Eucalyptus cladocalyx (sugar gum)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Biology and Ecology
- Latitude/Altitude Ranges
- Air Temperature
- Rainfall Regime
- Soil Tolerances
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Impact Summary
- Environmental Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Wood Products
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Eucalyptus cladocalyx F. Muell.
Preferred Common Name
- sugar gum
Other Scientific Names
- Eucalyptus corynocalyx F. Muell., nom. illeg.
Local Common Names
- South Africa: suikerbloekom
- EUCCL (Eucalyptus cladocalyx)
- sugar gum
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page E. cladocalyx is a rapidly growing tree adapted to environments with regular bush fires, has the ability to mass recruit seedlings through wind dispersal of many seeds and can exploit water supplies with high efficiency. It has become an invasive species outside its native South Australian range, in Western Australia and in South Africa. It is now registered as a category 2 invader plant in South Africa according to the Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act 1983 and Henderson (2001) regards it as a potential 'transformer' of habitat there. It behaves invasively in Western Australian bushlands where it has been introduced and appears to withstand bush fires more effectively than several native Eucalyptus spp., and has the capacity to spread up to 70 m away from planting locations (Ruthrof et al., 2003). Binggeli (1999) classified E. cladocalyx as a moderately invasive species.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Myrtales
- Family: Myrtaceae
- Genus: Eucalyptus
- Species: Eucalyptus cladocalyx
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page Pryor and Johnson (1971), in their informal classification of the eucalypts, placed E. cladocalyx in the Subgenus Symphyomyrtus, section Bisectaria, series Cladocalyces, with one other species, E. brockwayi. However, these two species have few features in common. In E. cladocalyx the cotyledons are bilobed rather than bisected as in E. brockwayi. E. cladocalyx does not appear to have close affinities to any other species in the genus (Boland et al., 1984). In a more recent classification, Chippendale (1988) places E. cladocalyx on its own in series Microcorythae of the subgenus Symphyomyrtus.
E. cladocalyx var. nana is a smaller more spreading tree, which grows to 15 m in height. It originates from Eyre Peninsular and has been developed as a horticultural variety (Nicolle, 1997). It has a much bushier habit and hence is more suitable for shelterbelts and garden plantings.
One record of a natural hybrid between E. cladocalyx and E. camaldulensis appears in the summary list of reported hybrids compiled by Griffin et al. (1988).
DescriptionTop of page E. cladocalyx is described and illustrated in many texts including Poynton (1979), Boland et al. (1984), Brooker and Kleinig (1990, 1996), and Nicolle (1997). It is a medium to tall tree with a spreading crown and at maturity leaves are clustered at the end of the branches giving it an umbrella or storied look. It is often heavily branched, and on poor, shallow soils, tree habit is more stunted, branched and occasionally multi-stemmed. The tendency towards multiple stems is reported to be more prevalent in progeny from some provenances such as Wanilla (D Bush, CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products, Canberra, personal communication, 2000). Height at maturity averages about 20 m but ranges from 10 to 35 m. The diameter at breast height averages about 75 cm with a range from 30 cm to 200 cm. Typically, form is fair to poor with about one third of trees on better sites classified as being of good form. Stems may be clear to two-thirds of the tree height on the more favourable sites, while on poorer sites stems are clear for only one-third to one-half the total height and often crooked. The bark is smooth, shedding in large irregular patches producing a colourful mottled yellow to orange, grey and blue-grey surface (Brooker and Kleinig, 1990). It has a spreading and competitive root system. The juvenile leaves are opposite for a few pairs then alternating, elliptical then orbicular, 5-6 x 7-9 cm, discolorous, dark green. Adult leaves are broad lanceolate, strongly discolorous with a dark green, glossy upper surface and a dull, paler lower surface, 11-15 x 2-2.4 cm (Brooker and Kleinig, 1990; Nicolle, 1997). The inflorescences are axillary, unbranched, on leafless branchlets within the crown. The flowers are white, 7- or more flowered in each inflorescence. The buds are pedicellate, cylindrical or contracted above the middle, often ribbed, pale green or cream-coloured, 8-10 x 3-6 mm; the operculum short, hemispherical, umbonate, often slightly wider than the hypanthium. Fruits are on stalks, barrel-shaped or urceolate, ribbed, 9-15 x 6-10 mm with 3-4 valves that are deeply enclosed. The seed is light grey-brown, compressed-ovoid, often pointed at one end, slightly flanged and almost smooth (Brooker and Kleinig, 1990).
