Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum
(bacterial root rot of sweet potato)

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Datasheet

Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (bacterial root rot of sweet potato)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 01 July 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • bacterial root rot of sweet potato
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •     Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •       Order: Enterobacteriales
  •         Family: Enterobacteriaceae

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleSoft rot of potato
Caption
Copyright©AgrEvo
Soft rot of potato©AgrEvo

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Jones, 1901) Hauben et al. 1999

Preferred Common Name

  • bacterial root rot of sweet potato

Other Scientific Names

  • Aplanobacter cepivorus (Delacroix) Elliot, 1930
  • Bacillus alliariae Omori, 1896
  • Bacillus apii (Brizi) Migula, 1900
  • Bacillus apiovorus Walmald, 1914
  • Bacillus aroideae Townsend, 1904
  • Bacillus betivorus Takimoto, 1931
  • Bacillus carotovorus Jones, 1901
  • Bacillus carotovorus var. konjac
  • Bacillus cepivorus Delacroix, 1906
  • Bacillus croci Mizusawa, 1923
  • Bacillus dahliae Hori & Bokura in Hori 1911
  • Bacillus hyacinthi Migula, 1900
  • Bacillus hyacinthi septicus Heinz, 1889
  • Bacillus melonis Giddings, 1910
  • Bacillus oleraceae Harrison, 1904
  • Bacillus omnivorus van Hall, 1902
  • Bacillus papaveris Ayyar, 1927
  • Bacillus solanisaprus Harrison, 1907
  • Bacterium alliariae (Omori) Krasil'nikov, 1949
  • Bacterium apii Brizi, 1897
  • Bacterium apiovorum (Wormald) Burgvits, 1935
  • Bacterium aroideae (Townsend) Stapp, 1928
  • Bacterium betivorum (Takimoto) Burgvits, 1935
  • Bacterium carotovorum (Jones) Lehmann & Neumann, 1927
  • Bacterium carotovorum var. aroideae (Townsend) Heellmers & Dowson, 1953
  • Bacterium cepae Passalacqua, 1930
  • Bacterium cepivorum (Delacroix) Stapp, 1928
  • Bacterium croci (Mizusawa) Burgvits, 1935
  • Bacterium dahliae (Hori & Bokura) Burgvits, 1935
  • Bacterium destructans (Potter) Nakata, Nakajima & Takimoto, 192
  • Bacterium hyacinthi septicum (Heinz) Chester, 1897
  • Bacterium melonis (Giddings) Lehmann & Neumann, 1927
  • Bacterium nadsonii (Lobik) Burgvits, 1935
  • Bacterium oleraceae (Harrison) Burgvits, 1935
  • Bacterium omnivorum (van Hall) Burgvits, 1935
  • Bacterium papaveris (Ayyar) Burgvits, 1935
  • Bacterium solanisaprum (Harrison) Lehmann & Neumann, 1927
  • Chromobacterium cytolyticum (Chester) Krasil'nikov, 1949
  • Chromobacterium papaveris (Ayyar) Krasil'notthoff, 1914
  • Erwinia alliariae (Omori) Magrou, 1937
  • Erwinia aroideae (Townsend) Bergey et al., 1923
  • Erwinia betivora (Takimoto) Magrou, 1937
  • Erwinia carotovora f.sp. carotovora
  • Erwinia carotovora pv. carotovora (Jones, 1901) Bergey et al., 1923
  • Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Jones, 1901) Bergey et al. 1923
  • Erwinia carotovora var. aroideae Volcani, 1959
  • Erwinia carotovora var. carotovora
  • Erwinia carotovora var. konjac Nakata, 1934
  • Erwinia cepivora (Delacroix) Oishi, 1953
  • Erwinia croci (Mizusawa) Magrou, 1937
  • Erwinia cytolytica Chester, 1938
  • Erwinia dahliae
  • Erwinia destructans (Potter) Oishi, 1953
  • Erwinia hyacinthi septica (Heinz) Magrou, 1937
  • Erwinia melonis (Giddings) Bergey et al., 1923
  • Erwinia oleraceae (Harrison) Bergey et al., 1923
  • Erwinia papaveris (Ayyar) Magrou, 1937
  • Erwinia solanisapra (Harrison) Bergey et al., 1923
  • Pectobacterium aroideae (Townsend) Waldee, 1945
  • Pectobacterium betivorum (Takimoto) Patel & Kulkarni, 1951
  • Pectobacterium carotovorum (Jones, 1901) Waldee, 1945
  • Pectobacterium carotovorum f.sp. aroideae
  • Pectobacterium carotovorum var. aroideae (Townsend) Dowson, 1957
  • Pectobacterium cytolyticum (Chester) Patel & Kulkarni, 1951
  • Pectobacterium delphinii Waldee, 1945
  • Pectobacterium melonis (Giddings) Waldee, 1945
  • Phytobacterium destructans (Potter) Magrou & Prévot, 1948
  • Phytomonas cepivora (Delacroix) Magrou, 1937
  • Phytomonas destructans (Potter) Bergey et al., 1930
  • Proteus nadsonii Lobik, 1915
  • Pseudomonas destructans Potter, 1899

