Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Dickeya zeae
(bacterial stalk rot of maize)

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Datasheet

Dickeya zeae (bacterial stalk rot of maize)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Dickeya zeae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • bacterial stalk rot of maize
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •     Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •       Order: Enterobacteriales
  •         Family: Enterobacteriaceae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Stalk rot.
TitleSymptoms on plant stem
CaptionStalk rot.
CopyrightISU
Stalk rot.
Symptoms on plant stemStalk rot.ISU

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Dickeya zeae Samson et al. 2005

Preferred Common Name

  • bacterial stalk rot of maize

Other Scientific Names

  • Bacterium carotovorum f.sp. zeae Sabet 1954
  • Erwinia carotovora (Jones 1901) Bergey et al. 1923
  • Erwinia carotovora f.sp. zeae Sabet 1954
  • Erwinia carotovora var. chrysanthemi (Burkholder et al. 1953) Dye 1969
  • Erwinia chrysanthemi (Burkholder et al. 1953) Young et al. 1978
  • Erwinia chrysanthemi corn pathotype Dye 1969
  • Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. zeae (Sabet 1954) Victoria et al. 1975
  • Erwinia maydis Kelman et al. 1957
  • Pectobacterium carotovorum f.sp. zeae (Sabet) Dowson 1957
  • Pectobacterium carotovorum var. graminarum Dowson & Hayward 1960
  • Pectobacterium chrysanthemi (Burkholder et al. 1953) Brenner et al. 1973 emend. Hauben et al. 1999
  • Pectobacterium chrysanthemi pv. zeae Kelman 1974

International Common Names

  • English: bacterial wilt and soft rot of pineapple, Musa sp., chrysanthemum, dieffenbachia and other ornamentals; blackleg and bacterial soft rot of potato; rice bacterial foot rot; Stalk rot of maize, rice and wheat

Local Common Names

  • Australia: bacterial top rot
  • USA: Rosen's disease; southern stalk rot

EPPO code

  • ERWIZE (Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. zeae)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •         Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •             Order: Enterobacteriales
  •                 Family: Enterobacteriaceae
  •                     Genus: Dickeya
  •                         Species: Dickeya zeae

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 12 May 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

ComorosPresentBradbury (1977)
EgyptPresentBradbury (1977); CABI (Undated)
MauritiusPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Anon (1972)
RéunionPresentIRAT (1983)
South AfricaPresentPauer (1964); Bradbury (1977)
SudanPresentBradbury (1977)
ZimbabwePresentSABET (1957); Bradbury (1977)

Asia

ChinaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-GuangdongPresentPu et al. (2012); Zhang JingXin et al. (2014)
-JiangsuPresentWang and Yang (1991); CABI (Undated)
IndiaPresentBradbury (1977); Thind and Payak (1985)
IndonesiaPresentAeny et al. (2020)East Lampung.
IranPresentBanapoor and Amani (1986); Masumi and Izadpanah (1988)
JapanPresentBradbury (1977)
-HokkaidoPresentGoto (1979); Takeuchi and Kodama (1992)
MalaysiaPresentBradbury (1977); Hiryati (1982)
North KoreaPresentBradbury (1977)
PhilippinesPresentBradbury (1977); Ebron et al. (1987)
South KoreaPresentMyung et al. (2010); Bradbury (1977)
TaiwanPresentBradbury (1977); Lin ChingYi et al. (2016)

Europe

FrancePresentSamson et al. (1974); Bradbury (1977)
GermanyPresentBradbury (1977)
GreecePresentZACHOS et al. (1963); Bradbury (1977)
ItalyPresentBradbury (1977); CABI (Undated)
NetherlandsPresentJanse and Ruissen (1988)
PortugalPresentFerreira-Pinto et al. (1994)
RussiaPresentNikitina et al. (1976)
SpainPresentNoval (1989)
SwitzerlandPresentBradbury (1977)
United KingdomPresentStead et al. (2010); Bradbury (1977)

