Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Golovinomyces cichoracearum
(powdery mildew)

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Datasheet

Golovinomyces cichoracearum (powdery mildew)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Golovinomyces cichoracearum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • powdery mildew
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Leotiomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Powdery mildew on wild Sonchus sp.
TitleSymptoms on wild Sonchus sp.
CaptionPowdery mildew on wild Sonchus sp.
Copyright©Pasquale Piccirillo
Powdery mildew on wild Sonchus sp.
Symptoms on wild Sonchus sp.Powdery mildew on wild Sonchus sp.©Pasquale Piccirillo

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Golovinomyces cichoracearum (DC.) V.P. Heluta

Preferred Common Name

  • powdery mildew

Other Scientific Names

  • Erysiphe cichoracearum DC.
  • Golovinomyces ambrosiae (Schwein.) U. Braun & R.T.A. Cook
  • Oidium asteris punicei Peck

International Common Names

  • English: powdery mildew of chicory; powdery mildew of lettuce; powdery mildew of ornamentals; white mould
  • Spanish: cenicilla polvorienta de las cucurbitaceas; oidio de la patata; oidio del pepino; oidio del tabaco
  • French: oidium; oïdium; oidium de la chicoree; oidium de l'endive

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Mehltau: Chrysanthemen; Mehltau: Salat
  • Italy: mal bianco; oidio

EPPO code

  • ERYSCI (Erysiphe cichoracearum)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Leotiomycetes
  •                     Order: Erysiphales
  •                         Family: Erysiphaceae
  •                             Genus: Golovinomyces
  •                                 Species: Golovinomyces cichoracearum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 20 Mar 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentAmano (1986)
EgyptPresentAmano (1986)
EswatiniPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
EthiopiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
KenyaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
LibyaPresentAmano (1986); CABI and EPPO (2005)
MalawiPresentAmano (1986)
MauritaniaPresentAmano (1986)
MauritiusPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
MoroccoPresentAmano (1986); CABI and EPPO (2005)
NigerPresentAmano (1986)
NigeriaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
South AfricaPresentAmano (1986); CABI and EPPO (2005)
TanzaniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
ZambiaPresentAmano (1986); CABI and EPPO (2005)
ZimbabwePresentAmano (1986); CABI and EPPO (2005)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentAmano (1986)
ArmeniaPresentAmano (1986)
AzerbaijanPresentAmano (1986)
ChinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-ChongqingPresentLiu et al. (2016)
-GuizhouPresentWang et al. (2019)
-HenanPresentPei et al. (2012)
-Inner MongoliaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-LiaoningPresentYang and Wei (1988); CABI and EPPO (2005)
GeorgiaPresentAmano (1986)
IndiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-Andhra PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-Arunachal PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-ChhattisgarhPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-DelhiPresentTiwari et al. (2018)
-HaryanaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-Himachal PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-KarnatakaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-Madhya PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-MaharashtraPresentWankhade and Peshney (1992); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-MeghalayaPresentBaiswar et al. (2010)
-PunjabPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-RajasthanPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-Tamil NaduPresent, WidespreadRagupathi and Thamburaj (1997)
-Uttar PradeshPresentHusain and Akram (1997); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-West BengalPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
IranPresentCABI and EPPO (2005); Abkhoo (2015); Mirhosseini et al. (2015)
IraqPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
IsraelPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
JapanPresentCABI and EPPO (2005); Hoshi et al. (2012)
JordanPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
KazakhstanPresentAmano (1986)
KyrgyzstanPresentAmano (1986)
LebanonPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
MongoliaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005); CABI (Undated)
NepalPresentAmano (1986)
PakistanPresentBhutta et al. (1993); CABI and EPPO (2005); Mukhtar et al. (2012); Irum Mukhtar et al. (2013)
Saudi ArabiaPresentAmano (1986); CABI and EPPO (2005)
South KoreaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005); Cho SungEun et al. (2012); CABI (Undated)
Sri LankaPresentAmano (1986)
TaiwanPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
TurkeyPresentCABI and EPPO (2005); Soylu et al. (2011)
TurkmenistanPresentAmano (1986)
UzbekistanPresentAmano (1986)
YemenPresentAmano (1986); CABI and EPPO (2005)