International Common Names

  • English: bacterial soft rot; bacterial stalk rot of stored cabbage; bacterial stem rot of cassava; bacterial stem rot/soft rot disease of muskmelon; bacterial top rot of potato; bacterial vascular necrosis and rot of sugarbeet; black and soft rot of cauliflower; brown bacteriosis of winter wheat; clubroot disease of cabbage; core rot in banana; core rot of carrot; crown and root rot of sainfoin; crown rot of primula; foot and root rot of babaco; head rot of lettuce; leaf spot disease of beetroot; leaf spot disease of Dioscorea sp.,; leaf spot disease of Dracaena sanderiana; leaf spot disease of ginger; leaf spot disease of yam; pith necrosis of tomato; rhizome rot and tip over of banana; root rot of Strelitzia reginae; slimy soft rot on lettuce; soft rot and vascular necrosis of sweet potato; soft rot of potato; stalk rot of Brassica juncea; stem rot of opium poppy; stem rot of sorghum; stem rot of sudan grass; tobacco hollow stalk; watery rot of the pseudostem of plantain
  • Spanish: podredumbre blanda bacteriana; pudrición blanda
  • French: pourriture bactérienne; pourriture des tiges; pourriture lenticellaire; pourriture molle
  • Portuguese: canela-preta; podridão-mole

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Nassfäule, Bakterien-: Gemüse; Nassfäule: Kartoffel

EPPO code

  • ERWICA (Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •         Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •             Order: Enterobacteriales
  •                 Family: Enterobacteriaceae
  •                     Genus: Pectobacterium
  •                         Species: Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentHossain, 1994
ChinaPresentWang et al., 1985; Tang et al., 1996; Tian et al., 2015
-FujianPresentWang et al., 2017
-GansuPresentLv et al., 2013
-GuangdongPresentZhang et al., 2012
-HebeiPresentGao et al., 2016
-HunanPresentGao et al., 2011
-JilinPresentGao et al., 2014a; Gao et al., 2014b
-LiaoningPresentHuang et al., 2017
-ShanxiPresentHu et al., 2008
-YunnanPresentXia and Mo, 2007
-ZhejiangPresentHu et al., 2008
IndiaPresentShekhawat et al., 1976; Sobti, 1983; Solanki et al., 1984; Karwasra and Parashar, 1988
-HaryanaPresentKarwasra & Parashan, 1991; Vijai & Indu, 1992
-KarnatakaPresentShashirekha et al., 1987; Ramesh and Ram, 1989
-MaharashtraPresentPapdiwal and Deshpande, 1978
-RajasthanPresentBhowmik and Trivedi, 1980
-Tamil NaduPresentAlice and Sivaprakasam, 1996
-Uttar PradeshPresentSattar et al., 1988
IndonesiaPresentSulikanti et al., 1978
IranPresentRahimian and Talebi, 1995
IraqPresentAl-Janabi et al., 1989; Al-Janabi et al., 1990; Tamimi and Hadwan, 1978
IsraelPresentPerombelon et al., 1987; Barkai and Fuchs, 1980
JapanPresentNasuda et al., 1975; Ohata et al., 1979; Watanabe, 1982; Katahira, 1984; Kobayashi et al., 1990
-HokkaidoPresentTanii and Akai, 1975; Tanaka and Tsuboki, 1982; Itagaki et al., 1983; Tanii, 1984; Horita, 1994
-HonshuPresentTogashi, 1988; Togashi and Namai, 1991
-KyushuPresentFuruya et al., 1992
JordanPresentKhlaif, 1993
Korea, Republic ofPresentChoi et al., 1988; Choi et al., 1989; Choi et al., 1990; Lim, 1995; Yi and Kim, 1996; Park et al., 1997
MalaysiaPresentNazerian et al., 2011a; Nazerian et al., 2011b; Eisa et al., 2013; Golkhandan et al., 2013
PhilippinesPresentArellano and Evangelista, 1993
Saudi ArabiaPresentTawfik et al., 1981
SingaporeWidespreadAVA, 2001
SyriaPresentAl-Ghazzawi et al., 2012
TaiwanPresentLiao et al., 1979; Chuang et al., 1989; Su and Leu, 1992; Tsay and Tung, 1993
ThailandPresentSomchai et al., 1987
TurkeyPresentUlukus and Karaca, 1985; Benglioglu et al., 1991; Ustun and Arslan, 2016Aydin province (S¸ahnali) in the Aegean Region

