Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Eucalyptus camaldulensis
(red gum)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Eucalyptus camaldulensis (red gum)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Eucalyptus camaldulensis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • red gum
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • E. camaldulensis is a highly adaptable tree with ability to tolerate extreme conditions such as drought and soil salinity, coupled with prolific seed production, potentially rapid growth and the ability to repr...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Clonal plantation, Thailand.
TitlePlantation
CaptionClonal plantation, Thailand.
CopyrightK. Pinyopusarerk/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Product
Clonal plantation, Thailand.
PlantationClonal plantation, Thailand.K. Pinyopusarerk/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Product
Natural stand of E. camaldulensis, Australia (height up to 20 m).
TitleNatural stand
CaptionNatural stand of E. camaldulensis, Australia (height up to 20 m).
CopyrightMaurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products
Natural stand of E. camaldulensis, Australia (height up to 20 m).
Natural standNatural stand of E. camaldulensis, Australia (height up to 20 m).Maurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products
TitleBark of var. obtusa
Caption
CopyrightJohn Doran/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Bark of var. obtusaJohn Doran/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
TitleBark of var. camaldulensis
Caption
CopyrightMaurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products
Bark of var. camaldulensisMaurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products
Var. obtusa flower buds (6-15 mm long).
TitleFlower bud
CaptionVar. obtusa flower buds (6-15 mm long).
CopyrightJohn Doran/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Var. obtusa flower buds (6-15 mm long).
Flower budVar. obtusa flower buds (6-15 mm long).John Doran/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Natural stand of E. camaldulensis, Petford, Australia (height up to 20 m).
TitleNatural stand
CaptionNatural stand of E. camaldulensis, Petford, Australia (height up to 20 m).
CopyrightJohn Doran/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
Natural stand of E. camaldulensis, Petford, Australia (height up to 20 m).
Natural standNatural stand of E. camaldulensis, Petford, Australia (height up to 20 m).John Doran/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products
TitleWood utilization, Thailand
Caption
CopyrightK. Pinyopusarerk/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Product
Wood utilization, ThailandK. Pinyopusarerk/CSIRO Forestry and Forest Product
1. habit
2. flowering branch
3. fruiting branch
TitleLine artwork
Caption1. habit 2. flowering branch 3. fruiting branch
CopyrightPROSEA Foundation
1. habit
2. flowering branch
3. fruiting branch
Line artwork1. habit 2. flowering branch 3. fruiting branchPROSEA Foundation

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.

Preferred Common Name

  • red gum

Variety

  • Eucalyptus camaldulensis var. camaldulensis
  • Eucalyptus camaldulensis var. obtusa Blakely

Other Scientific Names

  • Eucalyptus acuminata Hook.
  • Eucalyptus camaldulensis var. acuminata (Hook.) Blakely
  • Eucalyptus camaldulensis var. brevirostris (F.Muell. ex Miq.) Blakely
  • Eucalyptus camaldulensis var. subcinerea Blakely
  • Eucalyptus longirostris F. Muell. ex Miq.
  • Eucalyptus longirostris f. brevirostris F.Muell. ex Miq.
  • Eucalyptus mcintyrensis Maiden
  • Eucalyptus rostrata Schltdl., nom. illeg.
  • Eucalyptus rostrata var. acuminata (Hook.) Maiden
  • Eucalyptus rostrata var. borealis R.T.Baker & H.G.Sm.
  • Eucalyptus rostrata var. brevirostris (F.Muell. ex Miq.) Maiden
  • Eucalyptus tereticornis var. rostrata Ewart

International Common Names

  • English: blue gum; long beak eucalyptus; murray red gum; red river gum; river gum; river red gum
  • Spanish: eucalipto; eucalipto negro; eucalipto rojo
  • French: eucalyptus; eucalyptus rouge
  • Arabic: ban; kafur

Local Common Names

  • Australia: murray red gum; red gum; river gum
  • Brazil: eucalipto
  • Ethiopia: key bahir zaf
  • Germany: Roter Eukalyptus; rotgummibaum
  • Indonesia: ekaliptus
  • Italy: eucalipto rostrato
  • Myanmar: pyilon-chantha
  • Tanzania/Zanzibar: mkaratusi
  • Thailand: yukhalip
  • Uganda: kalitunsi
  • Vietnam: b[aj]ch d[af]n [us]c; bajch dafn usc; pré;ng khchâl slök sâ

EPPO code

  • EUCCM (Eucalyptus camaldulensis)

Trade name

  • river red gum

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

E. camaldulensis is a highly adaptable tree with ability to tolerate extreme conditions such as drought and soil salinity, coupled with prolific seed production, potentially rapid growth and the ability to reproduce at a young age. These characteristics contribute to its ability to become invasive and it is a declared invasive in a number of countries. Binggeli (1999) classed this species as moderately invasive. It has been declared a category 2 invader capable of transforming habitats in South Africa (Henderson, 2001) where it colonizes watercourses. Hussain (2002) reported that E. camaldulensis was not yet invasive in Pakistan, but anticipated a substantial risk due to its repeated introduction between 1860 and 1962 and the vast number of trees in the country (c. 15 million). By 2011, Khan et al. listed this species as invasive in Pakistan. It was also the subject of large scale planting in Bangladesh, where it is considered a threat to indigenous species (Islam, 2002). Rejmanek and Richardson (2011) also listed this species as widely cultivated and invasive in Spain, South Africa, and California. It is also listed as invasive in Hawaii (Wagner et al., 1999) and Jamaica (IABIN, 2015).  

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Myrtales
  •                         Family: Myrtaceae
  •                             Genus: Eucalyptus
  •                                 Species: Eucalyptus camaldulensis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

Although a definitive classification of the eucalypts is still awaited, Hill and Johnson (1995) have formally established the eucalypts as comprising the genera Angophora, Corymbia (bloodwoods and ghost gums), and Eucalyptus in the family Myrtaceae. Wilcox (1997) listed 789 recognized species of eucalypt, together with a further 123 subspecies or varieties, giving a total of 912 eucalypt taxa. The Plant List (2013) lists 822 accepted species names for the genus.

The specific epithet, camaldulensis, derives from a cultivated tree at Camalduli, in Tuscany, Italy. The species was described by F. Dehnhardt. In the informal classification of the eucalypts by Pryor and Johnson (1971), E. camaldulensis was placed in Sect. Exertaria, subseries Tereticorninae, one of the two subseries of the southern and eastern red gums. Close relatives include E. tereticornis, E. amplifolia, E. exserta, E. brassiana and E. rudis.

Blakely (1965) published a formal description of six varieties of E. camaldulensis. These have been largely ignored by contemporary botanists because of difficulties in determination, but some texts discriminate between var. camaldulensis and var. obtusa (e.g. Brooker and Kleinig, 1994). Var. camaldulensis has rostrate (strongly beaked) opercula and occurs throughout the Murray-Darling drainage system in south-eastern Australia, while var. obtusa has obtuse or rounded opercula and is widespread along drainage systems in Western Australia (north of 30°S) and in inland and northern Australia.

Red gum populations in far northern Queensland (including the Laura, Palmer, and Walsh Rivers), previously known as E. tereticornis, have been formally published as E. camaldulensis subsp. simulata (Brooker and Kleinig, 1994). Doran and Burgess (1993) have also recommended that a number of fast-growing red gum provenances formerly considered E. tereticornis, such as Kennedy River and Morehead River, be named E. camaldulensis (subsp. obtusa), based largely on the morphology of their floral buds.

