Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Pantoea agglomerans
(bacterial grapevine blight)



Pantoea agglomerans (bacterial grapevine blight)


  • Last modified
  • 30 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pantoea agglomerans
  • Preferred Common Name
  • bacterial grapevine blight
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •     Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •       Order: Enterobacteriales
  •         Family: Enterobacteriaceae
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pantoea agglomerans (Beijerinck 1888) Gavini et al. 1989

Preferred Common Name

  • bacterial grapevine blight

Other Scientific Names

  • Bacterium beticola
  • Bacterium herbicola Geilinger
  • Bacterium typhi-flavum Breed
  • Corynebacterium beticola Abdou 1969
  • Enterobacter agglomerans (Beijerinck 1888) Ewing & Fife 1972
  • Enterobacter agglomerans pv. millettiae (Kawakami & Yoshida 1920)
  • Erwinia herbicola (Löhnis 1911) Dye 1964
  • Erwinia herbicola pv. millettiae (Kawakami & Yoshida 1920) Goto et al. 1980
  • Erwinia lathyri (Manns & Taubenhaus) Magrou 1937
  • Erwinia mangiferae (Doidge) Bergey et al. 1923
  • Erwinia millettiae (Kawakami & Yoshida 1920) Magrou 1937
  • Erwinia vitivora (Baccarini) du Plessis 1940
  • Flavobacterium herbicola (Löhnis) Mack 1936
  • Flavobacterium rhenanum (Migula) Bergey et al.
  • Flavobacterium trifolii (Huss) Bergey et al. 1923
  • Kurthia baccarinii (Macchiati) Pribram 1933
  • leaf dieback of garlic
  • Pantoea agglomerans pv. millettiae (Kawakami & Yoshida 1920)
  • Phytomonas beticola
  • Phytomonas itoana (Tochinai) Magrou 1937
  • Pseudomonas herbicola (Löhnis) de'Rossi 1927
  • Pseudomonas itoana Tochinai 1932
  • Pseudomonas trifolii Huss 1907
  • Xanthomonas cosmosicola Rangaswami & Sanne Gowda 1963
  • Xanthomonas indica Rangaswami, Prasad & Eswaran 1961
  • Xanthomonas itoana (Tochinai) Dowson 1943
  • Xanthomonas maydis Rangaswami, Prasad & Eswaran 1961
  • Xanthomonas penniseti Rajagopalan & Rangaswami 1958
  • Xanthomonas rubrisorghi Rangaswami, Prasad & Eswaran 1961
  • Xanthomonas tagetis Rangaswami & Sanne Gowda 1963
  • Xanthomonas trifolii (Huss) James 1955

International Common Names

  • English: bacterial rice leaf blight
  • Spanish: enfermedad bacteriana de las hojas del arroz; enfermedad de Oleron; marchitez bacteriana de la vid
  • French: maladie bacterienne des feuilles de riz; maladie d'Oleron de la vigne

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Schwarzfaeule: wein; Schwarzfleckenkrankheit: mango
  • Italy: mal nero de la vite
  • South Africa: vlamziekte

EPPO code

  • ERWIHE (Pantoea agglomerans)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •         Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •             Order: Enterobacteriales
  •                 Family: Enterobacteriaceae
  •                     Genus: Pantoea
  •                         Species: Pantoea agglomerans

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-ShandongPresentYang et al., 2011
Saudi ArabiaPresentIbrahim and Al-Saleh, 2010

North America

USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New YorkPresent
-South CarolinaPresent

Central America and Caribbean


South America

VenezuelaPresentGonzález et al., 2015




New ZealandPresent

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / discoloration


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American Phytopathological Society, 1993. Common names for plant diseases. Plant Disease, 77(3):320-321

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Bradbury JF, 1986. Guide to Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

BUDDENHAGEN IW, DULL GG, 1967. Pink disease of pineapple fruit caused by strains of acetic acid bacteria. Phytopathology, 57:806.

Cho JJ, 1968. The etiology of pink disease of pineapple fruit in Hawaii. Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii, BA thesis, 25l pp.

Cho JJ, Hayward AC, Rohrbach KG, 1980. Nutritional requirements and biochemical activities of pineapple pink disease bacterial strains from Hawaii. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 46(2):191-204

Cho JJ, Rohrbach KG, 1976. Nutritional requirements for pineapple pink disease bacteria. Proceedings American Phytopathological Society, 3: 271.

González AD, Franco MA, Contreras N, Galindo-Castro I, Jayaro Y, Graterol E, 2015. First report of Pantoea agglomerans causing rice leaf blight in Venezuela. Plant Disease, 99(4):552.

Gossele F, Swings J, 1986. Identification of Acetobacter liquefaciens as causal agent of pink-disease of pineapple fruit. Journal of Phytopathology, 116(2):167-175

Hine RB, 1976. Epidemiology of pink disease of pineapple fruit. Phytopathology, 66(3):323-327

Ibrahim YE, Al-Saleh MA, 2010. Isolation and characterization of Erwinia herbicola associated with internal discoloration of tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) in Saudi Arabia. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, 22(6):475-482.

Keetch DP, 1977. H.6 Pink disease of pineapples. Pine Ser. H. Diseases And Pests, Republic of South Africa Government Printer 3 P.

Kontaxis DG, 1977. Chemical control of pink disease of pineapple fruit in the Philippines. In: Proceedings of the American Phytopathological Society, 4. 207-208.

Kontaxis DG, Hayward AC, 1978. The pathogen and symptomatology of pink disease of pineapple fruit in the Philippines. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(5):446-450

Lee HB, Hong JP, Kim SB, 2010. First report of leaf blight caused by Pantoea agglomerans on rice in Korea. Plant Disease, 94(11):1372.

Lim WH, 1985. Diseases and disorders of pineapples in peninsular Malaysia. MARDI Report, No.97:ii + 53 pp.

Oxenham BL, 1957. Diseases of the pineapple. Queensland Agriculture Journal, 83:13-26.

Rohrbach KG, 1989. Unusual tropical fruit diseases with extended latent periods. Plant Disease, 73(7):607-609

Rohrbach KG, Apt WJ, 1986. Nematode and disease problems of pineapple. Plant Disease, 70(1):81-87

Rohrbach KG, Pfeiffer JB, 1975. The field induction of bacterial pink disease in pineapple fruit. Phytopathology, 65(7):803-805

Rohrbach KG, Pfeiffer JB, 1976. The interaction of four bacteria causing pink disease of pineapple with several pineapple cultivars. Phytopathology, 66(4):396-399

Williams DDF, Fleisch H, 1993. Historical review of pineapple breeding in Hawaii. In: Acta Horticulturae, No. 334 [ed. by Bartholomew, D. P.\Rohrbach, K. G.]. 67-76.

Yang KQ, Qu WW, Liu X, Liu HX, Hou LQ, 2011. First report of Pantoea agglomerans causing brown apical necrosis of walnut in China. Plant Disease, 95(6):773.

Distribution Maps

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