Europe

AustriaPresentAmano (1986); CABI and EPPO (2005)
BelgiumPresentMeeùs and Wittouck (1999); CABI and EPPO (2005)
BulgariaPresentMargina et al. (1996); CABI and EPPO (2005)
CroatiaPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Rankovic (1998)
CzechiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
DenmarkPresentAmano (1986); CABI and EPPO (2005); Mørk et al. (2011)
EstoniaPresentAmano (1986); CABI and EPPO (2005)
Faroe IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
FinlandPresentAmano (1986); CABI and EPPO (2005)
FrancePresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
GermanyPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
GreecePresentAmano (1986); CABI and EPPO (2005)
HungaryPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
IcelandPresentAmano (1986); CABI and EPPO (2005)
ItalyPresentTosi et al. (1996); CABI and EPPO (2005); Garibaldi et al. (2012)
LatviaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
LithuaniaPresentAmano (1986)
MaltaPresentAmano (1986); CABI and EPPO (2005)
NorwayPresentAmano (1986); CABI and EPPO (2005)
PolandPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
PortugalPresentAmano (1986); CABI and EPPO (2005);
-MadeiraPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
RomaniaPresentIvancia et al. (1992); CABI and EPPO (2005)
RussiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-Central RussiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-SiberiaPresentAmano (1986)
SerbiaPresentStojanović et al. (2012)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
SpainPresentCABI and EPPO (2005);
-Balearic IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-Canary IslandsPresentAmano (1986); CABI and EPPO (2005)
Svalbard and Jan MayenPresentAmano (1986)
SwedenPresentAmano (1986); CABI and EPPO (2005)
SwitzerlandPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
UkrainePresentAmano (1986)
United KingdomPresentBevan et al. (1993); CABI and EPPO (2005)

North America

BermudaPresentAmano (1986); CABI and EPPO (2005)
CanadaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-AlbertaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-British ColumbiaPresentSholberg et al. (1999); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-ManitobaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-New BrunswickPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-Nova ScotiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-OntarioPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-QuebecPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-SaskatchewanPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
CubaPresentAmano (1986); CABI and EPPO (2005)
GuatemalaPresentAmano (1986)
JamaicaPresentAmano (1986)
MexicoPresentAmano (1986); Greathead and Greathead (1992); CABI and EPPO (2005)
PanamaPresentAmano (1986)
Puerto RicoPresentAmano (1986); CABI and EPPO (2005)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
United StatesPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-AlaskaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-ArizonaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-CaliforniaPresentGulya et al. (1991); Koike and Saenz (1996); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-ColoradoPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-ConnecticutPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-DelawarePresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-FloridaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-GeorgiaPresentMcCarter (1993); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-HawaiiPresentAmano (1986); CABI and EPPO (2005)
-IdahoPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-IllinoisPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-IndianaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-IowaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-KansasPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-MarylandPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-MassachusettsPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-MichiganPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-MinnesotaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-MississippiPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-MissouriPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-MontanaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-NebraskaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-New JerseyPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-New MexicoPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-New YorkPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-North CarolinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-North DakotaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-OklahomaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-OregonPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-PennsylvaniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-South DakotaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-TennesseePresentCABI and EPPO (2005); Trigiano et al. (2011); Trigiano et al. (2016)
-TexasPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-UtahPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-VermontPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-VirginiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-WashingtonPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-West VirginiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-WisconsinPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
-WyomingPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)

Oceania

American SamoaPresentBrooks (2002)
AustraliaPresentAmano (1986)
FijiPresentAmano (1986); CABI and EPPO (2005)
New CaledoniaPresentAmano (1986); CABI and EPPO (2005)
New ZealandPresentAmano (1986); CABI and EPPO (2005)