At the present, the following five subspecies have been listed for Australia:

Eucalyptus camaldulensis subsp. acuminata
Eucalyptus camaldulensis subsp. camaldulensis
Eucalyptus camaldulensis subsp. obtusa
Eucalyptus camaldulensis subsp. simulata
Eucalyptus camaldulensis subsp. subcinerea

Zones of introgression are known with E. tereticornis in eastern Australia and E. rudis in Western Australia, where distributions overlap. E. camaldulensis has been recorded in 13 naturally occurring hybrid combinations (Griffin et al., 1988). A manipulated hybrid with E. grandis is being trialled in South Africa in order to extend the range of economic plantings of eucalypts to hot, dry 'marginal' areas (Darrow, 1995). Natural hybrids between E. camaldulensis and E. alba have been commonly recorded in northern Australia (Eldridge et al., 1993).

Description

Top of page

In Australia, E. camaldulensis commonly grows up to 20 m tall and rarely exceeds 50 m, while stem diameter at breast height can reach 1-2 m or more. In open woodlands it usually has a short, thick bole which supports a large, spreading crown. In plantations, it can have a clear bole of up to 20 m with an erect, lightly-branched crown. The bark is smooth white, grey, yellow-green, grey-green, or pinkish grey, shedding in strips or irregular flakes. Rough bark may sometimes occupy the first 1-2 m of the trunk on E. camaldulensis var. camaldulensis. This species is described in many texts including Boland et al. (1984), Brooker and Kleinig (1983; 1990; 1994), Chippendale (1988), Doran and Turnbull (1997), and Doran and Wongkaew (1997). Juvenile leaves are petiolate, ovate to broadly lanceolate, up to 26 cm long and 8 cm broad, green, grey-green, or blue-green, slightly discolorous. Adult leaves are lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate, acuminate, lamina 8-30 cm long, 0.7-2 cm wide, green or grey-green, concolorous; petioles terete or channelled, 1.2-1.5 cm long. Inflorescence axillary, 7-11 (sometimes up to 13)-flowered; flowers white, peduncles slender, terete or quadrangular, 6-15 mm long; pedicels slender, 5-12 mm long. Buds pedicellate; hypanthium hemispherical, 2-3 mm long, 3-6 mm wide, operculum globular-rostrate (typical) ovoid-conical (var. obtusa) or, in subsp. simulata, horn-shaped like E. tereticornis, 4-6 mm long (up to 13 mm long in subsp. simulata), 3-6 mm wide. Fruits are hemispherical or ovoid, 5-8 mm long and wide; disc broad, ascending; 3-5 exserted valves. 

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Tree
Woody

Distribution

Top of page

The natural latitudinal range of E. camaldulensis is entirely in Australia, and extends from 12°48’S in the tropical Northern Territory to 38°15’S in cool, temperate Victoria. It occurs throughout inland mainland Australia, typically along watercourses and on flood plains, but occasionally extends to slopes at higher elevations, as in the Mt Lofty Ranges near Adelaide. It has been widely introduced around the world and can now be found in cultivation and naturalized in Pakistan, Bangladesh, the USA (i.e., Hawaii, California and Florida), Cyprus, France, Greece, India, Portugal, Spain and South Africa (Rejmanek and Richardson, 2011; see distribution table for details). 

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentIntroduced Invasive Islam, 2002; WAC, 2005; Orwa et al., 2009
Brunei DarussalamPresentIntroducedWAC, 2005; Orwa et al., 2009
CambodiaPresentIntroduced Planted WAC, 2005
ChinaPresentIntroduced Planted
-AnhuiPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015Cultivated
-FujianPresentIntroduced Planted Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
-GuangdongPresentIntroduced Planted Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
-GuangxiPresentIntroduced Planted Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
-GuizhouPresentIntroduced Planted Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
-HainanPresentIntroduced Planted
-Hong KongPresentIntroducedWu, 2001Cultivated
-HubeiPresentIntroduced Planted
-HunanPresentIntroduced Planted Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
-JiangxiPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015Cultivated
-SichuanPresentIntroduced Planted Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
-YunnanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015Cultivated
-ZhejiangPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015Cultivated
IndiaPresentIntroduced1860 Planted Hussain, 2002; Rejmanek and Richardson, 2011
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
-Andhra PradeshPresentIntroduced Planted
-AssamPresentIntroduced Planted
-BiharPresentIntroduced Planted
-DamanPresentIntroduced Planted
-DelhiPresentIntroduced Planted
-DiuPresentIntroduced Planted
-GoaPresentIntroduced Planted
-GujaratPresentIntroduced Planted
-HaryanaPresentIntroduced Planted
-Himachal PradeshPresentIntroduced Planted
-Indian PunjabPresentIntroduced Planted
-KarnatakaPresentIntroduced Planted
-KeralaPresentIntroduced Planted
-Madhya PradeshPresentIntroduced Planted
-MaharashtraPresentIntroduced Planted
-OdishaPresentIntroduced Planted
-RajasthanPresentIntroduced Planted
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroduced Planted
-Uttar PradeshPresentIntroduced Planted
-West BengalPresentIntroduced Planted
IndonesiaPresentIntroduced Planted WAC, 2005; Orwa et al., 2009
-KalimantanPresentIntroduced Planted
IranPresentIntroduced Planted
IraqPresentIntroduced Planted
IsraelPresentIntroduced Planted WAC, 2005; DAISIE, 2015
JordanPresentIntroduced Planted
KuwaitPresentIntroduced Planted
LaosPresentIntroduced Planted WAC, 2005; Orwa et al., 2009
LebanonPresentIntroduced Planted
MalaysiaPresentIntroduced Planted WAC, 2005; Orwa et al., 2009
MyanmarPresentIntroduced Planted WAC, 2005
NepalPresentIntroducedWhite, 1986; WAC, 2005
PakistanPresentIntroduced1860, 1911Hussain, 2002; WAC, 2005; Khan et al., 2011
PhilippinesPresentIntroduced Planted WAC, 2005
Saudi ArabiaPresentIntroduced Planted
SingaporePresentIntroduced Planted Chong et al., 2009
Sri LankaPresentIntroduced Planted
TaiwanPresentIntroducedFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
ThailandPresentIntroduced Planted WAC, 2005
TurkeyPresentIntroduced Planted
VietnamPresentIntroduced Planted
YemenPresentIntroduced Planted Bilaidi, 1978