Africa

AlgeriaPresentAgha & Anki, 1991
Central African RepublicPresentDaniel et al., 1979; Daniel et al., 1981
CongoPresentDaniel et al., 1979; Daniel et al., 1981
EgyptPresentEl-Goorani & Abo El Dahab, 1972; Saleh et al., 1984; Barakat et al., 1985; Saleh, 1991
EthiopiaPresentKorobko, 1997
LibyaPresentEl-Zayat et al., 1978; Zayed and Maayouf, 1989
MalawiPresentPeregrine and Lyon, 1975; Tanton and Abington, 1979
MauritiusPresentAutrey and Dookun, 1989
MoroccoPresentAchbani et al., 1993
South AfricaPresentSerfontein et al., 1991
SudanPresentAbdel and Adam, 1987
ZimbabwePresentHussain, 1983

North America

CanadaPresentBoer et al., 2012
-AlbertaPresentHwang et al., 1989
-British ColumbiaPresentDe Boer, 1983
-OntarioPresentDhanvantari and Dirks, 1987
-Prince Edward IslandPresentNielsen, 1978
-QuebecPresentParent et al., 1996
MexicoPresentLopez and Fucikovsky, 1985; Fucikovsky and Villarreal, 1991; Ireta, 1998
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-ArizonaPresentStanghellini and Meneley, 1975
-CaliforniaPresentThomson et al., 1977; Vincelli and Cappellini, 1984
-ColoradoPresentCappaert & Powelson, 1988; Molina and Harrison, 1977; Kloepper et al., 1979; McCarter et al., 1984; Franc and Harrison, 1987
-FloridaPresentChase and Brunk, 1984; Smith and Bartz, 1990; Schuerger and Batzer, 1993; Miller, 1994; Saleh and Huang, 1997
-GeorgiaPresentMcCarter et al., 1988
-HawaiiPresentCho, 1983
-IdahoPresentBarrett et al., 1996
-LouisianaPresentClark et al., 1998
-MainePresentNielsen, 1978
-MinnesotaPresentNielsen, 1978
-New JerseyPresentVincelli and Cappellini, 1984
-North CarolinaPresentCarroll et al., 1992
-North DakotaPresentNielsen, 1978
-OhioPresentCoplin, 1980
-OregonPresentPowelson, 1980; Cappaert et al., 1988; Johnson et al., 1989; Gross et al., 1991
-TennesseePresentCoffey and Disney, 1992
-TexasPresentTowner and Beraha, 1976; Lipe and Thomas, 1979
-WashingtonPresentRuppel et al., 1975; Johnson et al., 1989
-WisconsinPresentNielsen, 1978; Boer et al., 1979

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentChavez, 1983; Araya et al., 1988
CubaPresentMorales Gomez & Suarez, 1989; Rivera, 1978; Cruz et al., 1991
HondurasPresentChavez, 1983
MartiniquePresentSteva and Prior, 1988
PanamaPresentChavez, 1983
Puerto RicoPresentCortes, 1990
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentSchotman, 1989

South America

ArgentinaPresentFresa and Resnik, 1971; Mitidieri, 1994; Alippi et al., 1997
BoliviaPresentOtazu et al., 1985; Harrison et al., 1987
BrazilPresentSouza and Reis, 1994; Takatsu, 1994; Rodrigues and Malavolta, 1995; Romeiro, 1995
-Minas GeraisPresentMacagnan et al., 2008; Tebaldi and Mota, 2014
-PernambucoPresentSilva et al., 2007
-Rio Grande do SulPresentEl-Tassa and Duarte, 2004
-RoraimaPresentHalfeld-Vieira and Nechet, 2008
-Sao PauloPresentPereira et al., 1975; Almeida et al., 1994
ChilePresentSandoval, 1987; Ciampi et al., 1988; Acuna and Riffo, 1993
ColombiaPresentLozano and Bellotti, 1978
PeruPresentElphinstone and Lindo, 1990; Gutarra et al., 1995; Chavez et al., 1997
VenezuelaPresentOrdosgoitty et al., 1974; Anon, 1977; Montero, 1988; Guevara et al., 1992

