Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Golovinomyces orontii
(powdery mildew)

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Datasheet

Golovinomyces orontii (powdery mildew)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Golovinomyces orontii
  • Preferred Common Name
  • powdery mildew
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Leotiomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Powdery mildew on Cucurbita pepo plant grown in the greenhouse.
TitleSymptoms on Cucurbita pepo
CaptionPowdery mildew on Cucurbita pepo plant grown in the greenhouse.
Copyright©Pasquale Piccirillo
Powdery mildew on Cucurbita pepo plant grown in the greenhouse.
Symptoms on Cucurbita pepoPowdery mildew on Cucurbita pepo plant grown in the greenhouse.©Pasquale Piccirillo
Powdery mildew on tobacco plant.
TitleSymptoms on tobacco
CaptionPowdery mildew on tobacco plant.
Copyright©Pasquale Piccirillo
Powdery mildew on tobacco plant.
Symptoms on tobaccoPowdery mildew on tobacco plant.©Pasquale Piccirillo
Powdery mildew on tobacco plants.
TitleSymptoms on tobacco
CaptionPowdery mildew on tobacco plants.
Copyright©Pasquale Piccirillo
Powdery mildew on tobacco plants.
Symptoms on tobaccoPowdery mildew on tobacco plants.©Pasquale Piccirillo
Powdery mildew on C. pepo seedlings.
TitleSymptoms on Cucurbita pepo seedlings
CaptionPowdery mildew on C. pepo seedlings.
Copyright©Pasquale Piccirillo
Powdery mildew on C. pepo seedlings.
Symptoms on Cucurbita pepo seedlingsPowdery mildew on C. pepo seedlings.©Pasquale Piccirillo

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Golovinomyces orontii (Castagne) V.P. Heluta

Preferred Common Name

  • powdery mildew

Other Scientific Names

  • Erysiphe orontii Castagne
  • Erysiphe polyphaga Hammarl. (nom. inval.)
  • Erysiphe tabaci Sawada
  • Oidium begoniae Puttem.
  • Oidium violae Pass.

International Common Names

  • English: white mould
  • Spanish: oidio de la begonia
  • French: Oidium

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Mehltau: Begonie
  • Italy: mal bianco; oidio

EPPO code

  • OIDIBE (Oidium begoniae)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Leotiomycetes
  •                     Order: Erysiphales
  •                         Family: Erysiphaceae
  •                             Genus: Golovinomyces
  •                                 Species: Golovinomyces orontii

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2005); CABI (Undated)
LibyaPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Ammari & Khan, 1987
South AfricaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
SudanPresent, WidespreadMohamed et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2005)
TunisiaPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2005); CABI (Undated)

Asia

AfghanistanPresent, WidespreadBegum (1989); CABI and EPPO (2005)
ChinaPresent, WidespreadWu and Guo (1987); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-HenanPresentCABI (Undated); Original citation: Pei et al. (2017)
-ShandongPresent, WidespreadLai and Zhang (1992); CABI and EPPO (2005)
GeorgiaPresent, WidespreadNebieridze (1991); CABI and EPPO (2005)
Hong KongPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
IndiaPresentKumar et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-HaryanaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentMir et al. (1988); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-Madhya PradeshPresent, WidespreadHarsh et al. (1992); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-MaharashtraPresent, WidespreadWankhade and Peshney (1992); Mehetre et al. (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-RajasthanPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-Tamil NaduPresent, WidespreadRagupathi et al. (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-Uttar PradeshPresent, WidespreadKhan and Khan (1992); CABI and EPPO (2005)
IranPresentAbkhoo (2015)
JordanPresent, WidespreadAl-Raddad (1993); CABI and EPPO (2005)
KuwaitPresent, WidespreadIqbal et al. (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
LebanonPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
PhilippinesPresent, WidespreadQuiniones and Dayan (1981); CABI and EPPO (2005)
South KoreaPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2005); Park et al. (2015); Cho et al. (2016); CABI (Undated)
TaiwanPresent, WidespreadChang et al. (1992); CABI and EPPO (2005)
TajikistanPresent, WidespreadMadzhidova (1989); CABI and EPPO (2005)
TurkeyPresentYücel (1994); Usturali et al. (1997); CABI and EPPO (2005)

