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Pantoea stewartii
(bacterial wilt of maize)

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Datasheet

Pantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pantoea stewartii
  • Preferred Common Name
  • bacterial wilt of maize
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •     Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •       Order: Enterobacteriales
  •         Family: Enterobacteriaceae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Pantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); systemic infection.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionPantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); systemic infection.
Copyright©Jerald K. Pataky
Pantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); systemic infection.
Field symptomsPantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); systemic infection.©Jerald K. Pataky
Pantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); systemic infection of susceptible type.
TitleFiled symptoms
CaptionPantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); systemic infection of susceptible type.
Copyright©Jerald K. Pataky
Pantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); systemic infection of susceptible type.
Filed symptomsPantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); systemic infection of susceptible type.©Jerald K. Pataky
Pantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); systemic infection of susceptible type.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionPantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); systemic infection of susceptible type.
Copyright©Jerald K. Pataky
Pantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); systemic infection of susceptible type.
Field symptomsPantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); systemic infection of susceptible type.©Jerald K. Pataky
Pantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); Symptoms, showing a stunted maize plant
TitleSymptoms
CaptionPantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); Symptoms, showing a stunted maize plant
Copyright©CIMMYT
Pantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); Symptoms, showing a stunted maize plant
SymptomsPantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); Symptoms, showing a stunted maize plant©CIMMYT
Pantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); main stalk death - growth of tillers.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionPantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); main stalk death - growth of tillers.
Copyright©Jerald K. Pataky
Pantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); main stalk death - growth of tillers.
Field symptomsPantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); main stalk death - growth of tillers.©Jerald K. Pataky
Pantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); Northern corn leaf blight.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionPantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); Northern corn leaf blight.
Copyright©Jerald K. Pataky
Pantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); Northern corn leaf blight.
Field symptomsPantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); Northern corn leaf blight.©Jerald K. Pataky
Pantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); NCLB lesion and Stewarts wilt leaf lesion side by side in field situation.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionPantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); NCLB lesion and Stewarts wilt leaf lesion side by side in field situation.
Copyright©Jerald K. Pataky
Pantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); NCLB lesion and Stewarts wilt leaf lesion side by side in field situation.
Field symptomsPantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); NCLB lesion and Stewarts wilt leaf lesion side by side in field situation.©Jerald K. Pataky
Pantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); leaf streak on maize. Leaves show linear, pale-green to yellow streaks with irregular or wavy margins that run parallel to veins and may extend the length of the leaf.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionPantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); leaf streak on maize. Leaves show linear, pale-green to yellow streaks with irregular or wavy margins that run parallel to veins and may extend the length of the leaf.
Copyright©ISU
Pantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); leaf streak on maize. Leaves show linear, pale-green to yellow streaks with irregular or wavy margins that run parallel to veins and may extend the length of the leaf.
SymptomsPantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); leaf streak on maize. Leaves show linear, pale-green to yellow streaks with irregular or wavy margins that run parallel to veins and may extend the length of the leaf.©ISU
Pantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); typical leaf symptoms
TitleSymptoms
CaptionPantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); typical leaf symptoms
Copyright©Jerald K. Pataky
Pantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); typical leaf symptoms
SymptomsPantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); typical leaf symptoms©Jerald K. Pataky
Pantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); moderately resistant (a) and moderate reactions (b).
TitleField symptoms
CaptionPantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); moderately resistant (a) and moderate reactions (b).
Copyright©Jerald K. Pataky
Pantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); moderately resistant (a) and moderate reactions (b).
Field symptomsPantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); moderately resistant (a) and moderate reactions (b).©Jerald K. Pataky
Pantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); resistant (taller), and susceptible (shorter) crops.
TitleField trials
CaptionPantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); resistant (taller), and susceptible (shorter) crops.
Copyright©Jerald K. Pataky
Pantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); resistant (taller), and susceptible (shorter) crops.
Field trialsPantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); resistant (taller), and susceptible (shorter) crops.©Jerald K. Pataky
Pantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); resistant reaction from flea beetle feeding.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionPantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); resistant reaction from flea beetle feeding.
Copyright©Jerald K. Pataky
Pantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); resistant reaction from flea beetle feeding.
Field symptomsPantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); resistant reaction from flea beetle feeding.©Jerald K. Pataky
Pantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); diagnosis from symptomatic leaf tissue.
TitleDiagnostic technique
CaptionPantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); diagnosis from symptomatic leaf tissue.
Copyright©Jerald K. Pataky
Pantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); diagnosis from symptomatic leaf tissue.
Diagnostic techniquePantoea stewartii (bacterial wilt of maize); diagnosis from symptomatic leaf tissue.©Jerald K. Pataky
The corn flea beetle (Chaetocnema pulicaria), a vector for the bacterium Pantoea stewartii.
TitleDisease vector
CaptionThe corn flea beetle (Chaetocnema pulicaria), a vector for the bacterium Pantoea stewartii.
Copyright©Jerald K. Pataky
The corn flea beetle (Chaetocnema pulicaria), a vector for the bacterium Pantoea stewartii.
Disease vectorThe corn flea beetle (Chaetocnema pulicaria), a vector for the bacterium Pantoea stewartii. ©Jerald K. Pataky

