Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

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Dickeya zeae
(bacterial stalk rot of maize)

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Datasheet

Dickeya zeae (bacterial stalk rot of maize)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 17 January 2022
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Dickeya zeae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • bacterial stalk rot of maize
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •     Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •       Order: Enterobacteriales
  •         Family: Enterobacteriaceae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Dickeya zeae is a Gram-negative bacterial plant pathogen that causes soft rot decay and maceration of fleshy tissues of many annual crops, fruits and ornamental plants. Pathogenicity of D. zeae is driven by a set of pectolytic en...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Dickeya zeae (bacterial stalk rot of maize); Damage to plant stem.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionDickeya zeae (bacterial stalk rot of maize); Damage to plant stem.
Copyright©Dr Ebrahim Osdaghi, University of Tehran, Iran
Dickeya zeae (bacterial stalk rot of maize); Damage to plant stem.
SymptomsDickeya zeae (bacterial stalk rot of maize); Damage to plant stem.©Dr Ebrahim Osdaghi, University of Tehran, Iran
Dickeya zeae (bacterial stalk rot of maize); Damage to plant stem.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionDickeya zeae (bacterial stalk rot of maize); Damage to plant stem.
Copyright©Dr Ebrahim Osdaghi, University of Tehran, Iran
Dickeya zeae (bacterial stalk rot of maize); Damage to plant stem.
SymptomsDickeya zeae (bacterial stalk rot of maize); Damage to plant stem.©Dr Ebrahim Osdaghi, University of Tehran, Iran
Dickeya zeae (bacterial stalk rot of maize); Foliar symptoms.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionDickeya zeae (bacterial stalk rot of maize); Foliar symptoms.
Copyright©Dr Ebrahim Osdaghi, University of Tehran, Iran
Dickeya zeae (bacterial stalk rot of maize); Foliar symptoms.
SymptomsDickeya zeae (bacterial stalk rot of maize); Foliar symptoms.©Dr Ebrahim Osdaghi, University of Tehran, Iran
Dickeya zeae (bacterial stalk rot of maize); Foliar symptoms.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionDickeya zeae (bacterial stalk rot of maize); Foliar symptoms.
Copyright©Dr Ebrahim Osdaghi, University of Tehran, Iran
Dickeya zeae (bacterial stalk rot of maize); Foliar symptoms.
SymptomsDickeya zeae (bacterial stalk rot of maize); Foliar symptoms.©Dr Ebrahim Osdaghi, University of Tehran, Iran
Dickeya zeae (bacterial stalk rot of maize); Stalk rot on plant stem
TitleSymptoms
CaptionDickeya zeae (bacterial stalk rot of maize); Stalk rot on plant stem
CopyrightISU
Dickeya zeae (bacterial stalk rot of maize); Stalk rot on plant stem
SymptomsDickeya zeae (bacterial stalk rot of maize); Stalk rot on plant stemISU

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Dickeya zeae Samson et al.

Preferred Common Name

  • bacterial stalk rot of maize

Other Scientific Names

  • Bacterium carotovorum f.sp. zeae Sabet
  • Erwinia carotovora (Jones) Bergey et al.
  • Erwinia carotovora f.sp. zeae Sabet
  • Erwinia carotovora var. chrysanthemi (Burkholder et al.) Dye
  • Erwinia chrysanthemi (Burkholder et al.) Young et al.
  • Erwinia chrysanthemi corn pathotype Dye
  • Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. zeae (Sabet) Victoria et al.
  • Erwinia maydis Kelman et al.
  • Pectobacterium carotovorum f.sp. zeae (Sabet) Dowson
  • Pectobacterium carotovorum var. graminarum Dowson & Hayward
  • Pectobacterium chrysanthemi (Burkholder et al.) Brenner et al. emend. Hauben et al.
  • Pectobacterium chrysanthemi pv. zeae Kelman

