Eucalyptus camaldulensis (red gum)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Biology and Ecology
- Latitude/Altitude Ranges
- Air Temperature
- Rainfall Regime
- Soil Tolerances
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Impact Summary
- Environmental Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Wood Products
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.
Preferred Common Name
- red gum
- Eucalyptus camaldulensis var. camaldulensis
- Eucalyptus camaldulensis var. obtusa Blakely
Other Scientific Names
- Eucalyptus acuminata Hook.
- Eucalyptus camaldulensis var. acuminata (Hook.) Blakely
- Eucalyptus camaldulensis var. brevirostris (F.Muell. ex Miq.) Blakely
- Eucalyptus camaldulensis var. subcinerea Blakely
- Eucalyptus longirostris F. Muell. ex Miq.
- Eucalyptus longirostris f. brevirostris F.Muell. ex Miq.
- Eucalyptus mcintyrensis Maiden
- Eucalyptus rostrata Schltdl., nom. illeg.
- Eucalyptus rostrata var. acuminata (Hook.) Maiden
- Eucalyptus rostrata var. borealis R.T.Baker & H.G.Sm.
- Eucalyptus rostrata var. brevirostris (F.Muell. ex Miq.) Maiden
- Eucalyptus tereticornis var. rostrata Ewart
International Common Names
- English: blue gum; long beak eucalyptus; murray red gum; red river gum; river gum; river red gum
- Spanish: eucalipto; eucalipto negro; eucalipto rojo
- French: eucalyptus; eucalyptus rouge
- Arabic: ban; kafur
Local Common Names
- Australia: murray red gum; red gum; river gum
- Brazil: eucalipto
- Ethiopia: key bahir zaf
- Germany: Roter Eukalyptus; rotgummibaum
- Indonesia: ekaliptus
- Italy: eucalipto rostrato
- Myanmar: pyilon-chantha
- Tanzania/Zanzibar: mkaratusi
- Thailand: yukhalip
- Uganda: kalitunsi
- Vietnam: b[aj]ch d[af]n [us]c; bajch dafn usc; pré;ng khchâl slök sâ
- EUCCM (Eucalyptus camaldulensis)
- river red gum
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
E. camaldulensis is a highly adaptable tree with ability to tolerate extreme conditions such as drought and soil salinity, coupled with prolific seed production, potentially rapid growth and the ability to reproduce at a young age. These characteristics contribute to its ability to become invasive and it is a declared invasive in a number of countries. Binggeli (1999) classed this species as moderately invasive. It has been declared a category 2 invader capable of transforming habitats in South Africa (Henderson, 2001) where it colonizes watercourses. Hussain (2002) reported that E. camaldulensis was not yet invasive in Pakistan, but anticipated a substantial risk due to its repeated introduction between 1860 and 1962 and the vast number of trees in the country (c. 15 million). By 2011, Khan et al. listed this species as invasive in Pakistan. It was also the subject of large scale planting in Bangladesh, where it is considered a threat to indigenous species (Islam, 2002). Rejmanek and Richardson (2011) also listed this species as widely cultivated and invasive in Spain, South Africa, and California. It is also listed as invasive in Hawaii (Wagner et al., 1999) and Jamaica (IABIN, 2015).
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Myrtales
- Family: Myrtaceae
- Genus: Eucalyptus
- Species: Eucalyptus camaldulensis
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
Although a definitive classification of the eucalypts is still awaited, Hill and Johnson (1995) have formally established the eucalypts as comprising the genera Angophora, Corymbia (bloodwoods and ghost gums), and Eucalyptus in the family Myrtaceae. Wilcox (1997) listed 789 recognized species of eucalypt, together with a further 123 subspecies or varieties, giving a total of 912 eucalypt taxa. The Plant List (2013) lists 822 accepted species names for the genus.