Europe

AustriaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
BelgiumPresent, WidespreadGreen et al. (1998); CABI and EPPO (2005)
BulgariaPresentPalakarcheva and Tunkara (1992); CABI and EPPO (2005)
CroatiaPresent, WidespreadRanković (1998); CABI and EPPO (2005)
CzechiaPresent, WidespreadKristkova and Lebeda (1999); CABI and EPPO (2005)
DenmarkPresent, WidespreadKnudsen and Skou (1989); CABI and EPPO (2005)
EstoniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
FinlandPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
FrancePresentLemaire et al. (1998); CABI and EPPO (2005)
GermanyPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
GreecePresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
HungaryPresent, WidespreadKiss (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
ItalyPresentBranzanti and Brunelli (1992); Cobelli and Vicchi (1996); CABI and EPPO (2005); CABI (Undated)
LithuaniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
NetherlandsPresent, WidespreadGroot et al. (1992); CABI and EPPO (2005)
NorwayPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
PolandPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
PortugalPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
RomaniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
RussiaPresentPuzanova (1988); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-Central RussiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-Russian Far EastPresent, WidespreadPlyusnina (1989); CABI and EPPO (2005)
SloveniaPresent, WidespreadMilevoj and Osvald (1996); CABI and EPPO (2005)
SpainPresent, WidespreadAlvarez and Tores (1995); CABI and EPPO (2005)
SwedenPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
SwitzerlandPresent, WidespreadCorbaz and Taillens (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005); CABI (Undated)
UkrainePresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
United KingdomPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)

North America

CanadaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-British ColumbiaPresentSholberg et al. (1999); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-QuebecPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
Puerto RicoPresent, WidespreadWessel-Beaver (1993); CABI and EPPO (2005)
United StatesPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-ArizonaPresent, WidespreadMatheron and Matejka (1992); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-CaliforniaPresentKoike and Saenz (1999); CABI and EPPO (2005); Glawe and Koike (2008)
-GeorgiaPresent, WidespreadSumner and Phatak (1987); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-IdahoPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-MassachusettsPresent, WidespreadPlotnikova et al. (1998); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-MissouriPresent, WidespreadMihail (1993); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-TexasPresentWoodward et al. (2012)
-WashingtonPresent, WidespreadEaston and Nagle (1990); CABI and EPPO (2005)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Northern TerritoryPresentLiberato and Shivas (2012)
-QueenslandPresentLiberato and Shivas (2012)
New ZealandPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)

South America

ArgentinaPresent, WidespreadMitidieri (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
BrazilPresent, WidespreadBoiteux (1994); CABI and EPPO (2005)
VenezuelaPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2005); CABI (Undated)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Growing point / dead heart
Growing point / distortion
Growing point / mycelium present
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / distortion
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Containers and packaging - wood Yes
Land vehicles Yes
Soil, sand and gravel Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx fruiting bodies; hyphae; spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) fruiting bodies; hyphae; spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves fruiting bodies; hyphae; spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants fruiting bodies; hyphae; spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches fruiting bodies; hyphae; spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye

References

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Abkhoo J, 2015. Powdery mildews causing fungi in Iran. Mycopath, 13(1):51-55. http://111.68.103.26/journals/index.php/mycopath/article/viewFile/673/354

Alvarez B, Tores JA, 1995. Absence of alternative hosts of powdery mildew of Cucurbitaceae on the eastern coast of Malaga. Boleti^acute~n de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 21(2):185-193; 18 ref

Begum SN, 1989. Evaluation of fungicides for controlling powdery mildew of field pea. Bangladesh Journal of Plant Pathology, 5(1-2):93-95

Bertetti D, Martini P, Poli A, Gullino ML, Garibaldi A, 2012. Mildew symptoms seen recently in Piedmont on Origanum vulgare, Campanula rapunculoides, and Oenothera biennis. (Mal bianchi recentemente osservati in Piemonte e Liguria su Origanum vulgare, Campanula rapunculoides e Oenothera biennis.) Protezione delle Colture, No.2:30. http://www.agrinnova.org/comunicazione.php