Africa

AlgeriaPresentIntroduced Planted Govaerts, 2015
AngolaPresentIntroduced Planted
BeninPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2015
BotswanaPresentIntroduced Planted Buss, 2002; PROTA, 2015
Burkina FasoPresentIntroduced Planted
BurundiPresentIntroduced Planted
CameroonPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2015
Cape VerdePresentIntroducedOrwa et al., 2009
ChadPresentIntroduced Planted
ComorosPresentIntroduced Planted
CongoPresentIntroduced Planted
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentIntroduced Planted
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroduced Planted
EgyptPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2015
EritreaPresentIntroduced Planted WAC, 2005; PROTA, 2015
EthiopiaPresentIntroduced Planted WAC, 2005; PROTA, 2015
GambiaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2015
GhanaPresentIntroduced Planted
KenyaPresentIntroduced Planted WAC, 2005; Govaerts, 2015
LesothoPresentIntroduced Planted
LibyaPresentIntroduced Planted Govaerts, 2015
MadagascarPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2015
MalawiPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2015
MaliPresentIntroduced Planted
MoroccoPresentIntroducedMarien, 1991; WAC, 2005; Govaerts, 2015
MozambiquePresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2015
NamibiaPresentIntroduced Planted WAC, 2005; PROTA, 2015
NigerPresentIntroduced Planted
NigeriaPresentIntroducedOnyewotu and Stigter, 1995; WAC, 2005; Orwa et al., 2009
RwandaPresentIntroduced Planted Govaerts, 2015
SenegalPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2015
SeychellesPresentIntroducedFosberg, 1983Cultivated
Sierra LeonePresentIntroduced Planted
SomaliaPresentIntroduced Planted
South AfricaPresentIntroduced1890 Invasive Geldenhuys et al., 1986; Henderson, 2001; Rejmanek and Richardson, 2011
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2015Naturalized
SudanPresentIntroduced Planted WAC, 2005
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced Planted WAC, 2005
-ZanzibarPresentIntroduced Planted
TunisiaPresentIntroduced Planted Govaerts, 2015
UgandaPresentIntroducedWAC, 2005
ZambiaPresentIntroduced Planted PROTA, 2015
ZimbabwePresentIntroduced Planted Buss, 2002; PROTA, 2015

North America

MexicoPresentIntroduced Planted Fierros and Musalem, 1978
USAPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2004
-ArizonaPresentIntroducedNorem et al., 1982
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced Invasive Anon, 2003; USDA-NRCS, 2004
-FloridaPresentIntroduced Planted USDA-NRCS, 2015
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Planted Wagner et al., 1999; USDA-NRCS, 2004

Central America and Caribbean

British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012Tortola and Virgin Gorda
Costa RicaPresentIntroduced Planted Govaerts, 2015
CubaPresentIntroduced Planted
El SalvadorPresentIntroduced Planted Govaerts, 2015
GuatemalaPresentIntroduced Planted
HondurasPresentIntroduced Planted
JamaicaPresentIntroduced Invasive IABIN, 2015
NicaraguaPresentIntroduced Planted Govaerts, 2015
PanamaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2015
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2004; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced Planted

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedZalba, 1995; WAC, 2005; Rejmanek and Richardson, 2011
BrazilPresentIntroduced Planted
ChilePresentIntroduced Planted
ColombiaPresentIntroduced Planted
EcuadorPresentIntroduced Planted
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedCharles Darwin Foundation, 2008
GuyanaPresentIntroduced Planted
ParaguayPresentIntroduced Planted
PeruPresentIntroduced Planted
UruguayPresentIntroduced Planted

Europe

AlbaniaPresentIntroducedWAC, 2005
CyprusPresentIntroduced Planted Rejmanek and Richardson, 2011
FrancePresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2015Naturalized
-CorsicaPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2015
GreecePresentIntroducedPanetsos, 1974; WAC, 2005; DAISIE, 2015
ItalyPresentIntroduced1803 Planted WAC, 2005
-SardiniaPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2015
-SicilyPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2015
MaltaPresentIntroduced Planted WAC, 2005
PortugalPresentIntroduced Planted DAISIE, 2015
SpainPresentIntroduced Planted WAC, 2005; DAISIE, 2015
UKPresentIntroducedWAC, 2005

Oceania

AustraliaPresentNativePlanted, NaturalWAC, 2005
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentNativePlanted, NaturalUSDA-ARS, 2015
-New South WalesPresentNativePlanted, NaturalUSDA-ARS, 2015
-QueenslandPresentNativePlanted, NaturalUSDA-ARS, 2015
-South AustraliaPresentNativePlanted, NaturalUSDA-ARS, 2015
-VictoriaPresentNativePlanted, NaturalUSDA-ARS, 2015
-Western AustraliaPresentNativePlanted, NaturalUSDA-ARS, 2015
FijiPresentIntroduced Planted
GuamPresentIntroducedRaulerson, 2006
New ZealandPresentIntroduced
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroducedHancock and Henderson, 1988Cultivated

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

E. camaldulensis is the most widely distributed of all eucalypts and globally, E. camaldulensis is perhaps the most widely used tree for planting in arid and semi-arid lands (Eldridge et al., 1993), with at least 1 million hectares established by 1997. Jacobs (1981) estimated that by the late 1970s over half a million hectares of plantations had been established mainly in the Mediterranean region and particularly in Spain and Morocco. Seed for these plantings came mainly from local land races established before 1900, using southern Australian provenances. Planting in the tropics, especially in South-East Asia, Mexico, and Brazil, is increasing with the increased availability of the climatically-adapted northern Australian provenances (Midgley et al., 1989). In Thailand alone some 300,000 hectares have been planted over the last ten years (K. Pinyopusarerk, personal communication, 1997). In addition, there are extensive but largely unrecorded plantings of E. camaldulensis in many countries for shade and shelter. It was introduced in the “undivided” India (currently Pakistan and India) in 1860 (Khan et al., 2011). In Hawaii it was introduced in the 1880s and first planted at Ulupalakua on Maui. Later, the Division of Forestry had planted 429,000 trees by 1960, and many more trees were planted by private landowners. 

Risk of Introduction

Top of page This species is among the most widely introduced forestry species with a vast global distribution. In some countries it has been the subject of mass planting programmes. Allowing for time lags between introduction and tendency to invade natural habitats, it is likely that future invasion events will be reported.

Habitat

Top of page

E. camaldulensis is typically a riverine species and in arid Australia has a ribbon-like distribution fringing the drainage lines across the landscape. It also occurs occasionally in open-forest or woodland formations on flood plains. Outside its native range it colonizes watercourses and floodplains, open forest and woodland (Henderson, 2001; Orwa et al., 2009). According to Brown and Gubb (1986) it is reported in the following habitats in South Africa: farmsteads, kraals, urban outskirts, timber plantations, road and railway verges, quarried and mining land, dry river floodplains, episodic river banks, sandy and rocky land. 

Habitat List

Top of page
CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

The chromosome number reported for E. camaldulensis is 2n = 22 (Doran and Wongkaew, 1997). Two main forms of the species are recognized: a northern tropical form that is lignotuberous and has relatively obtuse opercula (var. obtusa), and a southern temperate form that is non-lignotuberous and has rostrate opercula (var. camaldulensis) (Pryor and Byrne, 1969). A detailed account of variation and breeding of E. camaldulensis can be found in Eldridge et al. (1993). As would be expected with a species of wide natural occurrence over a broad range of habitats, E. camaldulensis demonstrates considerable natural variation. Results of provenance trials reported up to 1993 were reviewed in detail by Eldridge et al. (1993). Provenance variation has been recorded for growth rate, wood properties, tolerance to salinity and alkalinity, drought tolerance, frost tolerance, leaf oil content and polyphenols. Physiological studies are helping to explain the basis of some of the variation in growth and survival between provenances, e.g. that seedlings have a range of genetically determined responses to water stress depending on their origin, that combine to produce strategies appropriate for survival and growth under the conditions at their origin (Gibson et al., 1994; Gibson et al., 1995; Franks et al., 1995).