Plant TypeTop of page Broadleaved
DistributionTop of page E. cladocalyx is endemic to South Australia where it occurs naturally in four disjunct areas. Best growth and form is in populations of the southern Flinders Ranges and towards the top of Spencer Gulf. Other localities are on the eastern side of Eyre Peninsula, around Cleve and south in the Koppio Hills-Marble Range region, and in a number of small populations on Kangaroo Island (Boland et al., 1984; Nicolle, 1997).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Planted||Reference||Notes|
|South Africa||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Planted||Henderson, 2001|
|-Arizona||Present||Introduced||Matheron and Matejka, 1992|
|-Hawaii||Present||Introduced||Weber, 2003; USDA-NRCS, 2004|
|Chile||Present||Introduced||Planted||Jayawickrama et al., 1993|
|-New South Wales||Present||Introduced||Planted|
|-South Australia||Present||Native||Bonney, 1994; Nicolle, 1997|
|-Victoria||Present||Introduced||Planted||Bird et al., 1992|
|-Western Australia||Present||Introduced||1932||Invasive||Hall, 1972; Radho-Toly et al., 2001; Ruthrof et al., 2003|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page E. cladocalyx is widely planted in Australia beyond its natural range and is especially common in farm plantings in southern Victoria and southeastern South Australia. Outside of Australia it has been successful in plantations, usually where mean annual rainfall is within the range of 400-600 mm with a winter maximum. This includes African highlands, e.g. in Ethiopia, Lesotho, Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe, and in various Mediterranean countries, e.g. Algeria, Greece, Israel, Morocco, Portugal and Spain (Poynton, 1979; Jacobs, 1981; Turnbull and Pryor, 1984).
Risk of IntroductionTop of page E. cladocalyx has been introduced to and become invasive in at least two regions outside its native range, Western Australia (e.g. Radho-Toly, 2001; Ruthrof, 2003) and South Africa (Henderson, 2001). However it has been more widely introduced to Europe, Africa the Americas and Asia and there is therefore a risk of it being reported elsewhere. There may be an added risk where it has been introduced to areas where fires occur regularly since E. cladocalyx is well adapted to this form of disturbance and is able to recruit large numbers of seedlings to burned land.
HabitatTop of page E. cladocalyx is a woodland species in its native range (Weber, 2003). In South Africa, E. cladocalyx is invasive in the fynbos, forest gaps, plantations, watercourses and roadsides (Henderson, 2001). In Western Australia it invades bushland (Radho-Toly, 2001; Ruthrof et al., 2003).
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial – Managed||Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Rail / roadsides||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-natural||Natural forests||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Natural grasslands||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Riverbanks||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Coastal areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
Biology and EcologyTop of page Genetics
Despite the long-time use of the species as a farm and plantation tree in many parts of the world, it is only recently that systematic seed collections from individual trees from all known natural occurrences of the species have been undertaken by CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products, Canberra, Australia. Appropriate seed is now available for provenance trials and tree breeding work through contacting CSIRO. Current information on these topics, however, is scant. The Port Lincoln provenance of E. cladocalyx in South Australia has proved most drought tolerant in Western Australian plantings (Turnbull and Pryor, 1984; Marcar et al., 1995). Variation between provenances in stem form, stature and time to first flowering has been noted in provenance trials in South Australia with the Wanilla provenance proving very poor for timber production (D. Bush, CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products, Canberra, personal communication, 2000). The interspecific hybrid, E. camaldulensis x E. cladocalyx, was manipulated and tested in Morocco but was the slowest growing of the range of hybrids tested (Mesbah, 1995). Bonney (1994) describes the conservation status of E. cladocalyx in South Australia as good. Little is known about the origin of seed in the many woodlots and shelterbelts in southern Australia, limiting the usefulness of these secondary centres of diversity. The Australian Tree Seed Centre of CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products, Canberra has recently completed a range wide seed collection of E. cladocalyx and both single-tree and bulk provenance seedlots are available for species introduction and breeding purposes.