Bertetti D, Poli A, Gullino ML, Garibaldi A, 2012. First report of powdery mildew caused by Golovinomyces orontii on creeping bellflower (Campanula rapunculoides) cultivated in Italy. (Presenza di mal bianco causato da Golovinomyces orontii su Campanula rapunculoides allevata in Italia.) Protezione delle Colture, No.1:20-22. http://www.agrinnova.org/comunicazione.php

Bertrand F, Pitrat M, Glandard A, Lemaire JM, 1992. Diversity and variability of fungi responsible for powdery mildew on Cucurbitaceae. Phytoma, 438:46-49

Blancard D, Coubard C, Bonnet P, Lenoir M, Ricci P, 1998. Induction of an unspecific protection against 5 pathogenic fungi in stem and leaves of tobacco plants elicited by cryptogein. Annales du Tabac. Section 2, No. 30:11-20; 22 ref

Boiteux LS, 1994. Powdery mildew of potato caused by Erysiphe cichoracearum in Brazil. Plant Disease, 78(8):830

Bolay A, 1998. The powdery mildews of tomatoes and eggplants in Switzerland. Revue Suisse de Viticulture, d'Arboriculture et d'Horticulture, 30(6):373-378; 31 ref

Branzanti B, Brunelli A, 1992. Study of aetiology of powdery mildew of cucurbits in Emilia-Romagna. Informatore Fitopatologico, 42(11):37-44

Braun U, 1977. Contribution to the systematics and nomenclature of the Erysiphales. Feddes Repertorium, 88(9/10):655-665

Braun U, 1981. Taxonomic studies in the genus Erysiphe I. Generic delimitation and position in the system of the Erysiphaceae. Nova Hedwigia, 34(3/4):679-719

Braun U, 1987. A monograph of the Erysiphales (powdery mildews). Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia, 89:700 pp

Braun U, 1999. Some critical notes on the classification and generic concept of the Erysiphaceae. Schlechtendalia, 3:48-54

Braun U, Cook RTA, Inman AJ, Shin HD, 2002. The taxonomy of the powdery mildew fungi. The powdery mildews: a comprehensive treatise, 13-55; many ref

Braun U, Takamatsu S, 2000. Phylogeny of Erysiphe, Microsphaera, Uncinula (Erysipheae) and Cystotheca, Podosphaera, Sphaerotheca (Cystotheceae) inferred from rDNA ITS sequences - some taxonomic consequences. Schlechtendalia, No.4:1-33; 11 ref

Buonaurio R, Schiappa T, Polverari A, 1995. Induction of lipoxygenase activity is associated with systemic acquired resistance of tobacco to Erysiphe cichoracearum. Aspects of Applied Biology, 42:327-330

CABI/EPPO, 2005. Erysiphe orontii. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 958. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Cast, 1851. Suppl. Cat. Pl. Mars., p 52

Chang EY, Chang CS, Wu JK, 1992. Field trials on new multi-disease resistant lines of tobacco. Bulletin of the Tobacco Research Institute, Taiwan Tobacco & Wine Monopoly Bureau, 36:1-6

Cho SE, Choi YJ, Han KS, Park MJ, Shin HD, 2016. First report of powdery mildew caused by Golovinomyces orontii on Lactuca sativa in Korea. Plant Disease, 100(5):1015. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Cobelli L, Vicchi V, 1996. Melon and watermelon, strategies of integrated control. Colture Protette, 25(12):39-42

Collina M, 1996. Natural products against powdery mildew. Colture Protette, 25(9):39-42

Cook RTA, Inman AJ, Billings C, 1997. Identification and classification of powdery mildew anamorphs using light and scanning electron microscopy and host range data. Mycological Research, 101(8):975-1002; 25 ref

Corbaz R, Taillens J, 1994. Tolerance of cucumbers to powdery mildew: a confusing situation. Revue Suisse de Viticulture, d'Arboriculture et d'Horticulture, 26(6):397-398

Easton GD, Nagle ME, 1990. Aircraft-applied sulfur for control of powdery mildew (Erysiphe cichoracearum) on potato in Washington State. American Potato Journal, 67(6):385-392

Edreva A, Coussirat JC, Delon R, 1997. Induction of acidic pathogenesis-related (PR-1) proteins in Erysiphe cichoracearum D.C.-infected tobacco leaves. Annales du Tabac. Section 2, No. 29:55-59; 29 ref