Tree improvement programmes for E. camaldulensis are being undertaken in many countries (e.g. Australia, Brazil, China, India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, USA, Vietnam, and Zimbabwe). Breeding strategies for E. camaldulensis (e.g. Barnes, 1984; Nikles, 1987; Raymond, 1991; Davidson, 1993; Eldridge, 1995; Doran et al., 1996) generally recommend starting with large base populations of seedlots from natural stands complemented by some locally selected material due to the uncertainty of the origins of local land races and the need to minimise inbreeding depression. E. camaldulensis tree improvement programmes utilizing selection and mass propagation of clones exist in Brazil (Nambiar, 1993), India (Davidson, 1993; Kulkarni and Lal, 1995), Nepal (White, 1986), Morocco (Marien, 1991), Thailand (Davidson, 1993), Turkey (Gülbaba et al., 1995), USA (M. Bacca, personal communication, 1997), and Vietnam, and remarkable gains over short time spans have been achieved, e.g. over six years in Nepal (White, 1986). Clones of E. camaldulensis have been successfully genetically transformed in vitro. Hybrids are readily made between E. camaldulensis and E. grandis, E. tereticornis, and other species of the subgenus Symphyomyrtus (Griffin et al., 1988). Both primary and secondary centres of diversity hold vast genetic resources of E. camaldulensis. However, it is often impossible to trace the origin of seed used for plantations, so the extent of genetic variation available in various regions is uncertain. The Australian Tree Seed Centre of CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products, Canberra, Australia, provides both single-tree and bulk provenance collections of seed of E. camaldulensis for breeding programmes, and presently has an extensive range of seedlots from both tropical and temperate provenances in store.

Physiology and Phenology

Eucalypts do not develop resting buds and grow whenever conditions are favourable. Growth rates vary greatly between provenances and are heavily site-dependent, though early growth may exceed 3 m per year for well-adapted provenances on favourable sites. The time of flowering in natural stands depends on locality. Flowering peaks in summer in the south, in autumn in the north-west, and winter-spring in the north-east of Australia (Banks, 1990). Outside Australia, the indigenous flowering pattern may be disrupted; for example, peak flowering moved from summer to winter for provenances from temperate Australia when planted in a summer rainfall climate in Zimbabwe (Mullin and Pswarayi, 1990). In Thailand, some provenances (Gilbert River, Queensland, Petford, Queensland, and Isdell River, Western Australia) flower throughout the year on a range of sites, although autumn (September-November) is the peak period (Wasuwanich, 1989). Fruit development and maturation time can be as short as four months. For example, an August flowering in northern Queensland will provide mature fruit the following January, while the September-November peak flowering in Thailand results in fruits ripe for collection in the following April-May (Pukittayacamee et al., 1993). Production of the first seed crop may occur within three years of planting.

Reproductive Biology

Eucalypts have hermaphrodite, protandrous flowers which are pollinated by insects or birds (Griffin, 1989). They reproduce by a mixed mating system, with both outcrossing and selfing (Moran and Bell, 1983; Moran, 1992). Analyses of the breeding system of E. camaldulensis using allozymes indicate a predominantly outcrossing mating system. Outcrossing rates of 86 and 96% were recorded in populations at Lake Albacutya (McDonald et al., 1995) and Petford (P. Butcher, personal communication, 1995), respectively. Pollination is mainly carried out by insects, but is also undertaken by birds and small mammals. Seeds take approximately six months to reach maturation (World Agroforestry Centre, 2002) and production of the first seed crop may occur within three years of planting. The small, abundant (15 per fruit) cuboid seeds have two seed coats. The outer coat is yellow to yellow-brown in colour while the undercoat is brown-black (all other red gums have seeds with a single dark brown to black seed coat) (Boland et al., 1980). There are about 700,000 viable seed/kg as seed and chaff mixture. Seeds are wind dispersed, and remain viable for more than 10 years (Dean et al., 1986).

Environmental Requirements

E. camaldulensis grows under a wide range of climatic conditions, from warm to hot and sub-humid to semi-arid. In Australia, for the northern variety, the mean maximum temperature for the hottest month is in the range 28-40°C; the mean minimum for the coldest month is in the range 6-22°C; and the absolute minimum temperature has been reported as being in the range -3 to 6°C. For the southern variety, the mean maximum temperature of the hottest month is in the range 21-41°C; the mean minimum temperature for the coldest month is in the range 0-14°C; and the absolute minimum temperature has been reported as being in the range -5 to -7°C. Up to 40 frosts a year may be experienced in southern and inland areas which experience the lowest absolute minimum temperatures.  The mean annual rainfall in the natural range of E. camaldulensis is mostly 250-600 mm, although a few areas receive up to 1250 mm, exceptionally up to 2500 mm, and some as little as 150 mm. In low rainfall areas E. camaldulensis relies on seasonal flooding and/or the presence of a high water table, such that minimum rainfall figures do not give a reliable indication of the tolerance of the species to drought. Depth and texture of the soil are also important factors in determining minimum rainfall for successful growth. Rainfall distribution varies from a winter maximum in southern areas to a monsoonal type in northern Australia, falling mostly between November and March. Rainfall variability is very high in inland regions with frequent long, dry spells.

E. camaldulensis occurs on a variety of soil types. It is common on heavy clays in southern Australia, but more generally occurs on sandy alluvial soils in the north. It infrequently occurs on the margins of salt lakes. It has been recorded growing on calcareous soils in South Australia (e.g. near Port Lincoln) and Western Australia (e.g. DeGrey and Greenough Rivers, and Wiluna) (Jacobs, 1981; Eldridge et al., 1993). Although mainly a tree of depositional or alluvial sites it sometimes extends to slopes at higher elevations, as in the Mt. Lofty Ranges near Adelaide, Australia.

Associations

In Australia E. camaldulensis may be associated with several eucalypts including E. coolabah, E. largiflorens, E. leucoxylon, E. microcarpa, and E. melliodora. In the more tropical parts of its range, such as in northern Queensland common eucalypt associates include E. alba, E. microtheca, and a variety of ghost gums and bloodwoods. E. camaldulensis roots form symbiotic mycorrhizal associations with various fungi. Ectomycorrhizal or dual ectomycorrhizal and endomycorrhizal (vesicular-arbuscular or VA) associations can occur in the genus (Brundrett et al., 1996). Through their roots, to which the fungi are attached, the trees derive certain nutrients (especially phosphorous) from the fungi and these, in turn, benefit from other nutrients made available to them by the tree.

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

Top of page
Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
-13 -38 20 700

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -7 6
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 13 28
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 21 41
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 0 22

Rainfall

Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration08number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall4002500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • impeded
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • saline
  • sodic

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

In the wild, insects such as termites and aphids and rodents may be troublesome to E. camaldulensis. In the nursery, E. camaldulensis is susceptible to various fungi causing damping-off and leaf diseases (Orwa et al., 2009).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

No specific information was available for E. camaldulensis, but the small seed size would be consistent with the wind dispersal of several other invasive Eucalypt species e.g. E. cladocalyx, E. grandis and E.lehmanii (Dean et al., 1986). Long distance dispersal is common as this species is among the most widely introduced forestry species with a vast global distribution.

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Crop production None
Environment (generally) Negative
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production None
Human health None
Livestock production None
Native fauna Negative
Native flora Negative
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Environmental Impact

Top of page

E. camaldulensis has a negative impact on biodiversity. Henderson (2001) describes it as a habitat transformer. The species has been blamed in some countries (e.g. India and Thailand) for reducing soil water reserves, depleting soil nutrients, and other ecologically negative effects. In South Africa, E. camaldulensis competes with and replaces indigenous riverine species. Extensive stands along watercourses are likely to cause a significant reduction in stream flow. 