Physiology and Phenology
Eucalypts do not develop resting buds and grow whenever conditions are favourable (Jacobs, 1955). Flowering occurs January to April (Boland et al., 1984), with mature seed available for collection about 12 months later. Seed collections may be undertaken throughout the year, as seed crops may be retained on the tree for 3 to 4 years (Bonney, 1994).
Aspects of the breeding system, floral morphology and pistil (gynaecium) cytology were studied in three trees of E. cladocalyx by Ellis and Sedgley (1992). The individual trees ranged from self compatible to self incompatible. The authors discuss the implications of floral structure and of the location and extent of outcrossing control in relation to seed genotypes and seed output. There are approximately 120,000 viable seed per kilogram of seed and chaff mix (Turnbull and Doran, 1987). These tiny seeds are dispersed by the wind and may remain viable for more than ten years (Dean et al., 1986).
The Australian distribution of E. cladocalyx lies in the warm subhumid climatic zone with the mean maximum temperature of the hottest month from 32°C in the north to 23°C in the south. Mean minimum temperatures for the coldest month are 4°C and 9°C respectively. Frosts may occur 15-20 times each year in the northern part of the distribution but are lacking elsewhere. The mean annual rainfall is 380-650 mm with a winter maximum (Boland et al., 1984). A number of authors have produced climatic profiles for the species incorporating data from both the natural distribution and from sites where the species has been grown successfully as an exotic (e.g. for Africa, see Booth et al., 1988). Marcar et al. (1995) also give key climatic conditions for survival, summarized in the climatic tables for this datasheet. Although the species occurs naturally in a winter rainfall, mediterranean-type climate, Poynton (1979) reported that its use in afforestation in South Africa extends to parts of the Cape Province with uniform and summer rainfall. E. cladocalyx is sensitive to frosts when young, particularly to sharp frosts, but develops tolerance with maturity (Poynton, 1979). The species was reported to have tolerated absolute minimum temperatures of -2°C to -4°C in Morocco (Jacobs, 1981).
The soils where E. cladocalyx occurs naturally are mainly skeletal or podsolic, often rather shallow. Less frequently, it occurs on solonized brown soils or deep sands. The species is often found on ironstone gravels (Boland et al., 1984). On mainland Australia, this species occurs naturally on ridges, slopes and around the bases of mountains, while on Kangaroo Island it occurs along drainage lines, on flats and on gentle to moderate slopes. Outside its natural range, E. cladocalyx thrives on a wide variety of soils, gravels, clay loams, sandy loams, and sands, although in Australia it grows poorly on very fine sandy soils. It tolerates shallow soils. E. cladocalyx has a wide pH range and has been grown successfully on soils with a high lime content (Marcar et al., 1995). It generally prefers altitudes from sea level to 600 m.
Around Perth, Western Australia, where it is introduced and invasive, it is associated with two native species, E. gomphocephala and E. marginata (Ruthrof et al., 2003). Eucalypt roots form symbiotic mycorrhizal associations with various fungi, ectomycorrhizal or dual ectomycorrhizal and endomycorrhizal (vesicular-arbuscular or VA) (Brundrett et al., 1996).