Europe

BulgariaWidespreadKoleva, 1981
Czech RepublicPresentKrejzar et al., 2008
FinlandPresentHarju and Kankila, 1993
FrancePresent, few occurrencesBedin, 1988
GermanyPresentUllrich et al., 1974; Naumann et al., 1978; Zielke and Teran, 1978; Pustal et al., 1979; Keller and Knosel, 1980
GreecePresentMalathrakis and Goumas, 1987
HungaryPresentSzarka and Lukacs, 1985
ItalyPresentMazzucchi and Dalli, 1974; Garibaldi and Tamietti, 1977; Tamietti and Matta, 1981; Scortichini and Rossi, 1990
LithuaniaPresentPuipene, 1972; Snieskiene, 1995
MontenegroPresentIvanovic et al., 2009
NetherlandsPresentVincelli and Cappellini, 1984; Steekelenburg et al., 1987
PolandPresentSkowronski, 1976; Weber, 1991; Lewosz, 1994
RomaniaPresentZurini, 1975; Plamadeala et al., 1978
Russian FederationPresentShuvalova and Bushkova, 1980; Sidorovich, 1984; Gvozdyak et al., 1985; Ogorodnik et al., 1996
-Central RussiaPresentKnyazeva, 1980
-Southern RussiaWidespreadNikitina & Bychkov, 1976; Shneider and Ilyukhina, 1975; Nikitina and Bychkov, 1977; Malinina and Nikitina, 1981
-Western SiberiaWidespreadNikitina and Vakhrusheva, 1975; Bushkova et al., 1981
San MarinoPresentTolkacheva, 1979
SerbiaPresentIvanovic et al., 2009; Gasic et al., 2013
SloveniaPresentArsenijevic et al., 1994
SpainPresentIzquierdo et al., 1979; Alarcon et al., 1995
SwedenPresentPersson, 1988; Bang, 1989; Paula, 1990
SwitzerlandPresentJaggi and Winiger, 1979; Cazelles, 1990
UKPresentPerombelon & Hyman, 1984; Perombelon & Hyman, 1989a; Graham et al., 1976; Ebbels, 1983
UkrainePresentKabashna, 1977; Koroleva et al., 1984; Shaban et al., 1991; Polozhenets, 1992
Yugoslavia (former)PresentArsenijevic, 1990; Mitrovic, 1997

Oceania

American SamoaPresentBrooks, 2002
AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentDuff, 1993
-New South WalesPresentCother, 1980
-QueenslandPresentPegg et al., 1974
-TasmaniaPresentSampson, 1977
-VictoriaPresentWimalajeewa, 1976; Chandrashekar and Diriwaechter, 1984
-Western AustraliaPresentPeltzer and Sivasithamparam, 1985; Peltzer and Sivasithamparam, 1988
New ZealandPresentCrowhurst and Wright, 1988; Wright et al., 1993
Papua New GuineaPresentTomlinson, 1988

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / lesions
Growing point / rot
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / leaves rolled or folded
Leaves / rot
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Stems / dead heart
Stems / internal discoloration
Stems / ooze
Stems / rot
Vegetative organs / internal rotting or discoloration
Vegetative organs / soft rot
Vegetative organs / surface lesions or discoloration
Whole plant / damping off
Whole plant / dead heart
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback
Whole plant / unusual odour

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Abdel-Rahim AM, Adam FS, 1987. Pathological and bacteriological characteristics of bacterial isolates causing soft rot of potato in the Sudan. Journal of the University of Kuwait, Science, 14(1):127-135

Achbani E, Maazouz H, Boulif M, 1993. Inventory and importance of fungal and bacterial diseases of potato in the Meknes region. Al Awamia, 80:73-89

Acuna B I, Riffo F P, 1993. Black leg survey and potential of latent infection (Erwinia spp.) in certified potato seed lots in the X Region of Chile. Agricultura Tecnica (Santiago), 53(2):179-183

Agha NN, Anki N, 1991. A survey of fireblight on pear in the Alger region. Bulletin OEPP, 21(4):727-729