Around the world, areas invaded by eucalypts are dealing with four main concerns: (1) excessive water use and suppression of food crops growing nearby, (2) suppression of ground vegetation (possible allelopathic effects) and resulting soil erosion, (3) increased fire hazard, and (4) generally poor wildlife value (Rejmanek and Richardson, 2011). 

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

Top of page

E. camaldulensis is planted extensively for shade, shelter, and amenity purposes. In Nepal, a wide range of crops are grown under widely spaced (5 x 2 m) E. camaldulensis up to the age of 3 years (White, 1986), whilst in India the spacing used is more commonly 8 x 8 m (Hocking, 1993). More commonly, E. camaldulensis is used in shelterbelts adjacent to crops where it offers protection from desiccating winds (Onyewotu and Stigter, 1995). E. camaldulensis is useful for the reclamation of degraded lands, especially mine spoils and salt-affected land subject to seasonal waterlogging, and particularly when the salinity is moderate or low (Langkamp, 1987; Marcar et al., 1995; Sun and Dickinson, 1995; Farrell et al. 1996).

The timber has a handsome red colour, a fine texture, and interlocking wavy grain. It is hard, durable, resistant to termites, and has many uses. The sapwood is susceptible to attack by Lyctus borers (Keating and Bolza, 1982). Correctly handled, the wood is useful for speciality furniture, construction timber, pulpwood, roundwood and fuelwood (Poynton, 1979). E. camaldulensis wood burns well and makes a good fuel, used in several countries such as Brazil (Jacobs, 1981; Eldridge et al., 1993) for the large-scale production of charcoal for the iron and steel industries, and its dense wood and coppicing ability make it an excellent species for fuelwood production.

Some tropical provenances of E. camaldulensis (e.g. Petford) give 1,8-cineole-rich leaf oils and are potential sources of medicinal-grade Eucalyptus oils (Doran and Brophy, 1990). Substantial variability within and between provenances for commercial oil traits and their high heritabilities indicates significant potential for improvement through selection and breeding (Doran and Matheson, 1994; Doran and Williams, 1994). E. camaldulensis is of major importance in Australia as a source of honey, producing heavy yields of nectar in good seasons (Clemson, 1985) and also provides the bees with an important source of good quality pollen.

Uses List

Top of page

Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Shade and shelter

Fuels

  • Charcoal
  • Fuelwood

General

  • Ornamental

Human food and beverage

  • Honey/honey flora

Materials

  • Carved material
  • Essential oils
  • Miscellaneous materials
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical

Wood Products

Top of page

Charcoal

Containers

  • Cases

Furniture

Railway sleepers

Roundwood

  • Building poles
  • Posts
  • Transmission poles

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Bridges
  • Carpentry/joinery (exterior/interior)
  • Engineering structures
  • Exterior fittings
  • Fences
  • Flooring
  • For heavy construction
  • For light construction

Veneers

Wood-based materials

  • Fibreboard
  • Hardboard
  • Particleboard

Woodware

  • Turnery

Prevention and Control

Top of page

There is little information available on control of E. camaldulensis specifically, however, for some other invasive eucalypts (e.g. E. cladocalyx, E. globulus), the practice of digging out seedlings and young trees have been applied (Weber, 2003). Similarly mature trees of these species have been felled and the stumps treated with herbicide, and drilling stems and filling with herbicide is a further approach (Weber, 2003).

In southern Australia, changed grazing and flooding regimes appear to affect the post-dispersal survival of seeds (Meeson et al., 2002). In an experiment, seed predation by ants was highest at sites grazed by cattle and Meeson et al. (2002) concluded that a reduction in the frequency of flooding events was likely, through the interaction of livestock and seed predators to have reduced potential A. camaldulensis recruitment.
 

References

Top of page

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

ACIAR, 1992. Eucalypts: Curse of cure? Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research.

ACIAR, 1996. Minimising disease impacts on eucalypts in South East Asia (ACIAR PN9441). First progress report (annual) to December 31, 1996. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research.

Anon, 2003. Alien plant invaders of natural areas. Plant Conservation Alliance. http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/list/e.htm.

Awe JO; Shepherd KR, 1975. Provenance variation in frost resistance in Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. Australian Forestry, 38(1):26-33; 16 ref.

Banks JCG, 1990. Flowering patterns in Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Proceedings international Eucalyptus symposium, Zhanjiang, China.

Barnes RD, 1984. A multiple population breeding strategy for Zimbabwe. In: Barnes RD, Gibson GL, eds. Provenance and Genetic Improvement Strategies in Tropical Forest Trees. Proceedings IUFRO Conference, Mutare. Oxford, UK: Commonwealth Forestry Institute, 619-632.

Bilaidi AS, 1978. Silviculture in the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. Unasylva, 30(121):29-32; 4 pl.

Binggeli P, 1999. Invasive woody plants. http://members.lycos.co.uk/WoodyPlantEcology/invasive/index.html.

Bird PR; Kearney GA; Jowett DW, 1996. Trees and Shrubs for South West Victoria. Technical Report series No. 205. Hamilton, Australia: Agriculture Victoria.

Blakely WF, 1965. A key to the Eucalypts. Forestry and Timber Bureau, Canberra. 3rd ed. pp. 359 + 24.

Boland DJ; Brooker MIH; Chippendale GM; Hall N; Hyland BPM; Johnston RD; Kleinig DA; Turner JD, 1984. Forest trees of Australia. 4th ed. Melbourne, Australia:Thomas Nelson and CSIRO. xvi + 687 pp.; 77 ref.

Boland DJ; Brooker MIH; Turnbull JW; Kleinig DA, 1980. Eucalyptus seed. Canberra, Australia: Division of Forest Research, CSIRO. xii + 191 pp.; 63 pl.; 212 ref.

Booth TH; ed, 1996. Matching trees and sites. Proceedings of an International Workshop held in Bangkok, Thailand, 27-30 March 1995. ACIAR Proceedings No. 63.

Booth TH; Pryor LD, 1991. Climatic requirements of some commercially important eucalypt species. Forest Ecology and Management, 43(1-2):47-60; 31 ref.

Brooker MIH; Kleinig DA, 1983. Field guide to eucalypts. Volume 1. South-eastern Australia. vii + 288 pp. Sydney, Australia: Inkata Press.

Brooker MIH; Kleinig DA, 1990. Field Guide to the Eucalypts: Volume 2, South-Western and southern Australia. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press.

Brooker MIH; Kleinig DA, 1994. Field Guide to Eucalypts. Vol. 3. Northern Australia. Sydney, Australia: Inkata Press.

Brown CJ; Gubb AA, 1986. Invasive alien organisms in the Namib desert, upper Karoo and the arid and semi-arid savannas of western southern Africa. In: The ecology and management of biological invasions in southern Africa, Macdonald IAW, Kruger FJ, Ferrar AA, eds. Cape Town, South Africa: Oxford University Press, 93-108.

Brundrett M; Bougher N; Dell B; Grove T; Malajczuk N, 1996. Working with mycorrhizas in forestry and agriculture. Working with mycorrhizas in forestry and agriculture., ix + 374 pp.; [ACIAR Monograph No. 32]; Many ref.