South America

ArgentinaPresentAmano (1986); CABI and EPPO (2005)
BoliviaPresentAmano (1986); CABI and EPPO (2005)
BrazilPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)
ChilePresentAmano (1986); CABI and EPPO (2005)
PeruPresentAmano (1986)
UruguayPresentAmano (1986)
VenezuelaPresentCABI and EPPO (2005)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / dead heart
Growing point / distortion
Growing point / mycelium present
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / distortion
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Ampelomyces quisqualis Pathogen
Aspergillus fumigatus Antagonist
Cochliobolus spicifer Pathogen
Fusarium oxysporum Pathogen
Macroilleis hauseri Predator
Penicillium fellutanum Pathogen
Tilletiopsis albescens Pathogen
Vibidia duodecimguttata Predator

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Containers and packaging - wood Yes
Land vehicles Yes
Soil, sand and gravel Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Abkhoo J, 2015. Powdery mildews causing fungi in Iran. Mycopath, 13(1):51-55. http://111.68.103.26/journals/index.php/mycopath/article/viewFile/673/354

Amano K, 1986. Host range and geographical distribution of the powdery mildew fungi. Tokyo, Japan; Japan Scientific Societies Press, 741 pp

Baiswar P, Chandra S, Kumar R, Ngachan SV, 2010. Powdery mildew on Rudbeckia hirta in India. Plant Pathology, 59(2):408. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

Bertetti D, Amatulli MT, Gullino ML, Garibaldi A, 2012. First report of a new powdery mildew caused by Golovinomyces cichoracearum on michaelmas daisy (Aster novi-belgii) in Italy. (Attacchi di mal bianco causato da Golovinomyces cichoracearum su piante di Aster novi-belgii in Piemonte.) Protezione delle Colture, No.3:52-54. http://www.agrinnova.org/comunicazione.php

Bevan JR, Clarke DD, Crute IR, 1993. Resistance to Erysiphe fischeri in two populations of Senecio vulgaris. Plant Pathology, 42(4):636-646

Bhutta AR, Bhatti MHR, Ahmad SI, Ahmad I, 1993. Prevalence and incidence of sunflower diseases in Pakistan. Helia, 16(19):93-97

Braun U, 1977. Contribution to the systematics and nomenclature of the Erysiphales. Feddes Repertorium, 88(9/10):655-665

Braun U, 1981. Taxonomic studies in the genus Erysiphe I. Generic delimitation and position in the system of the Erysiphaceae. Nova Hedwigia, 34(3/4):679-719

Braun U, 1987. A monograph of the Erysiphales (powdery mildews). Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia, 89:700 pp

Braun U, 1995. The Powdery Mildews (Erysiphales) of Europe. Jena, Germany: Gustav Fischer Verlag, 337 pp

Braun U, 1999. Some critical notes on the classification and generic concept of the Erysiphaceae. Schlechtendalia, 3:48-54

Braun U, Cook RTA, Inman AJ, Shin HD, 2002. The taxonomy of the powdery mildew fungi. The powdery mildews: a comprehensive treatise, 13-55; many ref

Braun U, Takamatsu S, 2000. Phylogeny of Erysiphe, Microsphaera, Uncinula (Erysipheae) and Cystotheca, Podosphaera, Sphaerotheca (Cystotheceae) inferred from rDNA ITS sequences - some taxonomic consequences. Schlechtendalia, No.4:1-33; 11 ref

Brooks F, 2002. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2002. Land Grant Technical Report No. 44. Pago Pago, American Samoa: American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program

CABI/EPPO, 2005. Erysiphe cichoracearum. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 957. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Candolle AP de, 1805. In: Lamarck and de Candolle. Flore francaise, 2, Paris, France

Cho SungEun, Park MiJeong, Park JiHyun, Han KyungSook, Shin HyeonDong, 2012. First report of Golovinomyces cichoracearum associated with powdery mildew on Helianthus tuberosus in Korea. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 7(1):35-37. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-012-0041-2/fulltext.html

