Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Etiella zinckenella
(pea pod borer)

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Datasheet

Etiella zinckenella (pea pod borer)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Etiella zinckenella
  • Preferred Common Name
  • pea pod borer
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Etiella zinckenella (pea pod borer); larva on hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus).
TitleLarva
CaptionEtiella zinckenella (pea pod borer); larva on hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus).
Copyright©James Litsinger
Etiella zinckenella (pea pod borer); larva on hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus).
LarvaEtiella zinckenella (pea pod borer); larva on hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus).©James Litsinger

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Etiella zinckenella (Treitschke)

Preferred Common Name

  • pea pod borer

Other Scientific Names

  • Etiella schisticolor (Zeller)
  • Phycis zinckenella Treitschke

International Common Names

  • English: lima bean pod borer
  • Spanish: gusano barrenador del ejote; piral del frijol de lima; taladrador de las vainas; taladrador del gandúl
  • French: pyrale des fruits du soja; pyrale des haricots

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Zuensler, Leguminosen-; Zuensler, Robinensamen-
  • Israel: ash hasheuyit
  • Italy: Piralide delle leguminose
  • Japan: Siro-itimozi-madarameiga
  • Netherlands: Boonenmot
  • Turkey: fasulye guvesi

EPPO code

  • ETIEZI (Etiella zinckenella)
  • ETIEZS (Etiella zinckenella)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Pyralidae
  •                             Genus: Etiella
  •                                 Species: Etiella zinckenella

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
Cabo VerdePresentUK, CAB International (1974)
ComorosPresentWhalley (1973)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentUK, CAB International (1974)
EgyptPresent, WidespreadHammad (1978)
GhanaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
KenyaPresentIngram (1983)
MadagascarPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
MalawiPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
MauritiusPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
MoroccoPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
NigeriaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
São Tomé and PríncipePresentWhalley (1973)
SeychellesPresentWhalley (1973)
Sierra LeonePresentUK, CAB International (1974)
South AfricaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
SudanPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
TanzaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
UgandaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)

Asia

BhutanPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
ChinaPresent, WidespreadCheu (1943)
-GuizhouPresentLi DeYou et al. (2005)
-HainanPresentWhalley (1973)
IndiaPresent, WidespreadBindra and Singh (1969)
-HaryanaPresentDashad et al. (2008)
-Himachal PradeshPresentSharma (2000)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentPandey et al. (2006)
-KarnatakaPresentRekha and Mallapur (2007)
-Madhya PradeshPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Tomar et al. (2004, publ. 2005)
-OdishaPresentSahoo and Senapati (2000)
-PunjabPresentSingh and Dhooria (1971)
-Uttar PradeshPresentSachan et al. (2008)
-UttarakhandPresentVishal Mittal and Ram Ujagir (2007)
IndonesiaPresent, WidespreadCRIA (1973)
-JavaPresentNaito et al. (1986)
IranPresentParvin (1981)
JapanPresent, WidespreadKobayashi (1981)
-HonshuPresentKobayashi (1976)
-KyushuPresentKobayashi (1976)
-ShikokuPresentKobayashi (1976)
LebanonPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
MalaysiaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Bakar & Zabibi, 1979
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
MyanmarPresentAPPPC (1987); Waterhouse (1993)
NepalPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
PakistanPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
PhilippinesPresentLitsinger et al. (1978)
Saudi ArabiaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
South KoreaPresent, WidespreadPark et al. (1978)
Sri LankaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1974)
TaiwanPresent, WidespreadAVRDC (1977)
ThailandPresent, WidespreadSirisingh et al. (1971)
TurkeyPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
VietnamPresentAPPPC (1987); Waterhouse (1993)

Europe

AustriaPresentWhalley (1973)
BulgariaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
CyprusPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
CzechoslovakiaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
FrancePresentUK, CAB International (1974)
GermanyPresentWhalley (1973)
GreecePresentGeorgevits (1981)
HungaryPresent, WidespreadTóth et al. (1989)
ItalyPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
PortugalPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
RomaniaPresentQu and Kogan (1984)
RussiaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-Russia (Europe)PresentUK, CAB International (1974)
SerbiaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Kere?i et al. (2008)
SpainPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-Canary IslandsPresentWhalley (1973)
UkrainePresentUK, CAB International (1974)