Alarcon B, Gorris MT, Cambra M, Lopez MM, 1995. Serological characterization of potato isolates of Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica and subsp. carotovora using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 79:592-602

Al-Ghazzawi A, Ghoura MA, Al-Beig N, Jaloul A, Mando J, 2012. First report of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum causing stem rot on greenhouse tomatoes in Syria. Journal of Plant Pathology, 94(4, Supplement):S4.93. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/

Alice D, Sivaprakasam K, 1996. Fungicidal, bactericidal and nematicidal effect of garlic clove extract. Journal of Ecobiology, 8(2):99-103; 11 ref

Alippi AM, B= ED, Ronco LB, Casanova PE, Aguilar OM, 1997. Tomato as a new host of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora in Argentina. Plant Disease, 81(2):230; 4 ref

Al-Janabi GD, Al-Azawi AF, Tamimi KM, 1990. Some important pests of kohlrabi and their possible role in dissemination of soft rot bacterium in Iraq. Arab Journal of Plant Protection, 8(1):25-29

Al-Janabi GD, Tamimi KM, Al-Azawi AF, 1989. Erwinia carotovora pv. carotovora associated with kohlrabi soft rot in Iraq. Egyptian Journal of Phytopathology, 21(1):53-60

Almeida IMG, Malavolta VA Jr, Rodrigues Neto J, Beriam LOS, 1994. Crown rot of primula (Primula obconica) caused by Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora in Brazil. Summa Phytopathologica, 20(3/4):200-203

Anon, 1977. Tomato diseases. Noticias Agricolas, 8(10):37-40

Araya CM, Mata F, Rivera G, 1988. Microorganismos portados en la superficie de tuberculos de papa durante poscosecha en Costa Rica. Phytopathology, 78(6):856

Arellano LP, Evangelista RB, 1993. Diseases of asparagus at Polomolok, South Cotabato, Philippines. USM CA Research Journal (Philippines), 4(1):103-114

Arsenijevic M, 1990. Bacteria causing cauliflower and lettuce head rot in Yugoslavia. Zastita Bilja, 41(1):21-29

Arsenijevic M, Durisic S, Milosevic D, Istvan M, Gajic O, 1994. Characteristics of Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica and Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora strains isolated from diseased stems and tubers of potato. Zastita Bilja, 45(1):27-39

Arsenijevic M, Radujkov D, 1987. Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Jones 1901), Bergey, Harrison, Breed, Hammer and Huntoon 1923 as a parasite of the cactus Aloe arborescens Mill. Zastita Bilja, 38(4):365-372

Autrey LJC, Dookun A, 1989. Identification and importance of soft rot erwinias infecting potato in Mauritius. In: African Potato Association (APA), eds. Proceedings of the First Triannual General Meeting and Conference. Nairobi, Kenya: APA, 182

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore

Avrova AO, Hyman LJ, Toth RL, Toth IK, 2002. Application of amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting for taxonomy and identification of the soft rot bacteria Erwinia carotovora and Erwinia chrysanthemi. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 68(4):1499-1508; 42 ref

Bang H, 1989. Prevalence of Erwinia-species in basic seed lots of potatoes grown in northern Sweden. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, 39(4):373-379

Barakat FM, Kararah MA, Mikhail MS, Fouly HM, 1985. Role of three species of bacteria in decaying garlic bulbs. Egyptian Journal of Phytopathology, 17(2):115-129; 35 ref

Barkai Golan R, Fuchs Y, 1980. Research on postharvest diseases of tomato. A. Survey of the organisms causing rot of stored tomato fruit. Preliminary Report Volcani Center Bet Dagan. 1980, No. 782. Bet Dagan, Israel: Volcani Center

Barrett KB, Nolte P, Jones WB, Nolte LL, 1996. Antibacterial properties of a grain-derived product. American Potato Journal, 73(8):342

Bedin P, 1988. Les maladies provoquées par les bacteries du genre Erwinia. La Pomme de Terre Francaise, 50(445):65-68

Benglioglu K, Oktem YE, Ozakman M, 1991. Bacterial diseases of potatoes in the mayor potato-growing areas in Turkey. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 21(1):67-72

Bergey DH, 1994. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. Baltimore, USA: The Williams and Wilkins Co

Bhowmik TP, Trivedi BM, 1980. A new bacterial stalk rot of Brassica. Current Science, 49(17):674-675

Boer SH de, Allan E, Kelman A, 1979. Survival of Erwinia carotovora in Wisconsin soils. American Potato Journal, 56(5):243-252