Cook RTA, Inman AJ, Billings C, 1997. Identification and classification of powdery mildew anamorphs using light and scanning electron microscopy and host range data. Mycological Research, 101(8):975-1002; 25 ref

Garibaldi A, Bertetti D, Amatulli MT, Gullino ML, 2011. Powdery mildew caused by Golovinomyces cichoracearum on moth mullein (Verbascum blattaria) in Italy. Plant Disease, 95(2):225. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Garibaldi A, Bertetti D, Amatulli MT, Gullino ML, 2012. Powdery mildew of Michaelmas daisy in Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology, 94(4, Supplement):S4.88. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/

Garibaldi, A., Bertetti, D., Matic, S., Gullino, M. L., 2018. Powdery mildew caused by Golovinomyces cichoracearum on eastern purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) in Italy. Plant Disease, 102(5), 1028. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-10-17-1691-PDN

Greathead DJ, Greathead AH, 1992. Biological control of insect pests by insect parasitoids and predators: the BIOCAT database. Biocontrol News and Information, 13(4):61N-68N

Green EA, Bernhard U, Bacci L, 1998. Control of powdery mildews with quinoxyfen in horticultural crops. Brighton Crop Protection Conference: Pests & Diseases - 1998: Volume 3: Proceedings of an International Conference, Brighton, UK, 16-19 November 1998., 857-862; 5 ref

Gulya TJ, Woods DM, Bell R, Mancl MK, 1991. Diseases of sunflower in California. Plant Disease, 75(6):572-574

Hahm YI, Kwon M, Kim JS, Seo HW, Ahn JH, 1988. Surveys on disease occurrence in major horticultural crops in Kangwon alpine areas. Korean Journal of Plant Pathology, 14(6):668-675

Hahm YI, Kwon M, Kim JS, Seo HW, Ahn JH, 1988. Surveys on disease occurrence in major horticultural crops in Kangwon alpine areas. Korean Journal of Plant Pathology, 14(6):668-675

Hammarlund, 1945. Bot. Nov.:p. 108

Heluta (Gelyuta) VP, 1988. Fitogeneticheskije vzajmosvjazi mezhdu rodami erizifal`nyh gribov in nekotorye voprosy sistematiki porjadka Erysiphales. Biologicheskij Zhurnal Armenii, 41:351-357

Hoshi H, Kagiwada S, Sato Y, Horie H, 2012. First report of powdery mildew caused by Golovinomyces cichoracearum var. cichoracearum on Sneezewort in Japan. Annual Report of the Kanto-Tosan Plant Protection Society, No.59:81-85. http://www.ktpps.org/

Husain SI, Akram M, 1997. Distribution pattern and identity of powdery mildew of composites in the districts of Agra division. Indian Phytopathology, 50(2):250-255; 16 ref

Irum Mukhtar, Sobia Mustaq, Ibatsam Khokhar, 2013. First report of powdery mildew on Dahlia (Dahlia variabilis) caused by Golovinomyces cichoracearum in Lahore, Pakistan. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 8(1):1-3. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-011-0025-7/fulltext.html

Ivancia V, Andrei E, Barnaveta E, 1992. The behaviour of some sunflower hybrids at the attack of Erysiphe cichoracearum D.C. f.sp. helianthi Jacz. Cercetari Agronomice in Moldova, 25(1):201-204

Jan CC, Chandler JM, 1988. Registration of a powdery mildew resistant sunflower germplasm pool, PM1. Crop Science, 28(6):1040; 1 ref

Koike ST, Saenz GS, 1996. Occurrence of powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe cichoracearum, on endive and radicchio in California. Plant Disease, 80(9):1080; 2 ref

Lebeda A, 1994. Evaluation of wild Lactuca species for resistance of natural infection of powdery mildew (Erysiphe cichoracearum). Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 41(1):55-57