Latitude/Altitude RangesTop of page
|Latitude North (°N)||Latitude South (°S)||Altitude Lower (m)||Altitude Upper (m)|
Air TemperatureTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit|
|Absolute minimum temperature (ºC)||-4|
|Mean annual temperature (ºC)||13||18|
|Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC)||22||33|
|Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC)||2||10|
RainfallTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit||Description|
|Dry season duration||0||12||number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall|
|Mean annual rainfall||350||735||mm; lower/upper limits|
Rainfall RegimeTop of page Bimodal
Soil TolerancesTop of page
Special soil tolerances
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page E. cladocalyx is relatively free from serious diseases and pests. However, nursery pathogens associated with leaf lesions, Phaeoseptoria eucalypti and Coniothyrium ovatum, were observed on E. cladocalyx in South Africa (Crous et al., 1988; Crous et al., 1989). Powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe cichoracearum was observed on 1-year-old plants of E. cladocalyx growing in a glasshouse in Arizona, USA (Matheron and Matejka, 1992). In the Transvaal of South Africa, Poynton (1979) reported that a stand of E. cladocalyx was completely destroyed by the fungus Laetiporus baudonii. Attack by the leafspot fungi, Mycosphaerella spp. has also been reported on this species in South Africa (Poynton, 1979).
In Australia, gumtree scale (Acanthococcus confusus) affects E. cladocalyx (Carne and Taylor, 1984). Young and pollarded trees are prone to infestation, especially those growing in unfavourable sites or which have been weakened by defoliating, sap-sucking or wood-boring insects. Dense colonies of white or brown scales occur along stems and leaves producing a sticky honeydew and covered with sooty mould (Farrow, 1996). Dense colonies can cause branches to die back. Small saplings are the most susceptible to attack and can be killed by the direct effects of sap-removal and indirectly by the build-up of sooty mould which covers leaves and inhibits photosynthesis. Infestations spread outwards from infested trees into surrounding trees leading to patches of dying and dead trees in plantations. Adult scale are attacked by a range of parasitic wasps and flies, by predatory larvae of moths (Mataeomera and Stathmopoda spp.), by lacewing larvae (Chrysopa spp.), by hoverfly larvae (Syrphidae) and by the adults and larvae of several ladybirds, including Rhizobius ventralis (grey adult) and Coccinella transversalis (yellow and black). Ants interfere with natural enemy control as they defend the scale to ensure a supply of honeydew. Removal of ants generally causes outbreaks to quickly collapse. There is a tendency for scale numbers to build up in spring and early summer and for predators to catch up and reduce the scale numbers to very low levels by the end of the autumn.
E. cladocalyx is one of the preferred hosts of Christmas beetle, Anoplognathus sp. (Farrow, 1996). It is moderately susceptible to leaf blister sawfly (Phylacteophaga froggatti) (Farrow, 1996). Usually only juvenile foliage of young trees or young adult leaves near the ground are attacked. Massive outbreaks can occur in young plantations due to the sawfly's high capacity for increase which enables them to escape from the control exerted by their parasites. Defoliation can be severe in young plantations and can cause tree death if several defoliation cycles occur in succession during the course of a season. In South Africa, Morocco and the USA, trees weakened by drought are occasionally attacked by the stem borer, Phoracantha semipunctata (Poynton, 1979; Montoya-Oliver et al., 1983; Paine et al., 1990; Hanks et al., 1993; Hanks et al., 1995). Chemical insecticides are ineffective against borers so removal of infected trees and prevention of drought stress through appropriate plantation management are the only recourse currently available to tree-growers (El-Yousfi, 1989; Farrow, 1996).
Radho-Toly et al. (2001) investigated the interaction between E. cladocalyx, fires and herbivory in Perth, Western Australia where the species is introduced and invasive. They concluded that foliage was more nutrient-rich after fire, more attractive to herbivores and that freedom from herbivory did not explain the invasive behaviour of E. cladocalyx in this situation.
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page The tiny seeds of E. cladocalyx are dispersed by the wind (Dean et al., 1986).
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Fisheries / aquaculture||None|
Environmental ImpactTop of page E. cladocalyx is thought to extract large amounts of water from the soil which may lead to the soil becoming drier and changing in suitability for native flora. Rapid growth and high seedling recruitment, particularly after a fire, can change the botanical composition of an area because native species are out-competed (Weber, 2003). In bushland near Perth, Western Australia the species is growing with native E. gomphocephala and E. marginata but it appears that due to higher seed survival it is expanding into bare areas more successfully than these species (Ruthrof et al., 2003). The canopy of mature E. cladocalyx also recovers more quickly than the native species after fire and it would appear that the species is therefore at a competitive advantage in areas where bush fires occur regularly (Ruthrof et al., 2003).