International Common Names

  • English: bacterial wilt and soft rot of pineapple, Musa sp., chrysanthemum, dieffenbachia and other ornamentals; blackleg and bacterial soft rot of potato; rice bacterial foot rot; stalk rot of maize, rice and wheat

Local Common Names

  • Australia: bacterial top rot
  • USA: Rosen's disease; southern stalk rot

EPPO Code

  • ERWIZE

Summary of Invasiveness

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Dickeya zeae is a Gram-negative bacterial plant pathogen that causes soft rot decay and maceration of fleshy tissues of many annual crops, fruits and ornamental plants. Pathogenicity of D. zeae is driven by a set of pectolytic enzymes while two structurally similar polyketide molecules, zeamine and zeamine II, have a determinative role in the virulence and host range of the pathogen on different plant species. Zeamines are also important phytotoxins which inhibit rice (Oryza sativa) seed germination and accelerate disease symptom development in potato (Solanum tuberosum) and Chinese cabbages (Brassica pekinensis). The bacterium prefers high temperature and moisture for disease development. Due to the taxonomic complexities within the members of pectolytic erwinias, the exact host range of D. zeae as well as its geographic distribution are unclear. While maize (Zea mays) is the main economic host of the pathogen, it has recently been observed infecting banana (Musa), rice and sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) leading to significant yield losses.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •         Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •             Order: Enterobacteriales
  •                 Family: Enterobacteriaceae
  •                     Genus: Dickeya
  •                         Species: Dickeya zeae

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 21 Jul 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

ComorosPresent
EgyptPresent
MauritiusPresent
RéunionPresent
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-GuangdongPresent
-GuangxiPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-ShanghaiPresent
IndiaPresent
IndonesiaPresentEast Lampung.
IranPresent
JapanPresent
-HokkaidoPresent
MalaysiaPresent
North KoreaPresent
PakistanPresent, LocalizedOnly recorded in Punjab.
PhilippinesPresent
South KoreaPresent
TaiwanPresent

Europe

FrancePresent
GermanyPresent
GreecePresent
ItalyPresent
NetherlandsPresent
PortugalPresent
RussiaPresent
SpainPresent
SwitzerlandPresent
United KingdomPresent

North America

Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent
HondurasPresent
JamaicaPresent
MexicoPresent2011
PanamaPresent
Puerto RicoPresent
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-ArkansasPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-IllinoisPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-South DakotaPresent
-WisconsinPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresent
Cook IslandsPresent
New ZealandPresent

South America

BrazilPresent
ColombiaPresent
GuyanaPresent

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedProtected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / extensive mould
Fruit / odour
Inflorescence / blight; necrosis
Inflorescence / dieback
Inflorescence / discoloration panicle
Inflorescence / rot
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / wilting
Roots / cortex with lesions
Seeds / rot
Stems / dieback
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / distortion
Stems / internal red necrosis
Stems / ooze
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Whole plant / external feeding
Whole plant / internal feeding
Whole plant / unusual odour
Whole plant / uprooted or toppled

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop production Yes Yes
Cut flower trade Yes Yes
Horticulture Yes Yes
Interbasin transfers Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Fast growing
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Damages animal/plant products
Impact mechanisms
  • Pathogenic
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

References

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Aeny, T.N., Suharjo, R., Ginting, C., Hapsoro, D., Niswati, A., 2020. Characterization and host range assessment of Dickeya zeae associated with pineapple soft rot disease in East Lampung, Indonesia. Biodiversitas: Journal of Biological Diversity, 21(2):587-595. DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d210221

Ahmad, Y., Mirza, M.S., Ghaffar, A., 2000. Pathogens associated with stalk rot of corn in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 32(2):251-253.