Liu LZ, Zhu WM, Cheng YY, Gu WH, Liu T, 2016. First report of powdery mildew of Melothria indica caused by Golovinomyces cichoracearum in China. Plant Disease, 100(1):228. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Margina A, Lecheva I, Zheljazkov V, 1996. Investigation on pest entomofauna and fungus diseases of essential oil and medicinal plants in Bulgaria. Part II. Study on economically important diseases. Beitra^umlaut~ge zur Zu^umlaut~chtungsforschung - Bundesanstalt fu^umlaut~r Zu^umlaut~chtungsforschung an Kulturpflanzen, 2(1):261-263

Matsuda S, Takamatsu S, 2003. Evolution of host-parasite relationships of Golovinomyces (Ascomycete: Erysiphaceae) inferred from nuclear rDNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 27(2):314-327; 45 ref

McCarter SM, 1993. Reactions of Jerusalem artichoke genotypes to two rusts and powdery mildew. Plant Disease, 77(3):242-245

Meeùs P, Wittouck D, 1999. Plant diseases of chicory and the use of fungicides for protection. Betteravier (Bruxelles), 33(349):22

Mirhosseini HA, Babaeizad V, Hashemi L, Basavand E, 2015. Powdery mildew caused by Golovinomyces cichoracearum on Symphyotrichum subulatum var. squamatum in Iran. Journal of Plant Pathology, 97(1):209. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3278

Mori Y, Sato Y, Takamatsu S, 2000. Evolutionary analysis of the powdery mildew fungi using nucleotide sequences of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. Mycologia, 92(1):74-93; 2 pp. of ref

Mukhtar I, Khurram R, Hannan A, Hayat Z, 2012. First report of powdery mildew of pumpkin caused by Golovinomyces cichoracearum in Neelum Valley, Azad Kashmir. Plant Disease, 96(6):906. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Mørk EK, Kristiansen K, Jørgensen HJL, Sundelin T, 2011. First report of Golovinomyces cichoracearum as the causal agent of powdery mildew on Symphyotrichum novi-belgii (synonym Aster novi-belgii) in Denmark. Plant Disease, 95(2):228. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Peck CH, 1879. Report of the Botanist. In: 28th Annual Report of the New York State Museum of Natural History, 31-38

Pei D, Xu X, Feng Y, Li C, 2012. First report of powdery mildew caused by Golovinomyces cichoracearum on Sonchus asper in China. Plant Disease, 96(5):766. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Ragupathi N, Thamburaj S, 1997. Management of powdery mildew disease of bhendi (Abelmoschus esculentus L.). South Indian Horticulture, 45:66-67

Ragupathi N, Thamburaj S, Jeyarajan R, 1994. Management of powdery mildew disease (Erysiphe cichoracearum DC) of bhendi. South Indian Horticulture, 42(4):278-280; 5 ref

Rankovic B, 1997. Hyperparasites of the genus Ampelomyces on powdery mildew fungi in Serbia. Mycopathologia, 139(3):157-164; 26 ref

Rankovic B, 1998. Conidia production of Ampelomyces quisqualis in culture using suspension method and artificial infection of powdery mildew pathogens (Erysiphe artemisiae and E. cichoracearum) by the mycoparasite. Zas^hacek~tita Bilja, 49(1):77-84; 22 ref

Rankovic B, 1998. Conidia production of Ampelomyces quisqualis in culture using suspension method and artificial infection of powdery mildew pathogens (Erysiphe artemisiae and E. cichoracearum) by the mycoparasite. Zas^hacek~tita Bilja, 49(1):77-84; 22 ref

Saenz GS, Taylor JW, 1999. Phylogeny of the Erysiphales (powdery mildews) inferred from internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequences. Canadian Journal of Botany, 77(1):150-168; 50 ref

Sholberg PL, Ginns JH, Li TSC, 1999. First report of powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe cichoracearum, on coneflowers. Plant Disease, 83(7):694; 4 ref