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
- Highly mobile locally
- Has high reproductive potential
- Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
- Damaged ecosystem services
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Negatively impacts animal health
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
- Difficult/costly to control
UsesTop of page E. cladocalyx is widely planted in Victoria, Australia, where it is managed on a coppice system as a windbreak, a source of shade and shelter for stock and for firewood and farm timber. Being a medium to tall tree and with a crown that is carried high up the stem, E. cladocalyx is best established in multi-row shelterbelts in conjunction with small bushy shrubs or trees (Hall, 1972). E. cladocalyx var. nana is the preferred type for windbreaks because of its bushier habit. E. cladocalyx var. nana and E. cladocalyx were ranked amongst the most promising species in terms of growth and water use to assist future reclamation of saline seeps by intercepting perched groundwater in the 400 mm rainfall region of south-western Australia (Biddiscombe et al., 1985; George, 1990; George, 1991; Greenwood et al., 1995). E. cladocalyx performed well in establishment trials on coal mine spoil in New South Wales (Hannan, 1979). E. cladocalyx var. nana and E. cladocalyx are used as ornamentals in southern Australia. In its natural habitat, E. cladocalyx provides sustenance and nest sites to a wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate species, including pygmy possums and sugar gliders and many varieties of birds from honeyeaters to lorikeets (Bonney, 1994). E. cladocalyx has been suggested as a suitable bio-indicator of fluoride pollution is South Africa, because of its sensitivity to such pollution (Botha et al., 1989).
The sapwood is whitish or very pale brown and the heartwood yellow-brown or dull grey to dark brown. The timber has good wearing and weathering properties that make it good for block or strip flooring. Pre-boring is advisable in nailing. It is moderately resistant to termites, however, the sapwood is susceptible to attack by Lyctus and marine borers. The heartwood is resistant to chemical impregnation. It is used for poles, posts, railway sleepers, general construction and farm timber and makes good firewood (Anon, 1967; Keating and Bolza, 1982). Washusen and Waugh (2000) showed that wood from 40-year-old plantation-grown E. cladocalyx met the requirements for high quality (appearance grade) sawn products.
There are several reports of the leaves of E. cladocalyx providing browse for native animals and cattle (e.g. Poynton, 1979). However this needs qualification, as there are also several reports of the foliage being fatal for cattle, sheep and goats by cyanide poisoning (Poynton, 1979; Webber et al., 1985). E. cladocalyx produces good quantities of poor quality pollen (Hall, 1972) but which is also stated to produce honey that is light in colour with good density (Clemson, 1985). The foliar essential oils of E. cladocalyx occur in low yields and are not of interest for commercial production (Lassak et al., 1991).
Uses ListTop of page
- Shade and shelter
Human food and beverage
- Honey/honey flora
- Carved material
- Poisonous to mammals
Wood ProductsTop of page
- Building poles
- Pit props
- Transmission poles
Sawn or hewn building timbers
- Carpentry/joinery (exterior/interior)
- For light construction
- Sports equipment
Prevention and ControlTop of page Weber (2003) reports that seedlings and young trees can be removed by digging up, providing care is taken to remove the entire root. Mature trees may be felled but herbicide should be applied to the stumps to prevent resprouting (Weber, 2003) and herbicide may be sprayed to also counteract seedling recruitment. Silvicultural texts often note the sensitivity of this species to herbicides such as glyphosate, and the sensitivity of Eucalypts in general to herbicide, which may offer indication of other suitable chemical treatments.
ReferencesTop of page
Biddiscombe EF; Rogers AL; Greenwood EAN; Boer ES de, 1985. Growth of tree species near salt seeps, as estimated by leaf area, crown volume and height. Australian Forest Research, 15(2):141-154; 22 ref.