North America

Costa RicaPresentBradbury (1977)
CubaPresentBradbury (1977); Rivera et al. (1980)
HondurasPresentBradbury (1977)
JamaicaPresentBradbury (1977)
MexicoPresentMartinez-Cisneros et al. (2014)
PanamaPresentBradbury (1977)
Puerto RicoPresentHepperly and Ramos-Dávila (1987)
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-ArkansasPresentBoewe (1949)
-CaliforniaPresentBradbury (1977)
-FloridaPresentBradbury (1977); Smith and Bartz (1990)
-GeorgiaPresentBradbury (1977)
-IllinoisPresentBoewe (1949)
-New YorkPresentBradbury (1977)
-North CarolinaPresentKELMAN et al. (1957); Bradbury (1977)
-PennsylvaniaPresentBradbury (1977)
-South DakotaPresentBradbury (1977); Otta and Wood (1977)
-WisconsinPresentBradbury (1977); Woodward et al. (1978)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentBradbury (1977); Cother and Powell (1983)
Cook IslandsPresentBradbury (1977)
New ZealandPresentBradbury (1977)

South America

BrazilPresentBradbury (1977); Reifschneider and Lopes (1982)
ColombiaPresentVictoria et al. (1975); Bradbury (1977)
GuyanaPresentBradbury (1977)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / extensive mould
Fruit / odour
Inflorescence / blight; necrosis
Inflorescence / dieback
Inflorescence / discoloration panicle
Inflorescence / rot
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / wilting
Roots / cortex with lesions
Seeds / rot
Stems / dieback
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / distortion
Stems / internal red necrosis
Stems / ooze
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Whole plant / external feeding
Whole plant / internal feeding
Whole plant / unusual odour
Whole plant / uprooted or toppled

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Banapoor A, Amani G, 1986. Occurrence of stalk rot of maize in Iran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 22(1-4):46

Bazzi C, Mazzucchi U, 1978. Attacks of bacterial stalk rot of maize in sprinkler irrigated crops. Piglionica, V. (Co-ordinator): Reports on activities under the sub-project "Phytiatry of wheat, maize and sorghum".: Rapporti sull' attivita svolta nell'ambito del subprogetto "Fitoiatria del frumento, del mais e del sorgo". Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Progetto Finalizzato Fitofarmaci e Fitoregolatori. Rome Italy, 79-84

Boewe GH, 1949. Bacterial stalk rot of corn in Illinois. Plant Disease Reporter, 33:342

Bradbury JF, 1977. Erwinia chrysanthemi. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, No. 553. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Brady CL, Cleenwerk I, Denman S, Ventner SN, Rodriguez-Palenzuela P, Coutinho TA, Vos Pde, 2011. Proposal to reclassify Brenneria quercina (Hildebrand and Schroth 1967) Hauben et al. 1999 into a nevel genus, Lonsdalea gen., as Lonsdalea quercina comb. nov., descriptions of Lonsdalea quercina subsp. quercina comb. nov., Lonsdalea quercina subsp. iberica subsp. nov. and Lonsdalea quercina subsp. britannica subsp. nov., emendation of the description of the genus Brenneria, reclassification of Dickeya dieffenbachiae as Dickeya dadantii subsp. dieffenbachiae comb. nov., and emendation of the description of Dickeya dadantii. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, September 2011

Brenner DJ, Fanning GR, Steigerwalt AG, 1977. Deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness among Erwiniae and other enterobacteria II. Corn stalk rot bacterium and Pectobacterium chrysanthemi. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 27(3):211-221

Buchanan RE, Gibbons NE, ed. , 1974. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. Williams & Wilkins. Baltimore USA, Ed. 8:xxvi + 1246 pp

Bull CT, Boer SHde, Denny TP, Firrao G, Fischer-Le Saux M, Saddler GS, Scortichini M, Stead DE, Takikawa Y, 2010. Comprehensive list of names of plant pathogenic bacteria, 1980-2007. Journal of Plant Pathology, 92:551-592

Cother EJ, Powell V, 1983. Physiological and pathological characteristics of Erwinia chrysanthemi isolates from potato tubers. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 54(1):37-43

Dickey RS, 1979. Erwinia chrysanthemi: a comparative study of phenotypic properties of strains from several hosts and other Erwinia species. Phytopathology, 69(4):324-329

Dickey RS, Claflin LE, Zumoff CH, 1987. Erwinia chrysanthemi: serological comparisons of strains from Zea mays and other hosts. Phytopathology, 77(3):426-430

