Country report - India. In: Tree Breeding and Propagation Part 11. Regional Review and Country Reports. Field Document No. 2, FAO/UNDP Project RAS/88/025. Bangkok, Thailand: FAO, 49-68.

Clemson A, 1985. Honey and pollen flora. Honey and pollen flora., iv + 263 pp.; [B].

Coppen JJW, 1995. Flavours and Fragrances of Plant Origin. Non-Wood Forest Products 1. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations.

Coppen JJW; Hone GA, 1992. Eucalyptus oils: A review of production and markets. Natural Resources Institute Bulletin 56.

Darrow WK, 1997. Eucalypt site-species trials in Zululand: results at four years of age. ICFR Bulletin Series, No. 3/97.

Davidson J, 1993. Domestication and breeding programme for Eucalyptus in the Asia-Pacific region. UNDP/FAO Regional Project on Improving Productivity of Man-Made Forests Through Application of Technological Advances in Tree Breeding and Propagation (RAS/91/004-FORTIP). Los Baños, Philippines: FAO of the United Nations.

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Distribution References

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CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

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Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China., St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

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Hussain SS, Ahmed M, Siddiqui MF, Khan N, Rao TA, 2010. Ediphytes of Karachi. In: Fuuast Journal of Biology, 1 87-91.

Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Simons A, 2009. Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. In: World Agroforestry Centre, http://www.worldagroforestry.org/af/treedb/

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GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

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06/03/15 Updated by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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