Buss CM, 2002. The potential threat of invasive tree species in Botswana. Department of Crop Production and Forestry, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of Botswana, 40 pp.

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation, unpaginated.

Chippendale GM, 1988. Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae). Flora of Australia, 19. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Chong KY; Tan HTW; Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Clemson A, 1985. Honey and pollen flora. Honey and pollen flora., iv + 263 pp.; [B].

Coppen JWJ, 2002. Eucalyptus: The Genus Eucalyptus (Medicinal & Aromatic Plants)., Australia: CRC Press, 464 pp.

Crous PW; Alfenas AC, 1995. Mycosphaerella gracilis and other species of Mycosphaerella associated with leaf spots of Eucalyptus in Indonesia. Mycologia, 87(1):121-126

DAISIE, 2015. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do

Darrow WK, 1995. Selection of eucalypt species for cold and dry areas in South Africa. In: Potts BM, Borralho NMG, Reid JB, Cromer RN, Tibbits WN, Raymond CA, eds. Eucalypt Plantations: Improving Fibre Yield and Quality. Proceedings CRC-IUFRO Conference, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia, 19-24 February. Hobart, Tasmania, Australia: CRC for Temperate Hardwood Forestry, 336-338.

Davidson J, 1993. Domestication and breeding programme for Eucalyptus in the Asia-Pacific region. UNDP/FAO Regional Project on Improving Productivity of Man-Made Forests Through Application of Technological Advances in Tree Breeding and Propagation (RAS/91/004-FORTIP). Los Baños, Philippines: FAO of the United Nations.

Dawson TE; Pate JS, 1996. Seasonal water uptake and movement in root systems of Australian phraeatophytic plants of dimorphic root morphology: a stable isotope investigation. Oecologia, 107(1):13-20; 36 ref.

Day RK; Rudgard SA; Nair KSS, 1994. Asian tree pests: An overview. FORSPA Publication 12. Bangkok, Thailand: FAO.

Dean SJ; Holmes PM; Weiss PW, 1986. Seed biology of invasive alien plants in South Africa and South West Africa / Namibia. In: Macdonald IAW, Kruger FJ, Ferrar AA (eds.), The Ecology and Management of Biological Invasions in Southern Africa. Cape Town, South Africa: Oxford University Press, 157-170.

Doran JC, 1990. Nursery practice. In: Cremer KW, ed. Trees for Rural Australia. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press, 89-106.

Doran JC; Brophy JJ, 1990. Tropical red gums - a source of 1,8-cineole-rich Eucalyptus oil. New Forests, 4(3):157-178; 21 ref.

Doran JC; Burgess IP, 1993. Variation in floral bud morphology in the intergrading zones of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. tereticornis in northern Queensland. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 72(3):198-202; 11 ref.

Doran JC; Caruhapattana B; Namsavat S; Brophy JJ, 1995. Effect of harvest time on the leaf and essential oil yield of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 7(6):627-632; 10 ref.

Doran JC; Matheson AC, 1994. Genetic parameters and expected gains from selection for monoterpene yields in Petford Eucalyptus camaldulensis. New Forests, 8(2):155-167; 14 ref.

Doran JC; Pinyopusarerk K; Arnold R; Harwood C, 1996. Breeding plan for Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Tamil Nadu. Twinning arrangement between CSIRO and selected member countries of UNDP/FAO Regional Project on Improving Productivity of Man-Made Forests through Application of Technological Advances in Tree Breeding and Propagation (RAS/91/004-FORTIP). Canberra, Australia: CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products.

Doran JC; Turnbull JW, 1997. Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics. Australian trees and shrubs: species for land rehabilitation and farm planting in the tropics., viii + 384 pp.; [refs].

Doran JC; Turnbull JW; Kariuki EM, 1987. Effects of storage conditions on germination of five tropical tree species. In: Kamra SK, Ayling RD, eds. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Forest Seed Problems in Africa, Aug 23-Sept 2, Harare, Zimbabwe, 84-94.

Doran JC; Williams ER, 1994. Fast-growing Eucalyptus camaldulensis clones for foliar-oil production in the tropics. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 73(4):261-266, 273-274; 18 ref.

Doran JC; Wongkaew W, 1997. Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. In: Faridah Hanum I, van der Maesen LJG, eds. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 11. Auxiliary Plants. Leiden, the Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers, 132-137.

Doran JC; Wongkaew W, 1997. Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. In: Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 11. Auxiliary plants [ed. by Faridah Hanum, I. \Maesen, L. J. G. van der]. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers, 132-137.

Eldridge K, 1995. Breeding plan for Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Thailand 1995 revision. Canberra, Australia: CSIRO Division of Forestry.

Eldridge KG; Davidson J; Harwood CE; Van Wyk G, 1993. Eucalypt domestication and breeding. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, xix + 288 pp. 27 pp. of ref.

Evans J, 1992. Plantation forestry in the tropics: tree planting for industrial, social, environmental, and agroforestry purposes. Oxford, UK: Clarenden Press. Ed. 2, xv + 403 pp.; 32 pp. of ref.

Fairweather JR; McNeil D, 1997. Early growth responses to Acacia melanoxylon to superphosphate, lime and boron. Australian Forestry, 60(3):202-206; 16 ref.

Faridah Hanum I; Maesen LJG van der, eds. , 1997. Plant resources of southeast Asia. No. 11. Auxillary plants. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys.

Farrell RCC; Bell DT; Akilan K; Marshall JK, 1996. Morphological and physiological comparisons of clonal lines of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. II. Responses to waterlogging/salinity and alkalinity. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 23(4):509-518; 26 ref.

Fierros AM; Musalem MA, 1978. Introduction trials of the genus Eucalyptus in some regions of Mexico. [Ensayos de introduccion del genero Eucalyptus en algunas regiones de Mexico.] Chapingo, No. 10, 3-13; 22 ref.

Floc'h E le, 1991. Invasive plants of the Mediterranean basin. In: Groves RH, Castri F di, eds. Biogeography of Mediterranean invasions. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 67-80.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Fosberg FR, 1983. Natural History of Cousin Island. Atoll Research Bulletin, 273-281. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/39968914

Franks PJ; Gibson A; Bachelard EP, 1995. Xylem permeability and embolism susceptibility in seedlings of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. from two different climatic zones. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 22(1):15-21; 35 ref.

Geldenhuys CJ; Roux PJ le; Cooper KH, 1986. Alien invasions in indigenous evergreen forest. The ecology and management of biological invasions in Southern Africa. Proceedings of the National Synthesis Symposium on the ecology of biological invasions [edited by Macdonald, I.A.W; Kruger, F.J; Ferrar, A.A.] Cape Town, South Africa; Oxford University Press, 119-131

Gibson A; Bachelard EP; Brown AG, 1994. Relationships between site characteristics and survival strategies of Eucalyptus camaldulensis seedlings. Australian tree species research in China: proceedings of an international workshop held at Zhangzhou, Fujian Province, PRC, 2 5 November 1992, 91-95; 3 ref.

Gibson A; Bachelard EP; Hubick KT, 1995. Relationship between climate and provenance variation in Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 22(3):453-460; 15 ref.

Govaerts R, 2015. World Checklist of Myrtaceae. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Griffin AR, 1989. Strategies for the genetic improvement of yield in Eucalyptus. In: Pereira JS, Landsberg JJ, eds. Biomass production by fast-growing trees. Dordrecht, Germany: Kluwer, 247-265.