Banapoor, A., Amani, G., 1986. Occurrence of stalk rot of maize in Iran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 22(1-4):46

Bazzi, C., Mazzucchi, U., 1978. Attacks of bacterial stalk rot of maize in sprinkler irrigated crops. (Attacchi di marciume batterico al fusto di mais in coltura irrigua). In: Piglionica, V. (Co-ordinator): Reports on activities under the sub-project "Phytiatry of wheat, maize and sorghum". (Rapporti sull' attivita svolta nell'ambito del subprogetto "Fitoiatria del frumento, del mais e del sorgo"). Rome, Italy: Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Progetto Finalizzato Fitofarmaci e Fitoregolatori. 79-84.

Bertani, I., Silva, D. P. da, Abbruscato, P., Piffanelli, P., Venturi, V., 2013. Draft genome sequence of the plant pathogen Dickeya zeae DZ2Q, isolated from rice in Italy. Genome Announcements, 1(6):e00905-13. http://genomea.asm.org/content/1/6/e00905-13.full

Boccara, M., Vedel, R., Lalo, D., Lebrun, M.H., Lafay, J.F., 1991. Genetic diversity and host range in strains of Erwinia chrysanthemi. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 4(3):293-299. DOI: 10.1094/MPMI-4-293

Boewe, G.H., 1949. Bacterial stalk rot of corn in Illinois. Plant Disease Reporter, 33(9):342-343.

Boluk, G., Arizala, D., Dobhal, S., Zhanag, J., Hu, J., Alvarez, A.M., Arif, M., 2021. Genomic and phenotypic biology of novel strains of Dickeya zeae isolated from pineapple and taro in Hawaii: insights into genome plasticity, pathogenicity, and virulence determinants. Frontiers in Plant Science, 12:Article 663851. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.663851

Bradbury, J.F., 1977. Erwinia chrysanthemi. [Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria]. In: IMI Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria, 56. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Sheet 553. DOI: 10.1079/DFB/20056400553

Bradbury, J.F., 1986. Guide to plant pathogenic bacteria. Farnham Royal, Slough, UK: CAB International. xviii + 332 pp.

Brady, C.L., Cleenwerck, I., Denman, S., Venter, S.N., Rodríguez-Palenzuela, P., Coutinho, T.A., Vos, P. de, 2012. Proposal to reclassify Brenneria quercina (Hildebrand and Schroth 1967) Hauben et al. 1999 into a new genus, Lonsdalea gen. nov., as Lonsdalea quercina comb, nov., descriptions of Lonsdalea quercina subsp. quercina comb, nov., Lonsdalea quercina subsp. iberica subsp. nov. and Lonsdalea quercina subsp. britannica subsp. nov., emendation of the description of the genus Brenneria, reclassification of Dickeya dieffenbachiae as Dickeya dadantii subsp. dieffenbachiae comb, nov., and emendation of the description of Dickeya dadantii. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 62(7):1592-1602. DOI: 10.1099/ijs.0.035055-0

Brenner, D.J., Fanning, G.R., Steigerwalt, A.G., 1977. Deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness among Erwiniae and other enterobacteria II. Corn stalk rot bacterium and Pectobacterium chrysanthemi. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 27(3):211-221.

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Burkholder, W.H., Mcfadden, L.A., Dlmock, A.W., 1953. A bacterial blight of chrysanthemums. Phytopathology, 43:522-526.

Cheng, Y.Y., Liao, L.S., Chang, C.Q., Zhou, J.N., Deng, Y.Y., Zhang, L.H., 2016. A Sfp-type phosphopantetheinyl transferase ZmsO is essential for zeamines production and the virulence of Dickeya zeae. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 146(4):937-948. DOI: 10.1007/s10658-016-0971-1

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Dickey, R.S., Victoria, J.I., 1980. Taxonomy and emended description of strains of Erwinia isolated from Musa paradisiaca Linnaeus. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 30(1):129-134.

Divinagracia-Laysa, F., Exconde, O.R., 1981. Virulence and aggressiveness of Erwinia carotovora var. chrysanthemi Dye isolates on maize. Philippine Agriculturist, 64(4):307-322.