El-Ammari SS, Khan MW, 1987. Identity of powdery mildews of cucurbits in Libya. Arab Journal of Plant Protection, 5(2):92-89

El-Mahjoub M, Romdhani MS, 1991. Determination of the causal agent of powdery mildew in off-season cucurbits in the Tunisian Sahel. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 56(2b):399-405

El-Shami MA, Raafet FM, Fouad FA, Fadl FA, 1995. Varietal reaction and chemical control of cucumber powdery mildew in Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research, 73(1):37-44; 19 ref

Fisher CR, 1992. Collaborative experiment on powdery mildew 1992 Report. Bulletin d'Information - CORESTA, 3-4:71-73

Giovannantonio Cdi, Ansanelli C, Vecchio M, Leandri A, 1997. Efficacy of natural fungicides for the control of powdery mildew on courgettes grown in greenhouses. Informatore Fitopatologico, 47(6):50-54; 11 ref

Glawe DA, Koike ST, 2008. First report of powdery mildew of periwinkle caused by Golovinomyces orontii in North America. Plant Health Progress, No.December:PHP-2008-1212-03-BR. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/php/elements/sum.aspx?id=7097&photo=4338

Green EA, Bernhard U, Bacci L, 1998. Control of powdery mildews with quinoxyfen in horticultural crops. Brighton Crop Protection Conference: Pests & Diseases - 1998: Volume 3: Proceedings of an International Conference, Brighton, UK, 16-19 November 1998., 857-862; 5 ref

Groot SPC, Zijlstra S, Jansen J, 1992. Phosphorus nutrition and selection against leaf chlorosis related to powdery mildew resistance in cucumber. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 117(3):500-503

Hahm YI, Kwon M, Kim JS, Seo HW, Ahn JH, 1988. Surveys on disease occurrence in major horticultural crops in Kangwon alpine areas. Korean Journal of Plant Pathology, 14(6):668-675

Hammarlund, 1945. Bot. Nov.:p. 108

Harsh NSK, Tiwari CK, Nath V, 1992. Some powdery mildews from Madhya Pradesh. Journal of Tropical Forestry, 8(2):173-178

Heluta (Gelyuta) VP, 1988. Fitogeneticheskije vzajmosvjazi mezhdu rodami erizifal`nyh gribov in nekotorye voprosy sistematiki porjadka Erysiphales. Biologicheskij Zhurnal Armenii, 41:351-357

Iqbal J, Riaz M, Saud-al-Misbah, 1994. Fungicidal control of powdery mildew of cucumber in Kuwait. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 6(1):65-66

Ivancia V, Andrei E, Barnaveta E, 1992. The behaviour of some sunflower hybrids at the attack of Erysiphe cichoracearum D.C. f.sp. helianthi Jacz. Cercetari Agronomice in Moldova, 25(1):201-204

Keller H, Pamboukdjian N, Ponchet M, Poupet A, Delon R, Verrier JL, Roby D, Ricci P, 1999. Pathogen-induced elicitin production in transgenic tobacco generates a hypersensitive response and nonspecific disease resistance. Plant Cell, 11(2):223-235; 2 pp. of ref

Khan AU, Khan AM, 1992. Incidence and severity of cucurbit powdery mildew in Uttar Pradesh. Indian Phytopathology, 45(2):190-193

Khan MW, Sharma GK, 1995. Taxonomic evaluation of anamorph characters in identification of powdery mildew fungi on cucurbits. Indian Phytopathology, 48(3):314-324; 33 ref

Kiss L, 1994. Erysiphe cichoracearum DC. on Begonia tuberhybrida in Hungary. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 29(1-2):57-59; 4 ref

Knudsen IMB, Skou JP, 1989. Biological control of cucumber powdery mildew by Tilletiopsis species. Vaxtskyddsnotiser, 53(1-2):19-24

Koike ST, Saenz GS, 1999. Powdery mildew of spearmint caused by Erysiphe orontii in California. Plant Disease, 83(4):399; 1 ref

Kristkova E, Lebeda A, 1999. Influence of developmental stage and plant habit of Cucurbita pepo L. genotypes on field resistance to cucurbit powdery mildew. Zahradnictvi Horticultural Science, 26(1):19-24