The specific epithet, camaldulensis, derives from a cultivated tree at Camalduli, in Tuscany, Italy. The species was described by F. Dehnhardt. In the informal classification of the eucalypts by Pryor and Johnson (1971), E. camaldulensis was placed in Sect. Exertaria, subseries Tereticorninae, one of the two subseries of the southern and eastern red gums. Close relatives include E. tereticornis, E. amplifolia, E. exserta, E. brassiana and E. rudis.
Blakely (1965) published a formal description of six varieties of E. camaldulensis. These have been largely ignored by contemporary botanists because of difficulties in determination, but some texts discriminate between var. camaldulensis and var. obtusa (e.g. Brooker and Kleinig, 1994). Var. camaldulensis has rostrate (strongly beaked) opercula and occurs throughout the Murray-Darling drainage system in south-eastern Australia, while var. obtusa has obtuse or rounded opercula and is widespread along drainage systems in Western Australia (north of 30°S) and in inland and northern Australia.
Red gum populations in far northern Queensland (including the Laura, Palmer, and Walsh Rivers), previously known as E. tereticornis, have been formally published as E. camaldulensis subsp. simulata (Brooker and Kleinig, 1994). Doran and Burgess (1993) have also recommended that a number of fast-growing red gum provenances formerly considered E. tereticornis, such as Kennedy River and Morehead River, be named E. camaldulensis (subsp. obtusa), based largely on the morphology of their floral buds.
At the present, the following five subspecies have been listed for Australia:
Eucalyptus camaldulensis subsp. acuminata
Eucalyptus camaldulensis subsp. camaldulensis
Eucalyptus camaldulensis subsp. obtusa
Eucalyptus camaldulensis subsp. simulata
Eucalyptus camaldulensis subsp. subcinerea
Zones of introgression are known with E. tereticornis in eastern Australia and E. rudis in Western Australia, where distributions overlap. E. camaldulensis has been recorded in 13 naturally occurring hybrid combinations (Griffin et al., 1988). A manipulated hybrid with E. grandis is being trialled in South Africa in order to extend the range of economic plantings of eucalypts to hot, dry 'marginal' areas (Darrow, 1995). Natural hybrids between E. camaldulensis and E. alba have been commonly recorded in northern Australia (Eldridge et al., 1993).
DescriptionTop of page
In Australia, E. camaldulensis commonly grows up to 20 m tall and rarely exceeds 50 m, while stem diameter at breast height can reach 1-2 m or more. In open woodlands it usually has a short, thick bole which supports a large, spreading crown. In plantations, it can have a clear bole of up to 20 m with an erect, lightly-branched crown. The bark is smooth white, grey, yellow-green, grey-green, or pinkish grey, shedding in strips or irregular flakes. Rough bark may sometimes occupy the first 1-2 m of the trunk on E. camaldulensis var. camaldulensis. This species is described in many texts including Boland et al. (1984), Brooker and Kleinig (1983; 1990; 1994), Chippendale (1988), Doran and Turnbull (1997), and Doran and Wongkaew (1997). Juvenile leaves are petiolate, ovate to broadly lanceolate, up to 26 cm long and 8 cm broad, green, grey-green, or blue-green, slightly discolorous. Adult leaves are lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate, acuminate, lamina 8-30 cm long, 0.7-2 cm wide, green or grey-green, concolorous; petioles terete or channelled, 1.2-1.5 cm long. Inflorescence axillary, 7-11 (sometimes up to 13)-flowered; flowers white, peduncles slender, terete or quadrangular, 6-15 mm long; pedicels slender, 5-12 mm long. Buds pedicellate; hypanthium hemispherical, 2-3 mm long, 3-6 mm wide, operculum globular-rostrate (typical) ovoid-conical (var. obtusa) or, in subsp. simulata, horn-shaped like E. tereticornis, 4-6 mm long (up to 13 mm long in subsp. simulata), 3-6 mm wide. Fruits are hemispherical or ovoid, 5-8 mm long and wide; disc broad, ascending; 3-5 exserted valves.