Dye, D.W., 1969. A taxonomic study of the genus Erwinia. III. The 'herbicola' group. New Zealand Journal of Science, 12(2):223-236.

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El-Helaly, A.F., Abo-El-Dahab, M.K., El-Goorani, M.A., Gabr, M.R.M., 1978. Identification of Erwinia sp. causing stalk rot of maize in Egypt. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene, 2, 133(7/8):680-685.

Feng, L.W., Schaefer, A.L., Hu, M., Chen, R.Y., Greenberg, E.P., Zhou, J.N., 2019. Virulence factor identification in the banana pathogen Dickeya zeae MS2. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 85(23). DOI: 10.1128/AEM.01611-19

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Gabr, M.R.M., Moustafa, A.K., 1983. Bacterial stalk rot of maize, isolation, identification and some physiological studies. Annals of Agricultural Science, Moshtohor, 19(1):131-147.

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Guan, Y., Chen, W., Wu, Y.X., Hu, Y.X., Wang, H., He, Z., Zheng, H.J., 2020. First report of corn stalk rot caused by Dickeya zeae on sweet corn in Shanghai, China. Journal of Plant Pathology, 102(2):557-558. DOI: 10.1007/s42161-019-00447-8

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Hu, M., Li, J.L., Chen, R.T., Li, W.J., Feng, L.W., Shi, L., Xue, Y., Feng, X.Y., Zhang, L.H., Zhou, J.N., 2018. Dickeya zeae strains isolated from rice, banana and clivia rot plants show great virulence differentials. BMC Microbiology, 18(136):(18 October 2018). DOI: 10.1186/s12866-018-1300-y

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Otta, J.D., Wood, L.S., 1977. Occurrence in South Dakota of a bacterial stalk rot of corn caused by Erwinia chrysanthemi. Plant Disease Reporter, 61(7):536-537.

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Pauer, G.D., 1964. Erwinia carotovora f. sp. zeae, the bacterium causing stalk rot of maize in the Republic of South Africa. South African Journal of Agricultural Science, 7(3):581-582.

Prasad, M., Sinha, S.K., 1977. Application and standardization of various procedures for inoculation of maize by Erwinia carotovora f. sp. zeae. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene, 2, 132(1):75-80.

Prasad, M., Sinha, S.K., 1978. Serologic studies of the maize stalk rot pathogen Erwinia carotovora f.sp. zeae. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene, 2, 133(1):80-85.

Pritchard, L., Humphris, S., Saddler, G.S., Elphinstone, J.G., Pirhonen, M., Toth, I.K., 2013. Draft genome sequences of 17 isolates of the plant pathogenic bacterium Dickeya. Genome Announcements, 1(6):e00978-13. http://genomea.asm.org/content/1/6/e00978-13.full

Prokić, A., Zlatković, N., Kuzmanović, N., Ivanović, M., Gašić, K., Pavlović, Obradović, A., 2020. Identification and characterization of Dickeya zeae strains associated with maize stalk soft-rot in northern Serbia. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 157(3):685-691. DOI: 10.1007/s10658-020-02019-4

Pu, X.M., Zhou, J.N., Lin, B.R., Shen, H.F., 2012. First report of bacterial foot rot of rice caused by a Dickeya zeae in China. Plant Disease, 96(12):1818. DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-03-12-0315-PDN

Rahnema, I., Djerbi, M., Ghodbane, A., Daaloul, A., Varughese, G., Conti, M., Forche, S., Piglionica, V., Bottalico, A., Siniscalco, A., Gigante, F., Frisullo, S, Martinez, M., Branas, M., Salazar, J., Basile, R., Signoret, P.A., Leclant, F., Alliot, B., Lapierre, H., Moreau, J.C., Molin, G., El-Sawah, M.Y., Ziedan, M.I., Abdel-Rahim, M.F., Hassan, M.M.R., Panic, M., Ilic, B., Ivanovic, M., Maric, A., Balaz, F., Zarkovic, Z., Spehar, V., Vlahovic, V., Koric, B., Smiljakovic, H., Pencic, V., 1976. Diseases of cereals in the Mediterranean region. Poljoprivredna Znanstvena Smotra, 131-244.