Griffin AR; Burgess IP; Wolf L, 1988. Patterns of natural and manipulated hybridisation in the genus Eucalyptus L'Herit. - a review. Australian Journal of Botany, 36(1):41-66.

Gülbaba AG; Gürses MK; Özkurt A, 1995. Two year results of E. camaldulensis clonal test in Turkey. In: Potts BM, Borralho NMG, Reid JB, Cromer RN, Tibbits WN, Raymond CA, eds. Eucalypt Plantations: Improving Fibre Yield and Quality. Proceedings CRC-IUFRO Conference, Hobart, 19-24 February. Hobart, Australia: CRC for Temperate Hardwood Forestry, 272-273.

Gürses MK; Özkurt A, 1995. Effects of irrigation on growth in height and diameter in Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantations in Turkey. In: Potts BM, Borralho NMG, Reid JB, Cromer RN, Tibbits WN, Raymond CA, eds. Eucalypt Plantations: Improving Fibre Yield and Quality. Proceedings CRC-IUFRO Conference, Hobart, Australia, 19-24 February. Hobart, Australia: CRC for Temperate Hardwood Forestry, 344-348.

Hancock IR; Henderson CP, 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin - Dodo Creek Research Station, No. 7. Honiara, Solomon Islands ii + 203 pp.

Hanks LM; Paine TD; Millar JG; Hom JL, 1995. Variation among Eucalyptus species in resistance to eucalyptus longhorned borer in Southern California. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 74(2):185-194

Hartney VJ; Kabay ED, 1984. From tissue culture to forest trees. Combined Proceedings, International Plant Propagators' Society, publ. 34: 93-99; 19 ref.

Henderson L, 2001. Alien Weeds and Invasive Plants. Plant Protection Research Institute Handbook No. 12. Cape Town, South Africa: Paarl Printers.

Hill KD; Johnson LAS, 1995. Systematic studies in the eucalypts 7. A revision of the bloodwoods, genus Corymbia (Myrtaceae). Telopea, 6(2-3):185-504; 3 pp. of ref.

Hocking D, ed. , 1993. Trees for drylands. New Delhi, India: Oxford and IBH.

Holmgren M; Pettersson P, 1995. Evaluation of long-term growth trials of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus tereticornis in Laos, South-East Asia: a minor field study. Working Paper International Rural Development Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, No. 282, 24 pp.; ISRN SLU-IRDC-WP-282-SE; 15 ref.

Hussain A, 2002. Present status of invasive alien species in Pakistan. In: The Prevention and Management of Invasive Alien Species: Forging Cooperation throughout South and Southeast Asia. Proceedings of a conference in Bangkok, Thailand. GISP Global Invasive Species Programme, OEPP Ministry of Science Technology and Environment, Thailand Biodiversity Center, US Government.

IABIN, 2015. List of Alien Invasive Species occurring in Jamaica. The United States Node of the Inter-American Biodiversity Information Net (IABIN). ttp://i3n.iabin.net/

Ishiguri F; Iizuka K; Tanabe J; Wedatama S; Yokota S; Yoshizawa N; Diloksumpun S, 2012. Technical note: solid wood properties of Eucalyptus camaldulensis planted for pulpwood production in Thailand. Wood and Fiber Science, 44(1):108-110. http://swst.metapress.com/content/g16458457 l0h4252/?p=aaa28f5895724ddd9aba2c85694bf37e&pi=12

Islam M, 2002. Prevention and management of invasive alien species: forging cooperation throughout south and southeast Asia. In: The Prevention and Management of Invasive Alien Species: Forging Cooperation throughout South and Southeast Asia Proceedings of a conference held in Bangkok, Thailand 14-16 August, 2002. GISP Global Invasive Species Programme, OEPP Ministry of Science Technology and Environment, Thailand Biodiversity Center, United States Government.

Jacobs MR, 1981. Eucalypts for planting. Eucalypts for planting., Ed. 2:xxiv + 677 pp. + 36 pl.; [B].

Keating WG; Bolza E, 1982. Characteristics, properties and uses of timbers. Volume 1. South-east Asia, Northern Australia and the Pacific. xxi + 362 pp.; 24 pl. (col.); 146 ref. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press.

Khan I; Marwat KB; Khan IA; Ali H; Dawar K; Pak H, 2011. Invasive weeds of southern districts of Kyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research, 17(2):161-174.

Kijkar S, 1991. Handbook: producing rooted cuttings of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. vi + 25 pp.; 9 ref.

Kulkarni HD; Lal P, 1995. Performance of Eucalyptus clones at ITC Bhadrachlam, India. In: Potts BM, Borralho NMG, Reid JB, Cromer RN, Tibbits WN, Raymond CA, eds. Eucalypt Plantations: Improving Fibre Yield and Quality. Proceedings CRC-IUFRO Conference, Hobart, 19-24 February. Hobart, Australia: CRC for Temperate Hardwood Forestry, 274-275.

Kumaravelu G; Stanley J; Rai RSV; Balan Sampson; Sampson V, 1995. Provenances of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh and E. tereticornis Sm suitable to South Indian conditions - results of an IUFRO trial. Annals of Forestry, 3(2):129-133; 15 ref.

Langkamp PJ, 1987. Germination of Australian native plant seed. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press.

Malajczuk N, 1995. Packaged fungi for faster plantation growth. Onwood, No. 9. Canberra, Austrlia: CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products.

Marcar NE; Crawford DF; Leppert PL; Jovanovic T; Floyd R; Farrow R, 1995. Trees for saltland: a guide to selecting native species for Australia. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO.

Marien JN, 1991. Clonal forestry in Morocco: propagation and maturation problems. In: Schonau APG, ed. Proceedings IUFRO Symposium on Intensive Forestry: The Role of Eucalypts. Vol. 1. South African Forest Research Institute, 126-132.

McDonald MW; Bell JC; Butcher PA, 1995. Effect of seed collection strategies on capturing genetic diversity in Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. In: Olesen K, ed. Innovations in Tropical Seed Technology. Proceedings of the IUFRO Symposium of the Project Group P.2.04.00 `Seed Problems', Arusha, Tanzania, 7-10 September 1995, 166-174.

Meeson N; Robertson AI; Jansen A, 2002. The effects of flooding and livestock on post-dispersal seed predation in river red gum habitats. Journal of Applied Ecology, 39(2):247-258; many ref.

Mendel Z, 1987. Major pests of man-made forests in Israel: origin, biology, damage and control. Phytoparasitica, 15(2):131-137; 29 ref.

Midgley SJ; Eldridge KG; Doran JC, 1989. Genetic resources of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 68(4):295-308; 35 ref.

Moran GF, 1992. Patterns of genetic diversity in Australian tree species. New Forests, 6:49-66.

Moran GF; Bell JC, 1983. Eucalyptus. In: Tanksley SD, Orton TJ, eds. Isozymes in Plant Genetics and Breeding, Part B, 423-441.

Moura VPG, 1986. Provenance variation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. in Brazil. D.Phil. thesis. Oxford, UK: University of Oxford.

Mullin LJ; Pswarayi I, 1990. Flowering periodicity in provenances of Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Zimbabwe. Commonwealth Forestry Review, 69(1):69-77; 4 ref.