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
BahamasPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
CanadaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-British ColumbiaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-SaskatchewanPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
CubaPresentBruner et al. (1975)
El SalvadorPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
GrenadaPresentWhalley (1973)
JamaicaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
MexicoPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
NicaraguaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
Puerto RicoPresentCruz (1970)
United StatesPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1974)
-ArizonaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-CaliforniaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-ColoradoPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-FloridaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-IdahoPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-NevadaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-New HampshirePresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-New MexicoPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-OklahomaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-Rhode IslandPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-TexasPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-UtahPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
-WashingtonPresentUK, CAB International (1974)

Oceania

American SamoaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
AustraliaPresentFLANDERS (1930)
-QueenslandPresentWhalley (1973)
FijiPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
New CaledoniaPresentWhalley (1973)
Papua New GuineaPresentWhalley (1973)
Solomon IslandsPresentWhalley (1973)

South America

BrazilPresentBertels (1980)
ChilePresentUK, CAB International (1974)
ColombiaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Garcia Roa et al., 1980
EcuadorPresentWhalley (1973)
French GuianaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
ParaguayPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
PeruPresentIrwin et al. (1981)
UruguayPresentUK, CAB International (1974)
VenezuelaPresentUK, CAB International (1974)

Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / internal feeding
Fruit / internal feeding
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / webbing

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Apanteles beaussetensis Parasite Larvae Puerto Rico legumes
Apanteles eutelus Parasite Larvae
Ascogaster quadridentatus Parasite Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis
Bracon cajani Parasite Larvae Cape Verde; Mauritius; Sri Lanka beans; Cajanus cajan; legumes
Bracon etiellae Parasite Larvae
Bracon pectoralis Parasite Larvae Puerto Rico; USA legumes
Bracon thurberiphagae Parasite Larvae Cape Verde; Mauritius; Sri Lanka beans; Cajanus cajan; pigeon peas
Chelonus busckiella Parasite Larvae Mauritius pigeon peas
Chelonus inanitus Parasite Eggs/Larvae USA legumes
Cryptoptyx lichtensteini Parasite Pupae
Cyrtoptyx lichtensteini Parasite Puerto Rico; USA legumes
Eiphosoma dentator Parasite Larvae Cape Verde; Mauritius; Sri Lanka beans; Cajanus cajan; pigeon peas
Eurytoma verticillata Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Goniozus Parasite Cape Verde
Goniozus sp. Parasite Larvae
Heterospilus etiellae Parasite Larvae Mauritius; Trinidad pigeon peas
Iconella etiellae Parasite Larvae Cape Verde beans; Cajanus cajan
Iconella etiellae var. isolatus Parasite Larvae Mauritius pigeon peas
Macrocentrus ancylivora Parasite Larvae Puerto Rico beans; legumes
Phanerotoma bennetti Parasite Eggs/Larvae Cape Verde; Mauritius; Sri Lanka beans; Cajanus cajan; pigeon peas
Phanerotoma planifrons Parasite Larvae Puerto Rico; USA beans; legumes
Pigeria piger Parasite Larvae Puerto Rico; USA legumes
Pristomerus vulnerator Parasite Pupae
Pseudoperichaeta nigrolineata Parasite Larvae
Trichogrammatoidea armigera Parasite Eggs
Zenillia libatrix Parasite Larvae

References

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APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

AVRDC, 1977. Progress Report for 1976. Shanhua, Taiwan: Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center.

AVRDC, 1982. Vegetable pest control: Insecticide evaluation tests. Shanhua, Taiwan: Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center, Table SB-15.

Bakar AKBA; Zabidi ALBA, 1979. Soybean crop protection in West Malaysia: pests. Tropical Grain Legume Bulletin, No. 16:25-29

Bertels A, 1980. Insectos-pragas da soja e seu combate. EMBRAPA/ UEPAE/ Pelotas Circular Technical 9:1-34.

Bindra OS; Singh H, 1969. Phycitid pod borer Etiella zinckenella, Lepidoptera Phycitidae. Pesticides (Bombay), 3:14-17.

Bruner SC; Scaramuzza LC; Otero AR, 1975. Catalogue of the insects that attack economic plants in Cuba. Second edition. Havana, Cuba: Academia de Ciencias de Cuba.

Cheu SP, 1943. Insect menance - the cause of soybean failure in Kwangsi. Kwangsi Agriculture, 4:161-167.

CIE, 1974. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 105. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Clausen CP, 1978. Introduced Parasites and Predators of Arthropod Pests and Weeds: a World Review. Agricultural Handbook No. 480. Washington DC, USA: Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture.

Cock MJW (ed.), 1985. A review of biological control of pests in the Commonwealth Caribbean and Bermuda up to 1982. Farnham Royal, United Kingdom; Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, xii + 218 pp.