Soylu S, Cho SE, Shin HD, 2011. First report of powdery mildew caused by Golovinomyces cichoracearum on Zinnia elegans in Turkey. Plant Disease, 95(10):1317. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Stojanovic DS, Pavlovic DS, Starovic SM, Stevic RT, Josic LD, 2012. First record of powdery mildew on camomile in Serbia. In: Proceedings of the Seventh Conference on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Southeast European Countries, (Proceedings of the 7th CMAPSEEC), Subotica, Serbia, 27-31 May, 2012 [ed. by Stevanovic, Z. D.\Radanovic, D.]. Belgrade, Serbia: Institute for Medicinal Plant Research and Association for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Southeast European Countries (AMAPSEEC), 370-373

Subha Alam, Khan TA, 2012. A report on two new hosts (Oxalis corniculata L and O. corymbosa DC) of powdery mildew fungus (Erysiphe cichoracearum DC). e-Journal of Science & Technology, 7(1):13-21. http://e-jst.teiath.gr/issue_24/Alam_24.pdf

Tiwari, R. K., Sharma, R. K., Singh, A. K., 2018. Morphotaxonomy of powdery mildew fungus (Golovinomyces cichoracearum DC) on Helianthus petiolaris. International Journal of Plant Sciences (Muzaffarnagar), 13(1), 22-25. http://www.researchjournal.co.in/online/IJPS.htm doi: 10.15740/HAS/IJPS/13.1/22-25

Tosi L, Zazzerini A, Monatti M, 1996. Comparative phytopathological surveys on varieties of sunflower conducted in 1996. Informatore Agrario Supplemento, 53(9):35-37

Trigiano RN, Bernard EC, Hadziabdic D, Dattilo AJ, Wadl PA, 2016. First report of powdery mildew on whorled sunflower (Helianthus verticillatus) caused by Golovinomyces ambrosiae. Plant Disease, 100(5):1017-1018. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Trigiano RN, Dattilo AJ, Wadl PA, 2011. First report of powdery mildew on Ruth's golden aster (Pityopsis ruthii) caused by Golovinomyces cichoracearum (Erysiphe cichoracearum). Plant Disease, 95(7):879. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Vulsteke G, Callewaert D, Vanheule M, Seynnaeve M, Louwagie P, Calus A, 1996. Research 1997. Scorzonera. Carrots. Belgium, Provinciaal Onderzoek- en Voorlichtingscentrum voor Land-en Tuinbouw

Wang, H. C., Xiang, L. G., Dai, Y. F., Chen, X. J., Chen, X., Yang, X. H., 2019. Powdery mildew of Veronica persica caused by Golovinomyces cichoracearum in Guizhou province of China. Plant Disease, 103(2), 368. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-06-18-1066-PDN

Wankhade SV, Peshney NL, 1992. Conidial survey and cross infectivity of certain powdery mildew fungi prevalent in Vidarbha. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 22(2):195-196

Wu XB, Guo XL, 1987. Primary study on control of powdery mildew by ladybugs. Journal of Northeast Forestry University, 15(2):13-17

Yang SM, Wei SE, 1988. Diseases of cultivated sunflower in Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China. Plant Disease, 72(6):546

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Tosi L, Zazzerini A, Monatti M, 1996. Comparative phytopathological surveys on varieties of sunflower conducted in 1996. In: Informatore Agrario Supplemento, 53 (9) 35-37.

Trigiano R N, Bernard E C, Hadziabdic D, Dattilo A J, Wadl P A, 2016. First report of powdery mildew on whorled sunflower (Helianthus verticillatus) caused by Golovinomyces ambrosiae. Plant Disease. 100 (5), 1017-1018. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-15-1269-PDN

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Wang H C, Xiang L G, Dai Y F, Chen X J, Chen X, Yang X H, 2019. Powdery mildew of Veronica persica caused by Golovinomyces cichoracearum in Guizhou province of China. Plant Disease. 103 (2), 368. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-06-18-1066-PDN

Wankhade S V, Peshney N L, 1992. Conidial survey and cross infectivity of certain powdery mildew fungi prevalent in Vidarbha. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology. 22 (2), 195-196.

Yang S M, Wei S E, 1988. Diseases of cultivated sunflower in Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China. Plant Disease. 72 (6), 546. DOI:10.1094/PD-72-0546A

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