Binggeli P, 1999. Invasive woody plants. http://members.lycos.co.uk/WoodyPlantEcology/invasive/index.html.
Bird PR; Dickmann RB; Cumming KN; Jowett DW; Kearney GA, 1992. Trees and shrubs for south west Victoria. Technical Report series No. 205. Hamilton, Victoria, Australia: Department of Food and Agriculture.
Boland DJ; Brooker MIH; Chippendale GM; Hall N; Hyland BPM; Johnston RD; Kleinig DA; Turner JD, 1984. Forest trees of Australia. 4th ed. Melbourne, Australia:Thomas Nelson and CSIRO. xvi + 687 pp.; 77 ref.
Bonney N, 1994. What seed is that? A field guide to identification, collection and germination of native seed in South Australia. Adelaide, Australia: Neville Bonney.
Botha AT; Visser JH; Moore LD, 1989. Evaluation of possible fluoride injury to vegetation in the vicinity of an industrial site near Cape Town. South African Journal of Science, 85(11):741-745; 20 ref.
Brooker I; Kleinig D, 1996. Eucalyptus: An illustrated guide to identification. Melbourne, Australia: Reed Books.
Brooker MIH; Kleinig DA, 1990. Field Guide to the Eucalypts: Volume 2, South-Western and southern Australia. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press.
Brundrett M; Bougher N; Dell B; Grove T; Malajczuk N, 1996. Working with mycorrhizas in forestry and agriculture. Working with mycorrhizas in forestry and agriculture., ix + 374 pp.; [ACIAR Monograph No. 32]; Many ref.
Carne PB; Taylor KL, 1984. Insect pests. In: Hillis WE, Brown AG, eds, Eucalypts for wood production. Melbourne: CSIRO and Academic Press, 155-168.
Chippendale GM, 1988. Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae). Flora of Australia, 19. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service.
Cromer RN, 1990. Fertilising. In: Cremer KW, ed. Trees for rural Australia. Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Inkata Press, 154-160.
Dean SJ; Holmes PM; Weiss PW, 1986. Seed biology of invasive alien plants in South Africa and South West Africa / Namibia. In: Macdonald IAW, Kruger FJ, Ferrar AA (eds.), The Ecology and Management of Biological Invasions in Southern Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: Oxford University Press, 157-170.
Doran JC, 1990. Nursery practice. In: Cremer KW, ed. Trees for Rural Australia. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press, 89-106.
Doran JC; Turnbull JW, 1997. Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics. Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics., viii + 384 pp.; [refs].
Edgar JG; Craig FG; Stewart GTL, 1978. Establishment and growth of plantation forests used for land disposal of effluent. Proceedings of the Eighth World Forestry Congress, Jakarta, 16 28 Oct.(World Forestry Congress: Forestry for quality of life):No. FQL-29-12, ii + 10 pp.; 6 ref.
Fagg PC; Cremer KW, 1990. Weed control and water conservation. In: Cremer KW (ed). Trees for rural Australia. Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Inkata Press, 161-182.
Farrow R, 1996. Insect pests of eucalypts on farmland and in plantations in southeastern Australia. CSIRO Identification Leaflets, Nos. 4, 5, 7. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO Publishing.
Florence RG, 1996. Ecology and silviculture of eucalypt forests. Melbourne: CSIRO Publishing.
Franclet A, 1963. Improvement of Eucalypt plantations by vegetative propagation [Amelioration des reboisements d'Eucalyptus par multiplication vegetative]. FAO World Consultation on Forest Genetics and Tree Improvement. No. FAO/FORGEN 63/-5/5. Stockholm, Sweden.
Greenwood EAN; Biddiscombe EF; Rogers AL; Beresford JD; Watson GD, 1995. Growth of species in a tree plantation and its influence on salinity and groundwater in the 400 mm rainfall region of south-western Australia. Agricultural Water Management, 28(3):231-243; 8 ref.