Boer SH de, Verdonck L, Vruggink H, Harju P, Bang HO, Ley Jde, 1987. Serological and biochemical variation among potato strains of Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica and their taxonomic relationship to other E. carotovora strains. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 63(6):487-495

Boer SHde, Li X, Ward LJ, 2012. Pectobacterium spp. associated with bacterial stem rot syndrome of potato in Canada. Phytopathology, 102(10):937-947. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/phyto

Bradbury JF, 1986. Guide to Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Brewer JW, Harrison MD, Winston JA, 1980. Differential attraction of Drosophila melanogaster Meig. to potato tissue infected with two varieties of Erwinia carotovora. American Potato Journal, 57(5):219-224

Brooks F, 2002. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2002. Land Grant Technical Report No. 44. Pago Pago, American Samoa: American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program

Burr TJ, Schroth MN, 1977. Occurrence of soft-rot Erwinia spp. in soil and plant material. Phytopathology, 67(11):1382-1387

Bushkova LN, Shuvalova GV, Derzhipil'skii LM, 1981. Some aspects of protection of potato and root cruciferous crops against bacterioses. Trudy Vsesoyuznogo Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Instituta Zashchity Rastenii Lenin Acad. Agric. Sci. Leningrad, USSR, 71-74

Cappprt MR, Powelson ML, 1990. Canopy density and microclimate effects on the development of aerial stem rot of potatoes. Phytopathology, 80(4):350-356

Cappprt MR, Powelson ML, Franc GD, Harrison MD, 1988. Irrigation water as a source of inoculum of soft rot erwinias for aerial stem rot of potatoes. Phytopathology, 78(12, II):1668-1672

Carroll NB, Echandi E, Shoemaker PB, 1992. Pith necrosis of tomato in western North Carolina: etiology and influence of cultural practices on its incidence and severity. Technical Bulletin - North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, No. 300:24 pp

Cazelles O, 1990. Survey of Erwinia on potato in Switzerland. In: EAPR, eds. 11. Triennial Conference EAPR. Edinburgh, UK: European Association for Potato Research, EAPR abstracts, 325-326

Chandrashekar M, Diriwaechter G, 1984. Soft rot of cyclamen in Australia caused by Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora.. Australasian Plant Pathology, 12(4):60-62; [2 fig.]; 13 ref

Chase AR, Brunk DD, 1984. Leaf spot diseases of Dracpna sanderiana caused by two species of Erwinia. Plant Disease, 68(3):251

Chavez LFC, 1983. Erwinia carotovora causante de pierna negra y pudricion blanda de tuberculo-semilla de papa en Costa Rica y otros paises del itsmo centroamericano. Fitopatologia, 18(1):13-21

Chavez SM, Delgado MA, Cedano C, 1997. Identificacion y distribucion de las especies de Erwinias pectinoliticas causantes de pudricion blanda y pierna negra en el cultivo de papa en la zona andina de Piura. Fitopatologia, 32(1):11

Cheon W, Jeon YH, 2014. First report of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum causing soft rot of Orostachys japonica in Korea. Plant Disease, 98(7):989. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Cho JJ, 1983. Soft rot of crisphead lettuce incited by Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora in Hawaii. Phytopathology, 73(8):1206-1209

Choi JE, Han KS, 1989. Studies on the bacterial soft rot disease of Liliaceae crops in Korea 2. Soft rot of garlic caused by Erwinia. Korean Journal of Plant Pathology, 5(3):271-276

Choi JE, Han KS, Kang JC, 1990. Bacterial soft rot of iris caused by Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. Korean Journal of Plant Pathology, 6(2):289-291

Choi JE, Han KS, Yu SJ, 1989. Identification of bacteria causing soft rot disease of carrot. Korean Journal of Plant Pathology, 5(4):349-353

Choi JE, Park JS, Kang HW, 1988. Bacterial soft rot of banana fruit caused by Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora and Pseudomonas cichorii. Korean Journal of Plant Pathology, 4(3):202-206

Chok JE, Kim HY, Ahn BK, Han KS, 1990. Pathogenicity of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, Pseudomonas marginalis pv. marginalis and Pseudomonas viridiflava to flowering plants in Korea. Journal of Agricultural Science Chungnam Nat'l Univ, 17(1):9-17

Chuang MF, Tzeng KC, Hsu ST, 1989. Soft rot of radish caused by Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora and Erwinia chrysanthemi. Plant Protection Bulletin, Taiwan, 31(4):358-365

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