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pantoea stewartii (Smith 1898) Mergaert et al. 1993

Preferred Common Name

  • bacterial wilt of maize

Other Scientific Names

  • Aplanobacter stewartii (Smith) McCulloch 1918
  • Bacillus stewartii (Smith) Holland 1920
  • Bacterium stewartii (Smith) Smith 1905
  • Erwinia stewartii (Smith 1898) Dye 1963
  • Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Smith 1898) Mergaert et al. 1993
  • Phytomonas stewartii (Smith) Bergey et al. 1923
  • Pseudobacterium stewartii (Smith) Krasil'nikov 1949
  • Pseudomonas stewartii Smith 1898
  • Xanthomonas stewartii (Smith) Dowson 1939

International Common Names

  • English: bacterial leaf blight of maize; maize bacteriosis; Stewart's wilt
  • Spanish: enfermedad de Stewart; marchitez bacteriana del maíz
  • French: flétrissement bactérien du maïs; maladie de Stewart

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Bakterielle Kolbenkrankheit: Mais; Bakterien Welke: Mais; Stewart'sche Krankheit: Mais

EPPO code

  • ERWIST (Pantoea stewartii)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •         Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •             Order: Enterobacteriales
  •                 Family: Enterobacteriaceae
  •                     Genus: Pantoea
  •                         Species: Pantoea stewartii

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BeninPresentCABI (Undated); EPPO (2020)Original citation: Kini et al. (2017)
TogoPresentCABI (Undated); EPPO (2020)Original citation: Kini et al. (2017)

Asia

ChinaAbsent, Formerly presentEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2009)
-HenanAbsent, Formerly presentBradbury (1967); CABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
IndiaPresentBrady et al. (2008); EPPO (2020)Refers only to strains of P. stewartii subsp. indologenes isolated from Fox millet and millet.
MalaysiaAbsent, Formerly presentBradbury (1967); CABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
-Peninsular MalaysiaAbsent, Formerly presentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
PhilippinesPresentEPPO (2020)
South KoreaPresentChoi OkHee and Kim JinWoo (2013); EPPO (2020)
ThailandAbsent, Formerly presentBradbury (1967); CABI and EPPO (2009); IPPC (2013); IPPC (2019); EPPO (2020)
VietnamAbsent, Formerly presentBradbury (1967); CABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)

Europe

AustriaAbsent, Formerly presentEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2009)
BelgiumAbsentEPPO (2020)
CroatiaAbsent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2020)
GreeceAbsent, Formerly presentEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2009)
ItalyPresent, LocalizedCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated);
NetherlandsAbsent, Confirmed absent by surveyNPPO of the Netherlands (2013); EPPO (2020)
PolandAbsent, Formerly presentBradbury (1967); CABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
RomaniaAbsent, Formerly presentBradbury (1967); CABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
RussiaAbsent, Formerly presentEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2009)
-Russia (Europe)Absent, Formerly presentEPPO (2020)
SerbiaAbsent, Confirmed absent by surveyEPPO (2020)
Serbia and MontenegroAbsent, Never occurredBradbury (1967); CABI and EPPO (2009)
SloveniaPresent, Transient under eradicationEPPO (2020)
SwitzerlandAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)EPPO (2020)
UkrainePresent, Transient under eradicationEPPO (2020)