Divinagracia Laysa F, Exconde OR, 1981. Virulence and aggressiveness of Erwinia carotovora var. chrysanthemi Dye isolates on maize. Philippine Agriculturist, 64(4):307-322

Ebron LA, Tolentino MS, Lantin MM, 1987. Screening for bacterial stalk rot resistance in corn. Philippine Journal of Crop Science, 12(1):31-32

El-Helaly AF, Abo-El-Dahab MK, El-Goorani MA, Gabr MRM, 1978. Identification of Erwinia sp. causing stalk rot of maize in Egypt. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene, 2, 133(7/8):680-685

Ferreira-Pinto MM, Cruz ML, Oliveira H, 1994. The occurrence in Portugal of the bacterial disease of maize crops caused by Erwinia chrysanthemi. Plant Pathology, 43(6):1050-1054

Gabr MRM, Moustafa AK, 1983. Bacterial stalk rot of maize, isolation, identification and some physiological studies. Annals of Agricultural Science, Moshtohor, 19(1):131-147

Goto M, 1979. Bacterial foot rot of rice caused by a strain of Erwinia chrysanthemi. Phytopathology, 69(3):213-216

Hartman JR, Kelman A, 1973. An improved method for the inoculation of corn with Erwinia spp. Phytopathology, 63(6):658-663

Hauben L, Moore ERB, Vauterin L, Steenackers M, Verdonk L, Swings J, 1998. Phylogenetic position of phytopathogens within the Enterobacteriaceae. Systematic and Applied Microbiology, 21:384-397

Hepperly PR, Ramos-Davila E, 1987. Erwinia chrysanthemi Burk., McFaddan & Dimock: a bacterial whorl and stalk rot pathogen of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.]. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 71(3):265-275

Hiryati A, 1982. Studies of bacterial stalk rot disease of corn. Pertanika, 5(1):84-89

IRAT, 1983. IRAT-Reunion. Annual report 1983. St. Denis, Reunion: IRAT

Janse JD, Ruissen MA, 1988. Characterization and classification of Erwinia chrysanthemi strains from several hosts in the Netherlands. Phytopathology, 78(6):800-808

Kelman A, Person LH, Hebert TT, 1957. A bacterial stalk rot of irrigated corn in North Carolina. Plant Disease Reporter, 41:798-802

Lal S, Saxena SC, 1978. Bacterial stalk rot of maize: loss estimation and possibility of disease control by application of calcium hypochlorite, (Abstract). Indian Phytopathology, 31:120

Lal S, Thind BS, Payak MM, Renfro BL, 1970. Bacterial stalk rot of maize - resistance breeding and chemical control. Bulletin of the Indian Phytopathological Society, 6:24-27

Lin ChingYi, Huang ChiaoWen, Yang HongRen, Tsai ChiaHsin, Hsu SuiLi, Ni HuiFang, 2016. Rice bacterial foot rot disease caused by Dickeya zeae in Taiwan. Journal of Taiwan Agricultural Research, 65(2):207-217. http://www.tari.gov.tw/english/

Lopes CA, Stall RE, Bartz JA, 1986. Bacterial stalk and top rot of maize in Florida caused by Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. zeae. Plant Disease, 70(3):259

Martinez-Cisneros BA, Juarez-Lopez G, Valencia-Torres N, Duran-Peralta E, Mezzalama M, 2014. First report of bacterial stalk rot of maize caused by Dickeya zeae in Mexico. Plant Disease, 98(9):1267. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Masumi M, Izadpanah K, 1988. Occurrence of bacterial stalk rot of maize in Fars Province. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 24(1-4):29-30

Mauritius, Ministry of Agriculture & Natural Resources, 1972. Annual Report of the Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Mauritius, for 1969. Annual Report of the Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Mauritius, for 1969., 113 pp

McGee DC, 1988. Maize diseases. A reference source for seed technologists. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA; APS Press, 149 pp

Myung IS, Jeong IH, Moon SY, Kim WG, Lee SW, Lee YH, Lee YK, Shim HS, Ra DS, 2010. First report of bacterial stalk rot of sweet corn caused by Dickeya zeae in Korea. New Disease Reports, 22:Article 15. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=22015