Rangarajan, M., Chakravarti, B.P., 1970a. Studies on the survival of corn stalk rot bacteria. Plant and Soil, 33:140-144. DOI: 10.1007/BF01378206

Rangarajan, M., Chakravarti, B.P., 1970b. Bacterial stalk rot of maize in Rajasthan, effect on seed germination and varietal susceptibility. Indian Phytopathology, 23(3):470-477.

Reifschneider, F.J.B., Lopes, C.A., 1982. Bacterial top and stalk rot of maize in Brazil. Plant Disease, 66(6):519-520. DOI: 10.1094/PD-66-519

Rivera, N., Garcia, A., Gil, C.L., 1980. Pathotype characterization of Erwinia chrysanthemi isolates from banana and maize. (Caracterizacion patotipica de aislamientos de Erwinia chrysanthemi procedentes de platano y maiz). Ciencia y Tecnica en la Agricultura, Proteccion de Plantas, 3(2/3):47-60.

Sabet, K.A., 1954. A new bacterial disease of maize in Egypt. Empire Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 22(85):65-67.

Sabet, K.A., 1957. A note on the identity of a bacterium causing stalk rot and leaf blight of maize in Southern Rhodesia. Empire Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 25(98):165-166.

Sabet, K.A., Samra, A.S., El-Shafey, H.A., 1964. On the systematic position of the coliform bacteria responsible for stalk rot of maize. Annals of Applied Biology, 53(2):267-274. DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7348.1964.tb03801.x

Sah, D.N., 1991. Influence of environmental factors on infection of maize (Zea mays L.) by Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. zeae. Journal of the Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, 12:41-45.

Samson, R., Legendre, J.B., Christen, R., Fischer-le Saux, M., Achouak, W., Gardan, L., 2005. Transfer of Pectobacterium chrysanthemi (Burkholder et al. 1953) Brenner et al. 1973 and Brenneria paradisiaca to the genus Dickeya gen. nov. as Dickeya chrysanthemi comb. nov. and Dickeya paradisiaca comb. nov. and delineation of four novel species, Dickeya dadantii sp. nov., Dickeya dianthicola sp. nov., Dickeya dieffenbachiae sp. nov. and Dickeya zeae sp. nov. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 55(4):1415-1427. DOI: 10.1099/ijs.0.02791-0

Samson, R., Nassan-Agha, N., 1978. Biovars and serovars among 129 strains of Erwinia chrysanthemi. In: Proceedings of the IVth International Conference on Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. Vol. II. Angers, France: Sta. Path. Veg. Phytobact., INRA. 547-553.

Samson, R., Paulin, J.P., Lachaud, G., Gay, J.P., Cassini, R., 1974. Bacterial stalk rot of maize in France. (La pourriture bacterienne des tiges de mais en France). Annales de Phytopathologie, 6(3):349-352.

Samson, R., Poutier, F., Sailly, M., Jouan, B., 1987. Characterization of Erwinia chrysanthemi isolated from Solanum tuberosum and other host plants according to biovars and serogroups. (Caractérisation des Erwinia chrysanthemi isolées de Solanum tuberosum et d'autres plantes-hôtes selon les biovars at sérogroupes). In: Bulletin OEPP, 17(1). 11-16. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2338.1987.tb00002.x

Saxena, S.C., Lal, S., 1981. Effect of fertilizer application on the incidence of bacterial stalk rot of maize. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 11(2):164-168.

Saxena, S.C., Lal, S., 1984. Use of meteorological factors in prediction of Erwinia stalk rot of maize. Tropical Pest Management, 30(1):82-85.