COPR, 1981. Pest control in tropical grain legumes. Chatham, UK: Natural Resources Institute.

CRIA, 1973. Entomology soybean research, CRIA Annual Report 1971. Bogor, Indonesia: Central Research Institute for Agriculture, 70-76.

Cruz C, 1970. Tephrosia seed infestation and losses caused by the lima-bean pod borer. Journal of Agriculture University of Puerto Ricao, 54:585.

Dashad SS; Yogesh Kumar; Bilochan Dahiya, 2008. Response of extra bold seeded lentil genotypes of different maturity groups to lentil pod borer, Etiella zinckenella Treitshke. Crop Research (Hisar), 36(1/3):294-298. http://www.cropresearch.org

Flanders SE, 1930. The lima bean pod-borer in California. Monthly Bulletin Department of Agriculture California, 19:409-421.

Garcia Roa F; Pulido Fonseca J; Gutierrez BA, 1980. Soybean pests in Colombia. In: Bastida RG, ed. Coord Curso Procuccion de soya, 2nd edition, Palmira, Colombai: ICA Comunicaciones Regional, 251-317.

Georgevits RP, 1981. Seed insects of Robinia pseudoacacia. Dasikon Ereunon, 2(2):223-255

Greathead DJ, 1971. A review of biological control in the Ethiopian Region. CIBC Technical Communication No. 5. Farnham Royal, UK: CAB International.

Hammad SM, 1978. Pests of grain legumes and their control in Egypt. In: Singh SR, Emden HF van, Taylor TA, ed. Van Emden, H. F. : Pests of grain legumes: ecology and control. Academic Press Inc. (London) Ltd. London UK, 135-137

Hill DS, 1975. Agricultural insect pests of the tropics and their control. Agricultural insect pests of the tropics and their control. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge UK, [12 +] 516 pp.

Ingram WR, 1983. Biological control of graminaceous stem-borers and legume pod-borers. [Review]. Insect Science and its Application, 4(1/2):205-209

Irwin ME; Avalos F; Chicoma F; Chiroque J; Alcala P; Cardenas E, 1981. The soybean insect pest management program in the Selva Alta of Peru. Internation Soyben Program (University of Illinois, USA) Country Report, 81-2:1-32.

Kere?i T; Sekulic R; Camprag D, 2008. Important insect pests in soyabean fields. (Vazniji ?tetni insekti na poljima soje.) Biljni Lekar (Plant Doctor), 36(3/4):259-272.

Kobayashi T, 1976. Insect pests of soybean in Japan and their control. Pestcide Abstracts and News Summaries, 22:336-349.

Kobayashi T, 1981. Insect pests of soybeans in Japan. Miscellaneous Publication of the Tohoku National Agricultural Experiment Station, No. 2:1-39.

Li DeYou; Li GuiLian; Li BingGui; Wang TianWen; Wu LongFen; Wen LinHong, 2005. Investigation on injury of Etiella zinckenella Treitschke in thin French bean and its pollution-free control. Southwest China Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 18(3):274-276.

Litsinger JA; Quirino CB; Lumaban MD; Bandong JP, 1978. The grain legume pest complex of rice-based cropping systems at three locations in the Philippines. In: Singh SR, Emden HF van, Taylor TA, ed. Van Emden, H. F. : Pests of grain legumes: ecology and control. Academic Press Inc. (London) Ltd. London UK, 309-320

Naito A; Harnoto; Iqbal A; Hattori I, 1986. Notes on the morphology and distribution of Etiella hobsoni (Butler), a new soybean podborer in Indonesia, with special reference to comparisons with Etiella zinckenella (Treitschke) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology, 21(1):81-88

Pandey AK; Namgyal D; Mehdi M; Mir MS; Ahmad SB, 2006. A case study: major insect pest associated with different vegetable crops in cold arid region Ladakh, of Jammu and Kashmir. Journal of Entomological Research, 30(2):169-174.

Park KT; Hwang CY; Choi KM, 1978. Lepidopterous insect pests on soybean. Korean Journal of Plant Protection, 17(1):1-5

Parvin A, 1981. Studies on the biology of Etiella zinckella (Treit.). Entomologia Phytopathologica Applicata, 49:73-88.

Qu Y; Kogan J, 1984. A bibliography of three lepidopterous pod borers - Etiella zinckenella, Leguminivora glycinivorella and Matsumuraeses phaseoli - associate with soybean and other legumes. Champaign, USA: Illinois Natural History Survey and International Soybean Program, University of Illinois.