North America

CanadaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2009)
-AlbertaAbsent, Formerly presentBradbury (1967); CABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
-British ColumbiaAbsent, Formerly presentBradbury (1967); CABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
-OntarioPresentBradbury (1967); CABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
-QuebecAbsent, Formerly presentEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2009)
Costa RicaPresentBradbury (1967); CABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
MexicoPresent, LocalizedBradbury (1967); CABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
Puerto RicoPresentBradbury (1967); CABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, Intercepted onlyEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2009)
United StatesPresent, WidespreadBradbury (1967); CABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
-AlabamaPresentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
-ArkansasPresentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
-CaliforniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
-ConnecticutPresentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-DelawarePresentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
-FloridaPresentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
-GeorgiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
-IdahoAbsent, Formerly presentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-IllinoisPresentPataky (1985); Parker and Hooker (1993); CABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
-IndianaPresentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-IowaPresentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-KansasPresentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
-KentuckyPresentPoneleit and Evans (1972); CABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
-LouisianaPresentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-MainePresentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
-MarylandPresentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
-MassachusettsPresentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
-MichiganPresentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
-MississippiPresentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
-MissouriPresentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-NebraskaPresentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-New HampshirePresentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
-New JerseyPresentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
-New MexicoPresentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
-New YorkPresentStraub and Heath (1983); Dillard and Kline (1989); CABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
-North DakotaPresentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-OhioPresentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-OklahomaPresentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
-PennsylvaniaPresentCastor et al. (1975); CABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
-Rhode IslandPresentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
-South CarolinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
-South DakotaPresentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
-TennesseePresentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
-TexasPresentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
-VermontPresentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
-VirginiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
-WashingtonAbsent, Formerly presentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-West VirginiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
-WisconsinPresentCABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)

South America

ArgentinaPresentAlbarracín Orio et al. (2012); EPPO (2020)
BoliviaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2009)
BrazilAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2020); CABI and EPPO (2009)
-Sao PauloAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)Bradbury (1967); CABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
GuyanaPresentBradbury (1967); CABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)
ParaguayAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)EPPO (2020)
PeruPresent, LocalizedBradbury (1967); CABI and EPPO (2009); EPPO (2020)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / ooze
Inflorescence / blight; necrosis
Inflorescence / discoloration panicle
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / reduced root system
Stems / internal red necrosis
Stems / ooze
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / seedling blight

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
MailTransfer of seeds. Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible

References

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1983. Reappearance of Erwinia stewartii in the Po valley. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 31(2):96

Albarracín Orio AG, Brücher E, Plazas MC, Sayago P, Guerra F, Rossi Rde, Ducasse DA, Guerra GD, 2012. First report of Stewart's wilt of maize in Argentina caused by Pantoea stewartii. Plant Disease, 96(12):1819-1820. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Anderson TR, 1986. An outbreak of Stewart's bacterial wilt of corn in Ontario, Canada. Plant Disease, 70:603

Anderson TR, Buzzell RI, 1986. Distribution and severity of Stewart's bacterial wilt of dent corn in Ontario, 1985. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 66(1):23-25

Ayers JE, MacNab AA, Tetrault RC, Yocum JO, 1979. The influence of selected insecticides on yield and the incidence of Stewart's wilt in sweet corn. Plant Disease Reporter, 63(8):634-638

Blakemore EJA, Law JR, Reeves JC, 1999. PCR identification of Erwinia stewartii and its comparison with two other methods. Seed Science and Technology, 27(1):385-396; 7 ref

Blakemore EJA, Reeves JC, Ball SFL, 1992. Polymerase chain reaction used in the development of a DNA probe to identify Erwinia stewartii, a bacterial pathogen of maize. Seed Science and Technology, 20(2):331-335

Blanco MH, 1977. PhD Dissertation. Columbia, Missouri, USA: University of Missouri

Blanco MH, Johnson MG, Colbert TR, Zuber MS, 1977. An inoculation technique for Stewart's wilt disease of corn. Plant Disease Reporter, 61(5):413-416

Blanco MH, Zuber MS, Wallin JR, Loonan DV, Krause GF, 1979. Host resistance to Stewart's disease in maize. Phytopathology, 69(8):849-853

Block CC, 1996. Biology of seed transmission of Erwinia stewartii in maize. PhD Dissertation, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA

Block CC, Hill JH, McGee DC, 1998. Seed transmission of Pantoea stewartii in field and sweet corn. Plant Disease, 82(7):775-780; 24 ref

Block CC, Hill JH, McGee DC, 1999. Relationship between late-season severity of Stewart's bacterial wilt and seed infection in maize. Plant Disease, 83(6):527-530; 21 ref

Block CC, Shepherd LM, Munkvold G, 2011. Comparison of nine PCR primer sets designed to detect Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii in maize. In: Phytopathology, 101. S16

Boewe GH, 1949. Late season incidence of Stewart's disease on sweet corn and winter temperatures in Illinois, 1944-1948. Plant Disease Reporter, 33(4):192-194

Bradbury JF, 1967. Erwinia stewartii. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, No. 123. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Bradshaw-Rouse JJ, Whatley MH, Coplin DL, Woods A, Sequeira L, Kelman A, 1981. Agglutination of Erwinia stewartii strains with a corn agglutinin: correlation with extracellular polysaccharide production and pathogenicity. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 42(2):344-350

Brady C, Cleenwerck I, Venter S, Vancanneyt M, Swings J, Coutinho T, 2008. Phylogeny and identification of Pantoea species associated with plants, humans and the natural environment based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). Systematic and Applied Microbiology, 31(6/8):447-460. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/07232020

Braun EJ, 1982. Ultrastructural investigation of resistant and susceptible maize inbreds infected with Erwinia stewartii. Phytopathology, 72(1):159-166

Braun EJ, 1990. Colonization of resistant and susceptible maize plants by Erwinia stewartii strains differing in exopolysaccharide production. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 36(5):363-379

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp

CABI/EPPO, 2009. Pantoea stewartii. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.April. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 41 (Edition 5)

Castor LL, Ayers JE, MacNab AA, Krause RA, 1975. Computerized forecasting system for Stewart's bacterial disease on corn. Plant Disease Reporter, 59(7):533-536

Chang C-M, Hooker AL, Lim SM, 1977. An inoculation technique for determining Stewart's bacterial leaf blight reaction in corn. Plant Disease Reporter, 61(12):1077-1079

Choi OkHee, Kim JinWoo, 2013. Pantoea stewartii causing Stewart's wilt on Dracaena sanderiana in Korea. Journal of Phytopathology, 161(7/8):578-581. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0434

Claflin LE, 1999. Stewart's bacterial wilt. In: Compendium of Corn Diseases. 3rd Edition. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: American Phytopathological Society, 4-5

Cook KA, 2003. Season fluctuations in population densities of the corn flea beetle, Chaetocnema pulicaria (Melsheimer) (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae) and Stewart's wilt in sweet corn. MS Thesis, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, USA

Coplin DL, Frederick RD, Majerczak DR, Tuttle LD, 1992. Characterization of a gene cluster that specifies pathogenicity in Erwinia stewartii. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 5(1):81-88

Coplin DL, Majerczak DR, Zhang Yongxiang, Kim WonSik, Jock S, Geider K, 2002. Identification of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii by PCR and strain differentiation by PFGE. Plant Disease, 86(3):304-311; 32 ref

Dill JF, 1979. Biology and management of the corn flea beetle, Chaetocnema pulicaria (Melsheimer), relative to the incidence of Stewart's disease in corn. PhD Dissertation, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA

Dillard HR, Kline WL, 1989. An outbreak of Stewart's bacterial wilt of corn in New York State. Plant Disease, 73(3):273

Dye DW, 1963. The taxonomic position of Xanthomonas stewartii (Erw. Smith 1914). New Zealand Journal of Science, 6:495-506

Elliot C, Poos FW, 1940. Seasonal development, insect vectors, and host range of bacterial wilt of corn. Journal of Agricultural Research, 645-686

Elliott C, 1941. Bacterial wilt of corn. USDA Farmer's Bulletin, 1878

Elliott C, Poos FW, 1934. Overwintering of Aplanobacter stewartii. Science, 80:289-290

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

EPPO, 2019. EPPO Global Database (available online). https://gd.eppo.int

Esker PD, Harri J, Dixon PM, Nutter FW Jr, 2006. Comparison of models for forecasting of Stewart's disease of corn in Iowa. Plant Disease, 90(10):1353-1357. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Esker PD, Nutter FWJr, 2002. Assessing the risk of Stewart's disease of corn through improved knowledge of the role of the corn flea beetle vector. Phytopathology, 92(6):668-670; 10 ref