Plant TypeTop of page
DistributionTop of page
The natural latitudinal range of E. camaldulensis is entirely in Australia, and extends from 12°48’S in the tropical Northern Territory to 38°15’S in cool, temperate Victoria. It occurs throughout inland mainland Australia, typically along watercourses and on flood plains, but occasionally extends to slopes at higher elevations, as in the Mt Lofty Ranges near Adelaide. It has been widely introduced around the world and can now be found in cultivation and naturalized in Pakistan, Bangladesh, the USA (i.e., Hawaii, California and Florida), Cyprus, France, Greece, India, Portugal, Spain and South Africa (Rejmanek and Richardson, 2011; see distribution table for details).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Planted||Reference||Notes|
|Congo, Democratic Republic of the||Present||Introduced||Planted|
|Congo, Republic of the||Present||Introduced||Planted|
|-Andaman and Nicobar Islands||Present||Introduced|
|-Daman and Diu||Present||Introduced||Planted|
|Pakistan||Present||Introduced||First reported: 1860, 1911|
|British Virgin Islands||Present||Introduced||Tortola and Virgin Gorda|
|Trinidad and Tobago||Present||Introduced||Planted|
|-New South Wales||Present||Native||Planted|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
E. camaldulensis is the most widely distributed of all eucalypts and globally, E. camaldulensis is perhaps the most widely used tree for planting in arid and semi-arid lands (Eldridge et al., 1993), with at least 1 million hectares established by 1997. Jacobs (1981) estimated that by the late 1970s over half a million hectares of plantations had been established mainly in the Mediterranean region and particularly in Spain and Morocco. Seed for these plantings came mainly from local land races established before 1900, using southern Australian provenances. Planting in the tropics, especially in South-East Asia, Mexico, and Brazil, is increasing with the increased availability of the climatically-adapted northern Australian provenances (Midgley et al., 1989). In Thailand alone some 300,000 hectares have been planted over the last ten years (K. Pinyopusarerk, personal communication, 1997). In addition, there are extensive but largely unrecorded plantings of E. camaldulensis in many countries for shade and shelter. It was introduced in the “undivided” India (currently Pakistan and India) in 1860 (Khan et al., 2011). In Hawaii it was introduced in the 1880s and first planted at Ulupalakua on Maui. Later, the Division of Forestry had planted 429,000 trees by 1960, and many more trees were planted by private landowners.
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
HabitatTop of page
E. camaldulensis is typically a riverine species and in arid Australia has a ribbon-like distribution fringing the drainage lines across the landscape. It also occurs occasionally in open-forest or woodland formations on flood plains. Outside its native range it colonizes watercourses and floodplains, open forest and woodland (Henderson, 2001; Orwa et al., 2009). According to Brown and Gubb (1986) it is reported in the following habitats in South Africa: farmsteads, kraals, urban outskirts, timber plantations, road and railway verges, quarried and mining land, dry river floodplains, episodic river banks, sandy and rocky land.
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial||Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Rail / roadsides||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Urban / peri-urban areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Riverbanks||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
The chromosome number reported for E. camaldulensis is 2n = 22 (Doran and Wongkaew, 1997). Two main forms of the species are recognized: a northern tropical form that is lignotuberous and has relatively obtuse opercula (var. obtusa), and a southern temperate form that is non-lignotuberous and has rostrate opercula (var. camaldulensis) (Pryor and Byrne, 1969). A detailed account of variation and breeding of E. camaldulensis can be found in Eldridge et al. (1993). As would be expected with a species of wide natural occurrence over a broad range of habitats, E. camaldulensis demonstrates considerable natural variation. Results of provenance trials reported up to 1993 were reviewed in detail by Eldridge et al. (1993). Provenance variation has been recorded for growth rate, wood properties, tolerance to salinity and alkalinity, drought tolerance, frost tolerance, leaf oil content and polyphenols. Physiological studies are helping to explain the basis of some of the variation in growth and survival between provenances, e.g. that seedlings have a range of genetically determined responses to water stress depending on their origin, that combine to produce strategies appropriate for survival and growth under the conditions at their origin (Gibson et al., 1994; Gibson et al., 1995; Franks et al., 1995).