Kumar V, Singh BM, Sugha SK, Basandrai AK, 1995. Sources of resistance to tomato powdery mildew. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 25(3):172-174

Lai LY, Zhang SD, 1992. Disease resistance identification of cucumber varietal resources in Shandong. Journal of Shandong Agricultural Science, No. 1:20-25; 2 ref

Lemaire JM, Conus M, Mas P, Bardin M, FerriFre H, Nicot P, 1998. Powdery mildew of cucurbitaceous crops: the epidemic cycle and the range of hosts. Phytoma, No. 508:34-37; 2 ref

Liberato JR, Shivas RG, 2012. Powdery mildews on Clitoria in Australia. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 7(1):111-114. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-012-0060-z/fulltext.html

Lucas GB, 1975. Diseases of tobacco. 3rd edn. Raleigh, North Carolina, USA: Biological Consulting Associates

Madzhidova LN, 1989. Source material for breeding cucumber for defence against powdery and downy mildew in the Gissar valley of Tadzhikistan. Nauchno-Tekhnicheskii Byulleten' Vsesoyuznogo Ordena Lenina i Ordena Druzhby Narodov Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Instituta Rastenievodstva Imeni N. I. Vavilova, 188:51-52

Matheron ME, Matejka JC, 1992. Powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe cichoracearum on five new Eucalyptus hosts in Arizona. Plant Disease, 76(10):1077

Matsuda S, Takamatsu S, 2003. Evolution of host-parasite relationships of Golovinomyces (Ascomycete: Erysiphaceae) inferred from nuclear rDNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 27(2):314-327; 45 ref

Mehetre SS, Ghatge RD, Lad SK, 1994. Wild Sesamum mulayanum: a source of multiple disease resistance. Annals of Agricultural Research, 15(2):243-244

Menzies J, Bowen P, Ehret D, Glass ADM, 1992. Foliar applications of potassium silicate reduce severity of powdery mildew on cucumber, muskmelon, and zucchini squash. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 117(6):902-905

Mihail JD, 1993. Diseases of alternative crops in Missouri. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 15(2):119-122

Milevoj L, Osvald J, 1996. Methods for integrated cultivation and control of horticultural crops. Novi izzivi v poljedelstvu '96. Zbornik simpozija, Ljubljana, Slovenia 9-10 decembra 1996., 313-317; 9 ref

Mir NM, Dhar AK, Dar GH, Zargar MY, Khan MA, 1988. Presence of cleistothecial stage of Erysiphe cichoracearum DC in vivo on cucurbits and a new host record from India. Indian Journal of Plant Pathology, 6(1):79-80

Mitidieri IMde, 1994. The main diseases which affect horticultural crops grown under cover in northern Buenos Aires, Argentina. Acta Horticulturae, No.357:143-152; 8 ref

Mohamed YF, Bardin M, Nicot PC, Pitrat M, 1995. Causal agents of powdery mildew of cucurbits in Sudan. Plant Disease, 79(6):634-636

Mori Y, Sato Y, Takamatsu S, 2000. Evolutionary analysis of the powdery mildew fungi using nucleotide sequences of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. Mycologia, 92(1):74-93; 2 pp. of ref

Nakajima H, Muranaka T, Ishige F, Akutsu K, Oeda K, 1997. Fungal and bacterial disease resistance in transgenic plants expressing human lysozyme. Plant Cell Reports, 16(10):674-679; 18 ref

Nali C, 1999. First report of Erysiphe cichoracearum infecting Hedera canariensis var. azorica in Italy. Plant Disease, 83(2):198; 1 ref

Nebieridze GI, 1991. The role of seed treatments in decreasing the early appearance of powdery mildew on cucumber plants. In: Petrova LL, Gut'erres IE, eds. Nauchnye osnovy khimicheskoi zashchity sel'skokhozyaistvennykh kul'tur ot boleznei: sbornik nauchnykh trudov, St. Petersburg, Russia; Vsesoyuznyi Nauchno-Issledovatel'skii Institut Zashchity Rastenii (VIZR), 45-51

Palakarcheva M, 1991. Utilization of the genetic potential of wild species of the genus Nicotiana. Genetika i Selektsiya, 24(5):342-348