Mullins KV; Hartney VJ; Llewellyn DJ; Strauss S; Dennis ES, 1995. Regeneration and transformation of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. In: Potts BM, Borralho NMG, Reid JB, Cromer RN, Tibbits WN, Raymond CA, eds. Eucalypt Plantations: Improving Fibre Yield and Quality. Proceedings CRC-IUFRO Conference, Hobart, 19-24 February. Hobart, Australia: CRC for Temperate Hardwood Forestry, 413-415.

Nambiar S, 1993. Learning from Brazil. Onwood, No. 5, Spring 1993. Canberra, Australia: CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products.

Neumann R, 1959. Relationship between Pisolithus (Mich. And Pers.) Coker and Couch and Eucalyptus camaldulensis (rostrata) Dehn. Bulletin of the Research Council, Israel, 70.

Nikles DG, 1987. A breeding strategy for genetic improvement of selected tropical eucalypts at Dongmen State Forest Farm, People's Republic of China. China-Australia Afforestation Project at Dongmen State Forest Farm, Technical Communication No. 30. Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Department of Forestry.

Norem MA; Day AD; Ludeke KL, 1982. An evaluation of shrub and tree species used for revegetating copper mine wastes in the south-western United States. Journal of Arid Environments, 5(4):299-304; 4 tab.; 11 ref.

Onyewotu LOZ; Stigter CJ, 1995. Eucalyptus - its reputation and its roots: millet and a Eucalyptus shelterbelt in northern Nigeria. Agroforestry Today, 7(1):6-8; 4 ref.

Orwa C; Mutua A; Kindt R; Jamnadass R; Simons A, 2009. Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. World Agroforestry Centre. http://www.worldagroforestry.org/af/treedb/

Panetsos KP, 1974. Forest tree breeding in Greece. In: Toda R, ed. Forest tree breeding in the world. V9 Southern Europe. Tokyo, Japan: Government Forest Experiemt Station, pp 109-115.

Pinyopusarerk K; Doran JC; Williams ER; Wasuwanich P, 1996a. Variation in growth of Eucalyptus camaldulensis provenances in Thailand. Forest Ecology and Management, 87(1-3):63-73; 26 ref.

Pinyopusarerk K; Luangviriyasaeng V; Rattanasavanh D, 1996. Two-year performance of Acacia and Eucalyptus species in a provenance trial in Lao P.D.R. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 8(3):412-423; 21 ref.

Poynton RJ, 1979. Report to the Southern African Regional Commission for the Conservation and Utilization of the Soil (SARCCUS) on tree planting in southern Africa. Vol. 2. The eucalypts. Pretoria, South Africa: Department of Forestry. xvi + 882 pp.; ISBN 0-621-04763-5; 208 ref.

PROTA, 2015. PROTA4U web database. Grubben GJH, Denton OA, eds. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.info

Pryor LD; Byrne OR, 1969. Variation and taxonomy in Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Silvae Genet. 18(3):64-71. 8 refs.

Pryor LD; Johnson LAS, 1971. A classification of the eucalypts. Canberra, Australia: Australian National University, pp. 102.

Pukittayacamee P; Saelim S; Bhodthipuks J, 1993. Seed collection period for selected tree species in Thailand. Leaflet. Muak-Lek: ASEAN-Canada Forest Tree Seed Centre Project, 2 pp.

Qadri SMA, 1983. Monographs on Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. microtheca, E. tereticornis. Karachi, Pakistan: S. Qadri.

Raintree JB, 1991. Socioeconomic attributes of trees and tree planting. FAO Community Forestry Note, No. 9, vi + 115 pp.; 19 pp. of ref.

Raulerson L, 2006. Checklist of Plants of the Mariana Islands. University of Guam Herbarium Contribution, 37. 1-69.

Raymond CA, 1991. Eucalyptus camaldulensis - a breeding plan for Thailand, ACIAR Project 8808. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research.

Rejmanek M; Richardson DM, 2011. Eucalypts. In: Encyclopedia of biological invasions [ed. by Simberloff, D. \Rejmanek, M.]. Berkeley, CA, USA: University of California Press, 203-209.

Run-Peng Wei; Daping Xu, 2003. Eucalyptus Plantations: Research, Management and Development - Proceedings of the International Symposium. World Scientific Publishing Co Pte Ltd, 432 pp.

Sharma JK; Mohanan C, 1991. Epidemiology and control of diseases of Eucalyptus caused by Cylindrocladium spp. in Kerala. KFRI Research Report 70. Peechi: Kerala Forest Research Institute.

Shayesta B, 1995. Leaf spot and twig blight on Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc. in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Forest Science, 24(1):30-35; 25 ref.

Sheikh MI, 1981. Management study of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Final Technical Report, January 1975 to June 1981. Peshawar, Pakistan: Pakistan Forest Institute.

Shepherd KR, 1986. Plantation sylviculture. The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. 322pp.; 25pp. of ref.

Soerianegara I; Lemmens RHMJ, eds. , 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 5(1). Timber trees: major commercial timbers. Wageningen, Netherlands: Pudoc Scientific Publishers. Also published by PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. pp. 610.

Stone C; Bacon PE, 1995. Leaf dynamics and insect herbivory in a Eucalyptus camaldulensis forest under moisture stress. Australian Journal of Ecology, 20(4):473-481; 43 ref.

Sun D; Dickinson GR, 1995. Survival and growth responses of a number of Australian tree species planted on a saline site in tropical north Australia. Journal of Applied Ecology, 32(4):817-826; 36 ref.

The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.theplantlist.org

USDA-ARS, 2015. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov.

USDA-NRCS, 2015. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Venning J, 1988. Growing trees for farms, parks and roadsides: a revegetation manual. Melbourne, Australia: Lothian Publishing Company Pty Ltd.

WAC, 2005. Agroforestree database. World Agroforestry Centre: Nairobi, Kenya. http://www.worldagroforestry.org/Sites/TreeDBS/AFT/AFT.htm.

Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press/Bishop Museum Press, 1919 pp.

Wasuwanich P, 1989. Phenological investigation of Australian tree species in field trials in Thailand. Unpublished report. Bangkok, Thailand: Royal Forest Department.

White KJ, 1985. Tree farming practices in the bhabar terai of central Nepal. Manual Sagarnath Forest Development Project, Ministry of Forests, Nepal, No. 2, 191 pp. + maps.

White KJ, 1986. Practical tree breeding strategies and practices and programmes in the Bhabar Terai of central Nepal. Manual Sagarnath Forest Development Project, Ministry of Forests, Nepal, No. 5, 47 pp. + appendices + maps.

Wilcox MD, 1997. A Catalogue of the Eucalypts. Auckland, New Zealand: Groome Pöyry Ltd.

Wu TL, 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised):384 pp. http://www.hkflora.com/v2/flora/plant_check_list.php

Zalba SM, 1995. Alien woody plants in Ernesto Tornquist Provincial Park (Buenos Aires): impact assessment and a proposal for their control. MSc Thesis. Cordoba, Argentina: Centro de zoologia aplicada, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba.

Zobel BJ; Van Wyk G; Stahl P, 1987. Growing exotic forests. New York, USA; Wiley Interscience. xx + 508pp.; 73 pp. of ref.

Zohar Y, 1989. Biomass production of short rotation Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. stands growing on peat soil under a high water table in Israel. South African Forestry Journal, No. 149, 54-57; Contribution from the Agricultural Research Organization, Israel No. 2385-E; 17 ref.

Contributors

Top of page

06/03/15 Updated by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map