Tree improvement programmes for E. camaldulensis are being undertaken in many countries (e.g. Australia, Brazil, China, India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, USA, Vietnam, and Zimbabwe). Breeding strategies for E. camaldulensis (e.g. Barnes, 1984; Nikles, 1987; Raymond, 1991; Davidson, 1993; Eldridge, 1995; Doran et al., 1996) generally recommend starting with large base populations of seedlots from natural stands complemented by some locally selected material due to the uncertainty of the origins of local land races and the need to minimise inbreeding depression. E. camaldulensis tree improvement programmes utilizing selection and mass propagation of clones exist in Brazil (Nambiar, 1993), India (Davidson, 1993; Kulkarni and Lal, 1995), Nepal (White, 1986), Morocco (Marien, 1991), Thailand (Davidson, 1993), Turkey (Gülbaba et al., 1995), USA (M. Bacca, personal communication, 1997), and Vietnam, and remarkable gains over short time spans have been achieved, e.g. over six years in Nepal (White, 1986). Clones of E. camaldulensis have been successfully genetically transformed in vitro. Hybrids are readily made between E. camaldulensis and E. grandis, E. tereticornis, and other species of the subgenus Symphyomyrtus (Griffin et al., 1988). Both primary and secondary centres of diversity hold vast genetic resources of E. camaldulensis. However, it is often impossible to trace the origin of seed used for plantations, so the extent of genetic variation available in various regions is uncertain. The Australian Tree Seed Centre of CSIRO Forestry and Forest Products, Canberra, Australia, provides both single-tree and bulk provenance collections of seed of E. camaldulensis for breeding programmes, and presently has an extensive range of seedlots from both tropical and temperate provenances in store.
Physiology and Phenology
Eucalypts do not develop resting buds and grow whenever conditions are favourable. Growth rates vary greatly between provenances and are heavily site-dependent, though early growth may exceed 3 m per year for well-adapted provenances on favourable sites. The time of flowering in natural stands depends on locality. Flowering peaks in summer in the south, in autumn in the north-west, and winter-spring in the north-east of Australia (Banks, 1990). Outside Australia, the indigenous flowering pattern may be disrupted; for example, peak flowering moved from summer to winter for provenances from temperate Australia when planted in a summer rainfall climate in Zimbabwe (Mullin and Pswarayi, 1990). In Thailand, some provenances (Gilbert River, Queensland, Petford, Queensland, and Isdell River, Western Australia) flower throughout the year on a range of sites, although autumn (September-November) is the peak period (Wasuwanich, 1989). Fruit development and maturation time can be as short as four months. For example, an August flowering in northern Queensland will provide mature fruit the following January, while the September-November peak flowering in Thailand results in fruits ripe for collection in the following April-May (Pukittayacamee et al., 1993). Production of the first seed crop may occur within three years of planting.
Eucalypts have hermaphrodite, protandrous flowers which are pollinated by insects or birds (Griffin, 1989). They reproduce by a mixed mating system, with both outcrossing and selfing (Moran and Bell, 1983; Moran, 1992). Analyses of the breeding system of E. camaldulensis using allozymes indicate a predominantly outcrossing mating system. Outcrossing rates of 86 and 96% were recorded in populations at Lake Albacutya (McDonald et al., 1995) and Petford (P. Butcher, personal communication, 1995), respectively. Pollination is mainly carried out by insects, but is also undertaken by birds and small mammals. Seeds take approximately six months to reach maturation (World Agroforestry Centre, 2002) and production of the first seed crop may occur within three years of planting. The small, abundant (15 per fruit) cuboid seeds have two seed coats. The outer coat is yellow to yellow-brown in colour while the undercoat is brown-black (all other red gums have seeds with a single dark brown to black seed coat) (Boland et al., 1980). There are about 700,000 viable seed/kg as seed and chaff mixture. Seeds are wind dispersed, and remain viable for more than 10 years (Dean et al., 1986).