Nikitina KV, Yakushevskii ES, Sukhotskaya NP, 1976. Bacterial diseases of sorghum and Sudan grass under conditions in Kuban'. Trudy po Prikladnoi Botanike, Genetike i Selektsii, 57(3):119-132

Noval C, 1989. Bacterial diseases of Gramineae in Spain. Bulletin OEPP, 19(1):131-135

Otta JD, Wood LS, 1977. Occurrence in South Dakota of a bacterial stalk rot of corn caused by Erwinia chrysanthemi. Plant Disease Reporter, 61(7):536-537

Parkinson N, Stead D, Bew J, Heeney J, Tsror L, Elphinstone J, 2009. Dickeya species relatedness and clade structure determined by comparison of recA sequences. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 59(10):2388-2393. http://ijs.sgmjournals.org

Pauer GD, 1964. Erwinia carotovora f. sp. zeae, the bacterium causing stalk rot of maize in the Republic of South Africa. South African Journal of Agricultural Science, 7:581-582

Prasad M, Sinha SK, 1977. Application and standardization of various procedures for inoculation of maize by Erwinia carotovora f. sp. zeae. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene, 2, 132(1):75-80

Prasad M, Sinha SK, 1978. Serologic studies of the maize stalk rot pathogen Erwinia carotovora f.sp. zeae. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene, 2, 133(1):80-85

Pu XM, Zhou JN, Lin BR, Shen HF, 2012. First report of bacterial foot rot of rice caused by a Dickeya zeae in China. Plant Disease, 96(12):1818. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Rahnema I, Djerbi M, Ghodbane A, Daaloul A, Varughese G, Conti M, Forche S, Piglionica V, Bottalico A, Siniscalco A, Gigante F, Frisullo S-Martinez, M. , Branas M, Salazar J, Basile R, Signoret PA, Leclant F, Alliot B, Lapierre H, Moreau JC, Molin G, El-Sawah MY, Ziedan MI, Abdel-Rahim MF, Hassan MMR, Panic M, Ilic B, Ivanovic M, Maric A, Balaz F, Zarkovic Z, Spehar V, Vlahovic.V, Koric B, Smiljakovic H, Pencic V, 1976. Diseases of cereals in the Mediterranean region. Poljoprivredna Znanstvena Smotra, 131-244

Rangarajan M, Chakravarti BP, 1970a. Studies on the survival of corn stalk rot bacteria. Plant and Soil, 33:140-144

Rangarajan M, Chakravarti BP, 1970b. Bacterial stalk rot of maize in Rajasthan, effect on seed germination and varietal susceptibility. Indian Phytopathology, 23:470-477

Reifschneider FJB, Lopes CA, 1982. Bacterial top and stalk rot of maize in Brazil. Plant Disease, 66(6):519-520

Rivera N, Garcia A, Gil CL, 1980. Pathotype characterization of Erwinia chrysanthemi isolates from banana and maize. Ciencia y Tecnia en la Agricultura, Proteccion de Plantas, 3(2/3):47-60

Sabet KA, 1954. A new bacterial disease of maize in Egypt. The Empire Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 22(85):65-67

Sabet KA, 1957. A note on the identity of a bacterium causing stalk rot and leaf blight of maize in Southern Rhodesia. The Empire Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 25:165-166

Sabet KA, Samra AS, El-Shafey HA, 1964. On the systematic position of the coliform bacteria responsible for stalk rot of maize. Annals of Applied Biology, 53:267-274

Sah DN, 1991. Influence of environmental factors on infection of maize (Zea mays L.) by Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. zeae. Journal of the Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, 12:41-45

Samson R, Legendre JB, Christen R, Fischer-le Saux M, Achouak W, Gardan L, 2005. Transfer of Pectobacterium chrysanthemi (Burkholder et al. 1953) Brenner et al. 1973 and Brenneria paradisiaca to the genus Dickeya gen. nov. as Dickeya chrysanthemi comb. nov. and Dickeya paradisiaca comb. nov. and delineation of four novel species, Dickeya dadantii sp. nov., Dickeya dianthicola sp. nov., Dickeya dieffenbachiae sp. nov. and Dickeya zeae sp. nov. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 55(4):1415-1427

Samson R, Nassan-Agha N, 1978. Biovars and serovars among 129 strains of Erwinia chrysanthemi. Proceedings of the IVth International Conference on Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. Vol. II. Sta. Path. Veg. Phytobact. Angers, France: INRA, 547-553