Rekha S; Mallapur CP, 2007. Studies on insect pests of dolichos bean in northern Karnataka. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 20(2):407-409.

Sachan SK; Singh DV; Hem Singh, 2008. Insect pests of French bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L. in Tarai region of Uttar Pradesh. Indian Journal of Entomology, 70(4):397-398.

Sahoo BK; Senapati B, 2000. Relative abundance of pod borer species in different maturing pigeon pea varieties in Coastal Belt of Orissa. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 28(2):192-194.

Sharma SD, 2000. Insect pests of pea (Pisum sativum L.) in Himachal Pradesh. Insect Environment, 6(3):113.

Singh H; Dhooria MS, 1971. Bionomics of the pea pod borer, Etiella zinckenella (Treitschke). Indian Journal of Entomology, 33(2):123-130

Sirisingh S; Sitchawat T; Alapach N, 1971. Soybean insect pests in northeast Thailand and their control. Thailand Northeast Agricultural Center Research Bulletin, 4:1-47.

Stone MW, 1965. Biology and control of lima-bean pod borer in southern California. USDA Technical Bulletin 1321.

Talekar NS, 1987. Host plant resistance to insects attacking soybean and mungbean in the tropics. Insect Science and its Application, 8(4-6):777-782

Talekar NS; Lin CP, 1994. Characterization of resistance to limabean pod borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in soybean. Journal of Economic Entomology, 87(3):821-825

Tomar SPS; Dubey OP; Rajani Tomar; 2004, publ. 2005. Succession of insects pest on green pea. JNKVV Research Journal, 38(1):82-85.

Toth M; Lofstedt C; Hansson BS; Szocs G; Farag AI, 1989. Identification of four components from the female sex pheromone of the lima-bean pod borer, Etiella zinckenella. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 51(2):107-112

Toth M; Talekar NS; Szocs G, 1995. Optimization of blends of synthetic pheromone components for trapping male limabean pod borers (Etiella zinckenella Tr.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). In: Bioorganic Chemistry of Pheromones, Symposium in print, Tetrahecron Publications. Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press.

Vishal Mittal; Ram Ujagir, 2007. Succession of insect pests associated with pea crop (Pisum sativum Linnaeus) at Pantnagar, India. Environment and Ecology, 25S(Special 4):1030-1035.

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.

Whalley PES, 1973. The genus Etiella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): A zoogeographic and taxonomic study. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomology, 28(No.1):1-21

Distribution References

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. In: Technical Document No. 135, Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

AVRDC, 1977. Progress Report for 1976., Shanhua, Taiwan: Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center.

Bertels A, 1980. (Insectos-pragas da soja e seu combate). In: EMBRAPA/ UEPAE/ Pelotas Circular Technical, 9 1-34.

Bindra OS, Singh H, 1969. (Phycitid pod borer Etiella zinckenella, Lepidoptera Phycitidae). In: Pesticides (Bombay), 3 14-17.

Bruner S C, Scaramuzza L C, Otero A R, 1975. Catalogue of the insects that attack economic plants in Cuba. (Catalogo de los insectos que atacan a las plantas economicas de Cuba.). In: Catalogo de los insectos que atacan a las plantas economicas de Cuba. Havana, Cuba: Academia de Ciencias de Cuba. 401 pp.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Cheu S P, 1943. Insect menance - the cause of soybean failure in Kwangsi. Kwangsi Agriculture. 161-167.

CRIA, 1973. Entomology soybean research, CRIA Annual Report 1971., Bogor, Indonesia: Central Research Institute for Agriculture. 70-76.

Cruz C, 1970. Tephrosia seed infestation and losses caused by the lima-bean pod borer. In: Journal of Agriculture University of Puerto Ricao, 54 585.

Dashad S S, Yogesh Kumar, Bilochan Dahiya, 2008. Response of extra bold seeded lentil genotypes of different maturity groups to lentil pod borer, Etiella zinckenella Treitshke. Crop Research (Hisar). 36 (1/3), 294-298. http://www.cropresearch.org

FLANDERS S E, 1930. The Lima Bean Pod-borer in California. Monthly Bulletin. California Department of Agriculture. 19 (6), 409-421 pp.

Georgevits R P, 1981. Seed insects of Robinia pseudoacacia. Dasikon Ereunon. 2 (2), 223-255.