Hanks LM; Paine TD; Millar JG; Hom JL, 1995. Variation among Eucalyptus species in resistance to eucalyptus longhorned borer in Southern California. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 74(2):185-194
Henderson L, 2001. Alien Weeds and Invasive Plants. Plant Protection Research Institute Handbook No. 12. Cape Town, South Africa: Paarl Printers.
Keating WG; Bolza E, 1982. Characteristics, properties and uses of timbers. Volume 1. South-east Asia, Northern Australia and the Pacific. xxi + 362 pp.; 24 pl. (col.); 146 ref. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press.
Lassak EV; Brophy JJ; Boland DJ, 1991. Summary table of principal results of the oil analysed from all eucalypt species studied. In: Boland DJ, Brophy JJ, House APN, eds. Eucalyptus leaf oils. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press, 157-183.
Malajczuk N; Grove TS; Bougher NL; Dell B; Gong MQ, 1994. Ectomycorrhizas and nutrients: their importance to eucalypts in China. In: Brown AG, ed. Australian tree species research in China: proceedings of an international workshop held at Zhangzhou, Fujian Province, PRC, 2-5 November 1992. ACIAR Proceedings, No. 48: 132-139; 30 ref.
Montoya-Oliver JM; Rizani B; Mahzoum AM; Allue-Camacho M; Meni-Mahzoum A, 1983. Species of eucalypts suitable for forestry production in regions attacked by Phoracantha: a comparative study of Eucalyptus cladocalyx and Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Annales de la Recherche Forestiere au Maroc, 23:425-444.
Nicolle D, 1997. Eucalypts of South Australia. South Australia: Dean Nicolle.
Paine TD; Malinoski MK; Scriven GT, 1990. Rating Eucalyptus vigor and the risk of insect infestation: leaf surface area and sapwood
Poynton RJ, 1979. Report to the Southern African Regional Commission for the Conservation and Utilization of the Soil (SARCCUS) on tree planting in southern Africa. Vol. 2. The eucalypts. Pretoria, South Africa: Department of Forestry. xvi + 882 pp.; ISBN 0-621-04763-5; 208 ref.
Radho-Toly S; Majer JD; Yates C, 2001. Impact of fire on leaf nutrients, arthropod fauna and herbivory of native and exotic eucalypts in Kings Park, Perth, Western Australia. Austral Ecology, 26(5):500-506; 29 ref.
Russell VS, 1972. The care of valuable trees. In: Hall N, ed. The use of trees and shrubs in the dry country of Australia. Canberra, NSW, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service, 457-475.
Ruthrof KX; Loneragan WA; Yates CJ, 2003. Comparative population dynamics of Eucalyptus cladocalyx in its native habitat and as an invasive species in an urban bushland in south-western Australia. Diversity and Distributions, 9:469-483.
Turnbull JW; Doran JC, 1987. Seed development and germination in the Myrtaceae. In: Langkamp P, ed. Germination of Australian Native Plant Seed. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press, 46-57, 186-198.
Turnbull JW; Doran JC, 1987. Seed development and germination in the Myrtaceae. In: Langkamp, P. ed. Germination of Australian native plant seed. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press, 46-57.
Turnbull JW; Pryor LD, 1984. Choice of species and seed sources. In: Hillis WE, Brown AG, eds. Eucalypts for Wood Production. Sydney, Australia: CSIRO, Australia and Academic Press, 6-65.
USDA-NRCS, 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov.
Venning J, 1988. Growing trees for farms, parks and roadsides: a revegetation manual. Melbourne, Australia: Lothian Publishing Company Pty Ltd.
Washusen R; Waugh G, 2000. Opportunities for solid wood products from low-rainfall plantation-grown eucalypts. Conference paper to The Future of Eucalypts for Wood Products, Launceston, Tasmania (19-24 March 2000).
Webb DB; Wood PJ; Smith JP; Henman GS, 1984. A guide to species selection for tropical and sub-tropical plantations. Tropical Forestry Papers, No. 15. Oxford, UK: Commonwealth Forestry Institute, University of Oxford.
Distribution MapsTop of page
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