Samson R, Paulin JP, Lachaud G, Gay JP, Cassini R, 1974. Bacterial stalk rot of maize in France. Annales de Phytopathologie, 6(3):349-352

Saxena SC, Lal S, 1981. Effect of fertilizer application on the incidence of bacterial stalk rot of maize. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 11(2):164-168

Saxena SC, Lal S, 1984. Use of meteorological factors in prediction of Erwinia stalk rot of maize. Tropical Pest Management, 30(1):82-85

Saxena SC, Sangam Lal, 1986. Survival of Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. zeae in soil. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 16(1):37-41

Saxena SC, Sangham Lal, 1987. A standardized isolation technique for Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. zeae. Indian Journal of Plant Pathology, 5(1):8-9

Sinha SK, Prasad M, 1977. Bacterial stalk rot of maize, its symptoms and host-range. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene, 2, 132(1):81-88

Slawiak M, Beckhoven JRCMvan, Speksnijder AGCL, Czajkowski R, Grabe G, Wolf JMvan der, 2009. Biochemical and genetical analysis reveal a new clade of biovar 3 Dickeya spp. strains isolated from potato in Europe. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 125(2):245-261. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100265

Smith C, Bartz JA, 1990. Variation in the pathogenicity and aggressiveness of strains of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora isolated from different hosts. Plant Disease, 74(7):505-509

Soni PS, Thind BS, 1985. Factors affecting absorption, translocation and persistence of antibiotics in maize plants. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 15(3):265-268

Soni PS, Thind BS, 1989. Absorption, translocation and persistence of streptocycline and agrimycin-100 in maize plants. Annals of Biology (Ludhiana), 5(1):61-67

Stead DE, Parkinson N, Bew J, Hennessy J, Wilson JK, Elphinstone JG, 2010. The first record of Dickeya zeae in the UK. Plant Pathology, 59(2):401. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa

Takeuchi T, Kodama F, 1992. Bacterial stalk rot of corn caused by Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. zeae (Sabet) Victoria, Arboleda et Munoz occurred in Hokkaido, Japan. Annual Report of the Society of Plant Protection of North Japan, No. 43:42-44

Thind BS, Nirmaljit Singh, 1976. Maize borer (Chilo partellus (Swinhoe)) as carrier of Erwinia carotovora var. zeae, the causal agent of bacterial stalk rot of maize. Current Science, 45(3):117-118

Thind BS, Payak MM, 1978. Epidemiological studies of bacterial stalk rot of maize (Zea mays L.) incited by Erwinia chrysanthemi Burkh. et al. corn pathotype. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 17(1):59-62

Thind BS, Payak MM, 1978. Evaluation of maize germplasm and estimation of losses to Erwinia stalk rot. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(4):319-323

Thind BS, Payak MM, 1985. A review of bacterial stalk rot of maize in India. Tropical Pest Management, 31(4):311-316

Thind BS, Randhawa PS, Soni PS, 1984. Chemical control of bacterial stalk rot (Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. zeae) and leaf stripe (Pseudomonas rubrilineans) of maize. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 91(4):424-430

Thind BS, Soni PS, 1983. Persistence of chlorine in maize plants and soil in relation to control of bacterial stalk rot of maize. Indian Phytopathology, 36(4):687-690

Thompson DL, 1965. Control of bacterial stalk rot of corn by chlorination of water in sprinkler irrigation. Crop Science, 5:369-370

Victoria JI, Arboleda F, Munoz S, 1975. Soft rot of maize (Zea mays L.) stalks in Colombia. Noticias Fitopatologicas, 4(2):136-147

Vroemen S, Heldens J, Boyd C, Henrissat B, Keen NT, 1995. Cloning and characterization of the bgxA gene from Erwinia chrysanthemi D1 which encodes a -glucosidase/xylosidase enzyme. Molecular and General Genetics, 246(4):465-477

Wang JS, 1987. Resistance of rice cultivars to Erwinia chrysanthemi and pathogen differentiation. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 20(3):93

Wang JS, Yang XY, 1991. Comparative study on the causal bacteria of rice foot rot and maize stalk rot. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica, 21(3):181-185