Hammad S M, 1978. Pests of grain legumes and their control in Egypt. In: Van Emden, H. F. : Pests of grain legumes: ecology and control. [ed. by Singh S R, Emden H F van, Taylor T A]. London, UK: Academic Press Inc. (London) Ltd. 135-137.

Ingram W R, 1983. Biological control of graminaceous stem-borers and legume pod-borers. [Review]. Insect Science and its Application. 4 (1/2), 205-209.

Irwin ME, Avalos F, Chicoma F, Chiroque J, Alcala P, Cardenas E, 1981. The soybean insect pest management program in the Selva Alta of Peru. In: Internation Soyben Program (University of Illinois, USA) Country Report, 81 (2) 1-32.

Kobayashi T, 1976. Insect pests of soybean in Japan and their control. In: Pestcide Abstracts and News Summaries, 22 336-349.

Kobayashi T, 1981. Insect pests of soybeans in Japan. Miscellaneous Publication of the Tohoku National Agricultural Experiment Station. 1-39.

Li DeYou, Li GuiLian, Li BingGui, Wang TianWen, Wu LongFen, Wen LinHong, 2005. Investigation on injury of Etiella zinckenella Treitschke in thin French bean and its pollution-free control. Southwest China Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 18 (3), 274-276.

Litsinger J A, Quirino C B, Lumaban M D, Bandong J P, 1978. The grain legume pest complex of rice-based cropping systems at three locations in the Philippines. In: Van Emden, H. F. : Pests of grain legumes: ecology and control. [ed. by Singh S R, Emden H F van, Taylor T A]. London, UK: Academic Press Inc. (London) Ltd. 309-320.

Naito A, Harnoto, Iqbal A, Hattori I, 1986. Notes on the morphology and distribution of Etiella hobsoni (Butler), a new soybean podborer in Indonesia, with special reference to comparisons with Etiella zinckenella (Treitschke) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology. 21 (1), 81-88.

Pandey A K, Namgyal D, Mehdi M, Mir M S, Ahmad S B, 2006. A case study: major insect pest associated with different vegetable crops in cold arid region Ladakh, of Jammu and Kashmir. Journal of Entomological Research. 30 (2), 169-174.

Park K T, Hwang C Y, Choi K M, 1978. Lepidopterous insect pests on soybean. Korean Journal of Plant Protection. 17 (1), 1-5.

Parvin A, 1981. Studies on the biology of Etiella zinckella (Treit.). In: Entomologia Phytopathologica Applicata, 49 73-88.

Qu Y, Kogan J, 1984. A bibliography of three lepidopterous pod borers - Etiella zinckenella, Leguminivora glycinivorella and Matsumuraeses phaseoli - associated with soybean and other legumes., Champaign, USA: Illinois Natural History Survey and Internation.

Rekha S, Mallapur C P, 2007. Studies on insect pests of dolichos bean in northern Karnataka. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 20 (2), 407-409.

Sachan S K, Singh D V, Hem Singh, 2008. Insect pests of French bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L. in Tarai region of Uttar Pradesh. Indian Journal of Entomology. 70 (4), 397-398.

Sahoo B K, Senapati B, 2000. Relative abundance of pod borer species in different maturing pigeon pea varieties in Coastal Belt of Orissa. Indian Journal of Plant Protection. 28 (2), 192-194.

Sharma S D, 2000. Insect pests of pea (Pisum sativum L.) in Himachal Pradesh. Insect Environment. 6 (3), 113.

Singh H, Dhooria M S, 1971. Bionomics of the pea pod borer, Etiella zinckenella (Treitschke). Indian Journal of Entomology. 33 (2), 123-130.

Sirisingh S, Sitchawat T, Alapach N, 1971. Soybean insect pests in northeast Thailand and their control. In: Thailand Northeast Agricultural Center Research Bulletin, 4 1-47.

Tóth M, Löfstedt C, Hansson B S, Szöcs G, Farag A I, 1989. Identification of four components from the female sex pheromone of the lima-bean pod borer, Etiella zinckenella. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 51 (2), 107-112. DOI:10.1007/BF00186727

UK, CAB International, 1974. Etiella zinckenella. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 105 (Revised).

Vishal Mittal, Ram Ujagir, 2007. Succession of insect pests associated with pea crop (Pisum sativum Linnaeus) at Pantnagar, India. Environment and Ecology. 25S (Special 4), 1030-1035.

Waterhouse D F, 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR. v + 141 pp.

Whalley P E S, 1973. The genus Etiella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): A zoogeographic and taxonomic study. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Entomology. 28 (No.1), 1-21.

Distribution Maps

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