Saxena, S.C., Lal, S., 1986. Survival of Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. zeae in soil. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 16(1):37-41.

Saxena, S.C., Lal, S., 1987. A standardized isolation technique for Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. zeae. Indian Journal of Plant Pathology, 5(1):8-9.

Sinha, S.K., Prasad, M., 1977. Bacterial stalk rot of maize, its symptoms and host-range. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene, 2, 132(1):81-88.

Sławiak, M., Beckhoven, J.R.C.M. van, Speksnijder, A.G.C.L., Czajkowski, R., Grabe, G., Wolf, J.M. van der, 2009. Biochemical and genetical analysis reveal a new clade of biovar 3 Dickeya spp. strains isolated from potato in Europe. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 125(2):245-261. DOI: 10.1007/s10658-009-9479-2

Smith, C., Bartz, J.A., 1990. Variation in the pathogenicity and aggressiveness of strains of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora isolated from different hosts. Plant Disease, 74(7):505-509. DOI: 10.1094/PD-74-0505

Soni, P.S., Thind, B.S., 1985. Factors affecting absorption, translocation and persistence of antibiotics in maize plants. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 15(3):265-268.

Soni, P.S., Thind, B.S., 1989. Absorption, translocation and persistence of streptocycline and agrimycin-100 in maize plants. Annals of Biology (Ludhiana), 5(1):61-67.

Stead, D.E., Parkinson, N., Bew, J., Hennessy, J., Wilson, J.K., Elphinstone, J.G., 2010. The first record of Dickeya zeae in the UK. Plant Pathology, 59(2):401. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2009.02113.x

Takeuchi, T., Kodama, F., 1992. Bacterial stalk rot of corn caused by Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. zeae (Sabet) Victoria, Arboleda et Muñoz occurred in Hokkaido, Japan. Annual Report of the Society of Plant Protection of North Japan, 43:42-44.

Thind, B.S., Payak, M.M., 1978a. Epidemiological studies of bacterial stalk rot of maize (Zea mays L.) incited by Erwinia chrysanthemi Burkh. et al. corn pathotype. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 17(1):59-62.

Thind, B.S., Payak, M.M., 1978b. Evaluation of maize germplasm and estimation of losses to Erwinia stalk rot. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(4):319-323.

Thind, B.S., Payak, M.M., 1985. A review of bacterial stalk rot of maize in India. Tropical Pest Management, 31(4):311-316.

Thind, B.S., Randhawa, P.S., Soni, P.S., 1984. Chemical control of bacterial stalk rot (Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. zeae) and leaf stripe (Pseudomonas rubrilineans) of maize. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 91(4):424-430.

Thind, B.S., Singh, N., 1976. Maize borer (Chilo partellus (Swinhoe)) as carrier of Erwinia carotovora var. zeae, the causal agent of bacterial stalk rot of maize. Current Science, 45(3):117-118.

Thind, B.S., Soni, P.S., 1983. Persistence of chlorine in maize plants and soil in relation to control of bacterial stalk rot of maize. Indian Phytopathology, 36(4):687-690.

Thompson, D.L., 1965. Control of bacterial stalk rot of corn by chlorination of water in sprinkler irrigation. Crop science, Madison, 5(4):369-370.

Thomson, S.V., Hildebrand, D.C., Schroth, M.N., 1981. Identification and nutritional differentiation of the Erwinia sugar beet pathogen from members of Erwinia carotovora and Erwinia chrysanthemi. Phytopathology, 71(10):1037-1042. DOI: 10.1094/Phyto-71-1037

Victoria, J.I., Arboleda, F., Munoz, S., 1975. Soft rot of maize (Zea mays L.) stalks in Colombia. (La pudricion suave del tallo de maiz (Zea mays L.) en Colombia). Noticias Fitopatologicas, 4(2):136-147.