Palakarcheva M, Krasteva D, Delon R, 1990. Resistance of wild species and cultivars of tobacco to powdery mildew (Erysiphe cichoracearum). Rasteniev'dni Nauki, 27(7):92-95

Palakarcheva M, Tunkara F, 1992. Genetic study of resistance to powdery mildew (Erysiphe cichoracearum D. C.) in the variety PMR Burley 21. Genetika i Selektsiya, 25(2):140-146

Palakarcheva MT, Krusteva DK, Yancheva AM, 1990. Isogenic tobacco strains of the Harmanliiska Basma 163 variety possessing a gene of resistance to powdery mildew of tobacco from N. debneyi. Comptes Rendus de l'Academie Bulgare des Sciences, 43(8):101-103

Park MJ, Hong SH, Cho SE, Park JH, Shin HD, 2015. First report of powdery mildew caused by Golovinomyces orontii on invasive weed Lactuca serriola in Korea. Plant Disease, 99(6):889. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Pei DL, Zhu XQ, Xu YY, Li CW, 2017. First report of powdery mildew caused by Golovinomyces orontii on Galium aparine in China. Plant Disease, 101(1):251. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Pei DL, Zhu XQ, Xu YY, Li CW, 2017. First report of powdery mildew of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) caused by Golovinomyces orontii in China. Plant Disease, 101(3):506-507. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Perry LP, Adam SA Jr, 1994. 'David' phlox. Hort Science, 29(6):713

Pintye A, Legler SE, Kiss L, 2011. New records of microcyclic conidiogenesis in some powdery mildew fungi. Mycoscience, 52(3):213-216. http://www.springerlink.com/content/98040v2t6205465n/fulltext.html

Pizziol P, Nicoletti R, Lahoz E, 1994. Powdery mildew of tobacco. Tabacco, 2(1):31-36

Plotnikova JM, Reuber TL, Ausubel FM, Pfister DH, 1998. Powdery mildew pathogenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana. Mycologia, 90(6):1009-1016; 13 ref

Plyusnina RA, 1989. Powdery mildew fungi on cucurbitaceous crops in the Far East. Nauchno-Tekhnicheskii Byulleten' Vsesoyuznogo Ordena Lenina i Ordena Druzhby Narodov Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Instituta Rastenievodstva Imeni N.I. Vavilova, 194:31-35

Puzanova LA, 1988. The biological preparation of ampelomycin and the method of its production. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 22(4):340-342

Quiniones SS, Dayan MP, 1981. Notes on the diseases of forest species in the Philippines. Sylvatrop, 6(2):61-67; 10 ref

Raddad AM Al, 1993. Effect of powdery mildew on squash yield. Phytopath. Medit., 32(1):44-47

Raggi V, 1998. Hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein accumulation in TMV-infected tobacco showing systemic acquired resistance to powdery mildew. Journal of Phytopathology, 146(7):321-325; 31 ref

Ragupathi N, Thamburaj S, Jeyarajan R, 1994. Management of powdery mildew disease (Erysiphe cichoracearum DC) of bhendi. South Indian Horticulture, 42(4):278-280; 5 ref

Rankovic B, 1998. Conidia production of Ampelomyces quisqualis in culture using suspension method and artificial infection of powdery mildew pathogens (Erysiphe artemisiae and E. cichoracearum) by the mycoparasite. Zas^hacek~tita Bilja, 49(1):77-84; 22 ref

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Sumner DR, Phatak SC, 1987. Control of foliar disease of cucumber with resistant cultivars and fungicides. Applied Agricultural Research, 2(5):324-329

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Usturali A, Mungan G, Apti R, sengnl H, 1997. Reactions of some Turkish tobacco cultivars and lines to powdery mildew (Erysiphe cichoracearum D.C.) in Aegean region. Anadolu, 7(1):112-122; 15 ref

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Wankhade SV, Peshney NL, 1992. Conidial survey and cross infectivity of certain powdery mildew fungi prevalent in Vidarbha. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 22(2):195-196

Wessel-Beaver L, 1993. Powdery and downy mildew resistance in Cucurbita moschata accessions. Report - Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative, 16:73-74

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Wu XB, Guo XL, 1987. Primary study on control of powdery mildew by ladybugs. Journal of Northeast Forestry University, 15(2):13-17

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