Woodward MD, Corcuera LJ, Helgeson JP, Kelman A, Upper CD, 1978. Factors that influence the activity of 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one on Erwinia species in growth assays. Plant Physiology, 61(5):803-805

Yang, Q. Y., Jiang, S. B., Zhang, J. X., Shen, H. F., Sun, D. Y., Pu, X. M., Lin, B. R., 2019. First report of Dickeya zeae causing bacterial soft rot on Canna edulis in China. Plant Disease, 103(1), 146. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-04-18-0616-PDN

Young JM, Park DC, 2007. Relationships of plant pathogenic enterobacteria based on partial atpD, carA, and recA as individual and concatenated nucleotide and peptide sequences. Systematic and Applied Microbiology, 30(5):343-354. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/07232020

Zachos DG, Panagopoulos CG, Makris SA, 1963. A disease of maize in Greece caused by Erwinia carotovora (Jones) Holland. Annales de l'Institut Phytopathologique Benaki Nouvelle Serie, 5:288-293

Zhang JingXin, Shen HuiFang, Pu XiaoMing, Lin BiRun, Hu J, 2014. Identification of Dickeya zeae as a causal agent of bacterial soft rot in banana in China. Plant Disease, 98(4):436-442. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Distribution References

Aeny T N, Suharjo R, Ginting C, Hapsoro D, Niswati A, 2020. Characterization and host range assessment of Dickeya zeae associated with pineapple soft rot disease in East Lampung, Indonesia. Biodiversitas: Journal of Biological Diversity. 21 (2), 587-595.

Banapoor A, Amani G, 1986. Occurence of stalk rot of maize in Iran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology. 22 (1-4), 46.

Boewe G H, 1949. Bacterial stalk rot of Corn in Illinois. Plant Disease Reporter. 33 (9), 342-343 pp.

Bradbury J F, 1977. Erwinia chrysanthemi. [Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria]. In: IMI Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Sheet 553.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Cother E J, Powell V, 1983. Physiological and pathological characteristics of Erwinia chrysanthemi isolates from potato tubers. Journal of Applied Bacteriology. 54 (1), 37-43.

Ebron L A, Tolentino M S, Lantin M M, 1987. Screening for bacterial stalk rot resistance in corn. Philippine Journal of Crop Science. 12 (1), 31-32.

Ferreira-Pinto M M, Cruz M L, Oliveira H, 1994. The occurrence in Portugal of the bacterial disease of maize crops caused by Erwinia chrysanthemi. Plant Pathology. 43 (6), 1050-1054. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.1994.tb01657.x

Goto M, 1979. Bacterial foot rot of rice caused by a strain of Erwinia chrysanthemi. Phytopathology. 69 (3), 213-216. DOI:10.1094/Phyto-69-213

Hepperly P R, Ramos-Dávila E, 1987. Erwinia chrysanthemi Burk., McFaddan & Dimock: a bacterial whorl and stalk rot pathogen of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.]. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico. 71 (3), 265-275.

Hiryati A, 1982. Studies of bacterial stalk rot disease of corn. Pertanika. 5 (1), 84-89.

IRAT, 1983. IRAT-Reunion. Annual report 1983., St. Denis, Reunion, IRAT.

Janse J D, Ruissen M A, 1988. Characterization and classification of Erwinia chrysanthemi strains from several hosts in the Netherlands. Phytopathology. 78 (6), 800-808. DOI:10.1094/Phyto-78-800

KELMAN A , PERSON L H , HEBERT T T, 1957. A bacterial stalk rot of irrigated Corn in North Carolina. Plant Disease Reporter. 41 (9), 798-802 pp.

Lin ChingYi, Huang ChiaoWen, Yang HongRen, Tsai ChiaHsin, Hsu SuiLi, Ni HuiFang, 2016. Rice bacterial foot rot disease caused by Dickeya zeae in Taiwan. Journal of Taiwan Agricultural Research. 65 (2), 207-217. http://www.tari.gov.tw/english/

Martinez-Cisneros B A, Juarez-Lopez G, Valencia-Torres N, Duran-Peralta E, Mezzalama M, 2014. First report of bacterial stalk rot of maize caused by Dickeya zeae in Mexico. Plant Disease. 98 (9), 1267. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-02-14-0198-PDN

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