E. camaldulensis grows under a wide range of climatic conditions, from warm to hot and sub-humid to semi-arid. In Australia, for the northern variety, the mean maximum temperature for the hottest month is in the range 28-40°C; the mean minimum for the coldest month is in the range 6-22°C; and the absolute minimum temperature has been reported as being in the range -3 to 6°C. For the southern variety, the mean maximum temperature of the hottest month is in the range 21-41°C; the mean minimum temperature for the coldest month is in the range 0-14°C; and the absolute minimum temperature has been reported as being in the range -5 to -7°C. Up to 40 frosts a year may be experienced in southern and inland areas which experience the lowest absolute minimum temperatures. The mean annual rainfall in the natural range of E. camaldulensis is mostly 250-600 mm, although a few areas receive up to 1250 mm, exceptionally up to 2500 mm, and some as little as 150 mm. In low rainfall areas E. camaldulensis relies on seasonal flooding and/or the presence of a high water table, such that minimum rainfall figures do not give a reliable indication of the tolerance of the species to drought. Depth and texture of the soil are also important factors in determining minimum rainfall for successful growth. Rainfall distribution varies from a winter maximum in southern areas to a monsoonal type in northern Australia, falling mostly between November and March. Rainfall variability is very high in inland regions with frequent long, dry spells.
E. camaldulensis occurs on a variety of soil types. It is common on heavy clays in southern Australia, but more generally occurs on sandy alluvial soils in the north. It infrequently occurs on the margins of salt lakes. It has been recorded growing on calcareous soils in South Australia (e.g. near Port Lincoln) and Western Australia (e.g. DeGrey and Greenough Rivers, and Wiluna) (Jacobs, 1981; Eldridge et al., 1993). Although mainly a tree of depositional or alluvial sites it sometimes extends to slopes at higher elevations, as in the Mt. Lofty Ranges near Adelaide, Australia.
In Australia E. camaldulensis may be associated with several eucalypts including E. coolabah, E. largiflorens, E. leucoxylon, E. microcarpa, and E. melliodora. In the more tropical parts of its range, such as in northern Queensland common eucalypt associates include E. alba, E. microtheca, and a variety of ghost gums and bloodwoods. E. camaldulensis roots form symbiotic mycorrhizal associations with various fungi. Ectomycorrhizal or dual ectomycorrhizal and endomycorrhizal (vesicular-arbuscular or VA) associations can occur in the genus (Brundrett et al., 1996). Through their roots, to which the fungi are attached, the trees derive certain nutrients (especially phosphorous) from the fungi and these, in turn, benefit from other nutrients made available to them by the tree.
Latitude/Altitude RangesTop of page
|Latitude North (°N)||Latitude South (°S)||Altitude Lower (m)||Altitude Upper (m)|
Air TemperatureTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit|
|Absolute minimum temperature (ºC)||-7||6|
|Mean annual temperature (ºC)||13||28|
|Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC)||21||41|
|Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC)||0||22|
RainfallTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit||Description|
|Dry season duration||0||8||number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall|
|Mean annual rainfall||400||2500||mm; lower/upper limits|
Rainfall RegimeTop of page
Soil TolerancesTop of page
- seasonally waterlogged
Special soil tolerances
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
In the wild, insects such as termites and aphids and rodents may be troublesome to E. camaldulensis. In the nursery, E. camaldulensis is susceptible to various fungi causing damping-off and leaf diseases (Orwa et al., 2009).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
No specific information was available for E. camaldulensis, but the small seed size would be consistent with the wind dispersal of several other invasive Eucalypt species e.g. E. cladocalyx, E. grandis and E.lehmanii (Dean et al., 1986). Long distance dispersal is common as this species is among the most widely introduced forestry species with a vast global distribution.