Esker PD, Nutter FWJr, 2003. Temporal dynamics of corn flea beetle populations infested with Pantoea stewartii, causal agent of Stewart's disease of corn. Phytopathology, 93(2):210-218; 28 ref

Frederick RD, Ahmad M, Majerczak DR, Arroyo-Rodrfguez AS, Manulis S, Coplin DL, 2001. Genetic organization of the Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii hrp gene cluster and sequence analysis of the hrpA, hrpC, hrpN, and wtsE operons. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 14(10):1213-1222; many ref

Freeman ND, Pataky JK, 2001. Levels of Stewart's wilt resistance necessary to prevent reductions in yield of sweet corn hybrids. Plant Disease, 85(12):1278-1284; 19 ref

Frutchey CW, 1936. A study of Stewart's disease of sweet corn, caused by Phytomonas stewarti. Michigan State University Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin, 152:1-25

Gavini F, Mergaert J, Beji A, Mielcarek C, Izard C, Kersters K, De Ley J, 1989. Transfer of Enterobacter agglomerans (Bierjerinck 1888) Ewing and Fife 1972 to Pantoea gen. nov. as Pantoea agglomerans comb. nov. and description of Pantoea dispersa sp. nov. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 39:337-345

Guo Y, Liang Z, Yu D, 1982. Nigrosine medium -- selective medium for isolation of Erwinia stewartii from imported corn. Acta Microbiologica Sinica, 22(4):339-344

Guo YF, Liang ZQ, Huang H, 1991. Elimination of bacterial wilt from imported corn seeds with agricultural antibiotics. Chinese Journal of Biological Control, 7(1):30-33

Guo YF, Liang ZQ, Lu GQ, Xie BC, 1987. Survival conditions of Erwinia stewartii in stored corn. Acta Phytophylactica Sinica, 14(1):39-44

IPPC, 2013. Absence of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii from Thailand. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. THA-01/3, No. THA-01/3. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/countries/pestreport/

IPPC, 2019. Absence of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii from Thailand. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. THA-01/6. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/

Ivanoff SS, 1933. Stewart's wilt disease of corn, with emphasis on the life history of Phytomonas stewartii in relation to pathogenesis. Journal of Agricultural Research, 47:749-770

Kang MS, 1987. First report of Stewart's wilt of maize in Louisiana. Plant Disease, 71(3):281

Kang MS, 1990. Inheritance of resistance to Stewart's bacterial wilt in maize. Plant Breeding, 104(2):173-175

Khan A, Reis SM, Pataky JK, 1996. Transmission of Erwinia stewartii through seed of resistant and susceptible field and sweet corn. Plant Disease, 80: 398-403

Kini K, Agnimonhan R, Afolabi O, Milan B, Soglonou B, Gbogbo V, Koebnik R, Silué D, 2017. First report of a new bacterial leaf blight of rice caused by Pantoea ananatis and Pantoea stewartii in Benin. Plant Disease, 101(1):242. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Kini K, Agnimonhan R, Afolabi O, Soglonou B, Silué D, Koebnik R, 2017. First report of a new bacterial leaf blight of rice caused by Pantoea ananatis and Pantoea stewartii in Togo. Plant Disease, 101(1):241-242. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Krieg NR, Holt JG, ed. , 1984. Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology. Vol. I. Baltimore, USA: Williams & Wilkins, 964 pp

Kuhar TP, Stivers-Young LJ, Hoffmann MP, Taylor AG, 2002. Control of corn flea beetle and Stewart's wilt in sweet corn with imidacloprid and thiamethoxam seed treatments. Crop Protection, 21(1):25-31; 25 ref

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Distribution References

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Parker G B, Hooker A L, 1993. Inheritance of resistance to Erwinia stewartii in four inbred lines of dent corn: qualitative and quantitative analyses. Maydica. 38 (3), 223-229.

Pataky J K, 1985. Relationships among reactions of sweet corn hybrids to Goss' wilt, Stewart's bacterial wilt, and northern corn leaf blight. Plant Disease. 69 (10), 845-848.

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Straub R W, Heath J L, 1983. Patterns of pesticide use on New York State produced sweet corn. In: New York's Food and Life Sciences Bulletin, 6 pp.

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