Vroemen, S., Heldens, J., Boyd, C., Henrissat, B., Keen, N.T., 1995. Cloning and characterization of the bgxA gene from Erwinia chrysanthemi D1 which encodes a β-glucosidase/xylosidase enzyme. Molecular and General Genetics, 246(4):465-477. DOI: 10.1007/BF00290450

Waldee, E.L., 1945. Comparative studies of some peritrichous phytopathogenic bacteria. Iowa State College Journal of Science, 19(4):435-484.

Wang, J.S., 1987. Resistance of rice cultivars to Erwinia chrysanthemi and pathogen differentiation. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 20(3):93

Wang, J.S., Yang, X.Y., 1991. Comparative study on the causal bacteria of rice foot rot and maize stalk rot. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica, 21(3):181-185.

Winslow, C.E.A., Broadhurst, J., Buchanan, R.E., Krumwiede, C. Jr.,, Rogers, L.A., Smith, G.H., 1920. The families and genera of the bacteria. Final report of the committee of the Society of American Bacteriologists on characterization and classification of bacterial types. Journal of Bacteriology, 5:191-229.

Woodward, M.D., Corcuera, L.J., Helgeson, J.P., Kelman, A., Upper, C.D., 1978. Factors that influence the activity of 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one on Erwinia species in growth assays. Plant Physiology, 61(5):803-805. DOI: 10.1104/pp.61.5.803

Yang, Q.Y., Jiang, S.B., Zhang, J.X., Shen, H.F., Sun, D.Y., Pu, X.M., Lin, B.R., 2019. First report of Dickeya zeae causing bacterial soft rot on Canna edulis in China. Plant Disease, 103(1):146. DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-04-18-0616-PDN

Yang, Y.C., Yao, Z.T., Zhang, M.Q., Zou, C.W., Chen, B.S., 2021. First report of stalk bacterial soft rot of sugarcane caused by Dickeya zeae in China. Plant Disease, 105(4):1188. DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-10-20-2234-PDN

Young, J.M., Dye, D.W., Bradbury, J.F., Panagopoulos, C.G., Robbs, C.F., 1978. A proposed nomenclature and classification for plant pathogenic bacteria. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 21(1):153-177.

Young, J.M., Park, D.C., 2007. Relationships of plant pathogenic enterobacteria based on partial atpD, carA, and recA as individual and concatenated nucleotide and peptide sequences. Systematic and Applied Microbiology, 30(5):343-354. DOI: 10.1016/j.syapm.2007.03.002

Young, J.M., Saddler, G.S., Takikawa, Y., Boer, S.H. de, Vauterin, L., Gardan, L., Gvozdyak, R.I., Stead, D.E., 1996. Names of plant pathogenic bacteria 1864-1995. Review of Plant Pathology, 75(9):721-763.

Zachos, D.G., Panagopoulos, C.G., Makris, S.A., 1963. A disease of maize in Greece caused by Erwinia carotovora (Jones) Holland. Annales de l'Institut Phytopathologique Benaki, 5(3):288-293.

Zhang, J.X., Shen, H.F., Pu, X.M., Lin, B.R., Hu, J., 2014. Identification of Dickeya zeae as a causal agent of bacterial soft rot in banana in China. Plant Disease, 98(4):436-442. DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-07-13-0711-RE

Zhou, J.N., Cheng, Y.Y., Lv, M.F., Liao, L.S., Chen, Y.F., Gu, Y.F., Liu, S.Y., Jiang, Z.D., Xiong, Y.Y., Zhang, L.H., 2015. The complete genome sequence of Dickeya zeae EC1 reveals substantial divergence from other Dickeya strains and species. BMC Genomics, 16(571):(4 August 2015). http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/16/571

Distribution References

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Pritchard L, Humphris S, Saddler G S, Elphinstone J G, Pirhonen M, Toth I K, 2013. Draft genome sequences of 17 isolates of the plant pathogenic bacterium Dickeya. Genome Announcements. 1 (6), e00978-13. http://genomea.asm.org/content/1/6/e00978-13.full