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Fisheries / aquaculture||None|
Environmental ImpactTop of page
E. camaldulensis has a negative impact on biodiversity. Henderson (2001) describes it as a habitat transformer. The species has been blamed in some countries (e.g. India and Thailand) for reducing soil water reserves, depleting soil nutrients, and other ecologically negative effects. In South Africa, E. camaldulensis competes with and replaces indigenous riverine species. Extensive stands along watercourses are likely to cause a significant reduction in stream flow.
Around the world, areas invaded by eucalypts are dealing with four main concerns: (1) excessive water use and suppression of food crops growing nearby, (2) suppression of ground vegetation (possible allelopathic effects) and resulting soil erosion, (3) increased fire hazard, and (4) generally poor wildlife value (Rejmanek and Richardson, 2011).
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Highly mobile locally
- Has high reproductive potential
- Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
- Damaged ecosystem services
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
UsesTop of page
E. camaldulensis is planted extensively for shade, shelter, and amenity purposes. In Nepal, a wide range of crops are grown under widely spaced (5 x 2 m) E. camaldulensis up to the age of 3 years (White, 1986), whilst in India the spacing used is more commonly 8 x 8 m (Hocking, 1993). More commonly, E. camaldulensis is used in shelterbelts adjacent to crops where it offers protection from desiccating winds (Onyewotu and Stigter, 1995). E. camaldulensis is useful for the reclamation of degraded lands, especially mine spoils and salt-affected land subject to seasonal waterlogging, and particularly when the salinity is moderate or low (Langkamp, 1987; Marcar et al., 1995; Sun and Dickinson, 1995; Farrell et al. 1996).
The timber has a handsome red colour, a fine texture, and interlocking wavy grain. It is hard, durable, resistant to termites, and has many uses. The sapwood is susceptible to attack by Lyctus borers (Keating and Bolza, 1982). Correctly handled, the wood is useful for speciality furniture, construction timber, pulpwood, roundwood and fuelwood (Poynton, 1979). E. camaldulensis wood burns well and makes a good fuel, used in several countries such as Brazil (Jacobs, 1981; Eldridge et al., 1993) for the large-scale production of charcoal for the iron and steel industries, and its dense wood and coppicing ability make it an excellent species for fuelwood production.
Some tropical provenances of E. camaldulensis (e.g. Petford) give 1,8-cineole-rich leaf oils and are potential sources of medicinal-grade Eucalyptus oils (Doran and Brophy, 1990). Substantial variability within and between provenances for commercial oil traits and their high heritabilities indicates significant potential for improvement through selection and breeding (Doran and Matheson, 1994; Doran and Williams, 1994). E. camaldulensis is of major importance in Australia as a source of honey, producing heavy yields of nectar in good seasons (Clemson, 1985) and also provides the bees with an important source of good quality pollen.
Uses ListTop of page
- Shade and shelter
Human food and beverage
- Honey/honey flora
- Carved material
- Essential oils
- Miscellaneous materials
- Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
Wood ProductsTop of page
- Building poles
- Transmission poles
Sawn or hewn building timbers
- Carpentry/joinery (exterior/interior)
- Engineering structures
- Exterior fittings
- For heavy construction
- For light construction
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
There is little information available on control of E. camaldulensis specifically, however, for some other invasive eucalypts (e.g. E. cladocalyx, E. globulus), the practice of digging out seedlings and young trees have been applied (Weber, 2003). Similarly mature trees of these species have been felled and the stumps treated with herbicide, and drilling stems and filling with herbicide is a further approach (Weber, 2003).
In southern Australia, changed grazing and flooding regimes appear to affect the post-dispersal survival of seeds (Meeson et al., 2002). In an experiment, seed predation by ants was highest at sites grazed by cattle and Meeson et al. (2002) concluded that a reduction in the frequency of flooding events was likely, through the interaction of livestock and seed predators to have reduced potential A. camaldulensis recruitment.
ReferencesTop of page
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06/03/15 Updated by:
Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA
Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA
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