Pu X M, Zhou J N, Lin B R, Shen H F, 2012. First report of bacterial foot rot of rice caused by a Dickeya zeae in China. Plant Disease. 96 (12), 1818. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-03-12-0315-PDN

Reifschneider F J B, Lopes C A, 1982. Bacterial top and stalk rot of maize in Brazil. Plant Disease. 66 (6), 519-520. DOI:10.1094/PD-66-519

Rivera N, Garcıacute˜a A, Gil C L, 1980. Pathotype characterization of Erwinia chrysanthemi isolates from banana and maize. (Caracterización patotıacute˜pica de aislamientos de Erwinia chrysanthemi procedentes de plátano y maıacute˜z.). Ciencia y Técnia en la Agricultura, Protección de Plantas. 3 (2/3), 47-60.

Sabet K A, 1957. A note on the identity of a bacterium causing stalk rot and leaf blight of Maize in Southern Rhodesia. Empire Journal of Experimental Agriculture. 25 (98), 165-166 pp.

Samson R, Paulin J P, Lachaud G, Gay J P, Cassini R, 1974. Bacterial stalk rot of maize in France. (La pourriture bacterienne des tiges de mais en France.). Annales de Phytopathologie. 6 (3), 349-352.

Smith C, Bartz J A, 1990. Variation in the pathogenicity and aggressiveness of strains of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora isolated from different hosts. Plant Disease. 74 (7), 505-509. DOI:10.1094/PD-74-0505

Stead D E, Parkinson N, Bew J, Hennessy J, Wilson J K, Elphinstone J G, 2010. The first record of Dickeya zeae in the UK. Plant Pathology. 59 (2), 401. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2009.02113.x

Takeuchi T, Kodama F, 1992. Bacterial stalk rot of corn caused by Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. zeae (Sabet) Victoria, Arboleda et Muñoz occurred in Hokkaido, Japan. Annual Report of the Society of Plant Protection of North Japan. 42-44.

Thind B S, Payak M M, 1985. A review of bacterial stalk rot of maize in India. Tropical Pest Management. 31 (4), 311-316.

Victoria J I, Arboleda F, Munoz S, 1975. Soft rot of maize (Zea mays L.) stalks in Colombia. (La pudricion suave del tallo de maiz (Zea mays L.) en Colombia.). Noticias Fitopatologicas. 4 (2), 136-147.

Wang J S, Yang X Y, 1991. Comparative study on the causal bacteria of rice foot rot and maize stalk rot. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica. 21 (3), 181-185.

Woodward M D, Corcuera L J, Helgeson J P, Kelman A, Upper C D, 1978. Factors that influence the activity of 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one on Erwinia species in growth assays. Plant Physiology. 61 (5), 803-805. DOI:10.1104/pp.61.5.803

Yang Q Y, Jiang S B, Zhang J X, Shen H F, Sun D Y, Pu X M, Lin B R, 2019. First report of Dickeya zeae causing bacterial soft rot on Canna edulis in China. Plant Disease. 103 (1), 146. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-18-0616-PDN

Yang YanChang, Yao ZiTing, Zhang MuQing, Zou ChengWu, Chen BaoShan, 2021. First report of stalk bacterial soft rot of sugarcane caused by Dickeya zeae in China. Plant Disease. 105 (4), 1188-1188. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-20-2234-PDN

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Zachos D G, Panagopoulos C G, Makris S A, 1963. A disease of Maize in Greece caused by Erwinia carotovora (Jones) Holland. Annales de l'Institut Phytopathologique Benaki. 5 (3), 288-293.

Zhang JingXin, Shen HuiFang, Pu XiaoMing, Lin BiRun, Hu J, 2014. Identification of Dickeya zeae as a causal agent of bacterial soft rot in banana in China. Plant Disease. 98 (4), 436-442. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-13-0711-RE

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