Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Dickeya chrysanthemi
(bacterial wilt of chrysanthemum and other ornamentals)

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Datasheet

Dickeya chrysanthemi (bacterial wilt of chrysanthemum and other ornamentals)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Dickeya chrysanthemi
  • Preferred Common Name
  • bacterial wilt of chrysanthemum and other ornamentals
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •     Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •       Order: Enterobacteriales
  •         Family: Enterobacteriaceae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Soft rot symptoms associated with spread of the bacteria in the vascular system.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionSoft rot symptoms associated with spread of the bacteria in the vascular system.
CopyrightGiorgio M. Balestra Dept. of Plant Protection, University of Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, Viterbo, Italy
Soft rot symptoms associated with spread of the bacteria in the vascular system.
SymptomsSoft rot symptoms associated with spread of the bacteria in the vascular system.Giorgio M. Balestra Dept. of Plant Protection, University of Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis, Viterbo, Italy

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Dickeya chrysanthemi (Burkholder et al. 1953) Samson et al. 2005

Preferred Common Name

  • bacterial wilt of chrysanthemum and other ornamentals

Other Scientific Names

  • Dickeya chrysanthemi bv. chrysanthemi (Burkholder et al. 1953) Samson et al. 2005
  • Dickeya chrysanthemi bv. parthenii (Starr 1947) comb. nov.
  • Dickeya chrysanthemi pv. chrysanthemi (Burkholder et al. 1953) Samson et al. 2005
  • Dickeya chrysanthemi pv. parthenii (Starr 1947) Samson et al. 2005
  • Erwinia carotovora f.sp. parthenii Starr
  • Erwinia carotovora var. chrysanthemi (Burkholder et al. 1953) Dye 1969
  • Erwinia chrysanthemi (Burkholder et al. 1953) Young et al. 1978
  • Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. chrysanthemi Burkholder et al. 1953
  • Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. parthenii (Starr 1947) Dye 1978a
  • Pectobacterium carotovorum f.sp. chrysanthemi (Burkholder et al. 1953) Dowson 1957
  • Pectobacterium carotovorum var. chrysanthemi (Burkh.) Graham & Dowson 1960
  • Pectobacterium chrysanthemi (Burkholder et al. 1953) Brenner et al.1973 emend. Hauben et al. 1999
  • Pectobacterium chrysanthemi pv. chrysanthemi (Burkholder et al. 1953) Brenner et al. 1973 emend. Hauben et al. 1999
  • Pectobacterium chrysanthemi pv. parthenii (Starr 1947) Young et al. 2004a
  • Pectobacterium parthenii Hellmers 1958
  • Pectobacterium parthenii var. chrysanthemi (Burkholder et al. 1953) Hellmers 1958
  • Pectobacterium parthenii-dianthicola Hellmers

International Common Names

  • English: bacterial wilt and soft rot or ornamentals; bacterial wilt of chrysanthemum; bacterial wilt of dahlia; bacterial wilt of ornamentals; blackleg and soft rot of potato; blackleg of potato
  • Spanish: podredumbre blanda bacteriana
  • French: pourriture bactérienne du chrysanthème et pomme de terre

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Bakterienwelke: Dahlie

EPPO code

  • ERWICH (Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. chrysanthemi)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Proteobacteria
  •         Class: Gammaproteobacteria
  •             Order: Enterobacteriales
  •                 Family: Enterobacteriaceae
  •                     Genus: Dickeya
  •                         Species: Dickeya chrysanthemi

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
ComorosPresentRasolofo and Dadant (1961); EPPO (2020)
Congo, Republic of thePresentEPPO (2020)
Côte d'IvoirePresentEPPO (2020)
EgyptPresentSabet (1954); El-Hendawy et al. (1997); EPPO (2020)
KenyaPresentCFBP catalogue (1997)
MauritiusPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Anon (1972)
MoroccoPresentAchbani et al. (1993); EPPO (2020)
RéunionPresentIRAT (1983); EPPO (2020)
SenegalPresentCFBP catalogue (1997)
South AfricaPresent, WidespreadPauer (1964); Serfontein et al. (1991); EPPO (2020)
SudanPresentEPPO (2020)
ZimbabwePresentSABET (1957); EPPO (2020)

Asia

BangladeshPresentEPPO (2020)
ChinaPresentEPPO (2020)
-FujianPresentEPPO (2020)
-GuangdongPresentLin et al. (2010); EPPO (2020)
-HubeiPresentEPPO (2020)
-HunanPresentEPPO (2020)
-JiangsuPresentWang et al. (1985); Wang (1987); Yang (1990); Wang and Yang (1991); EPPO (2020)
-JiangxiPresentEPPO (2020)
-ZhejiangPresentEPPO (2020)
IndiaPresentThind and Payak (1985); Elias et al. (1987); EPPO (2020)
-BiharPresentEPPO (2020)
-DelhiPresentEPPO (2020)
-KarnatakaPresentEPPO (2020)
-Uttar PradeshPresentEPPO (2020)
-West BengalPresentEPPO (2020)
IranPresentBanapoor and Amani (1986); Masumi and Izadpanah (1988); EPPO (2020)
IsraelAbsent, Formerly presentTsror et al. (2010); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
JapanPresent, Few occurrencesTanii and Baba (1971); Goto (1979); Takikawa et al. (1983); Gappa-Adachi and Morita (2013); EPPO (2020)
-HokkaidoPresentEPPO (2020)
MalaysiaPresentLim (1974); Hiryati (1982); EPPO (2020)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentEPPO (2020)
MyanmarPresentEPPO (2020)
NepalPresentEPPO (2020)
North KoreaPresentEPPO (2020)
PhilippinesPresentEbron et al. (1987); EPPO (2020)
Saudi ArabiaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
South KoreaPresentChoi and Han (1989); Choi and Han (1990); Jin et al. (1994); EPPO (2020)
Sri LankaPresentNCPPB catalogue (1988); EPPO (2020)
SyriaPresent, Localized1993Balestra and Impiglia (1996); EPPO (2020)
TaiwanPresent, LocalizedHsu and Tzeng (1982); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)

Europe

AustriaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
BelarusPresentEPPO (2020)
BelgiumPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
DenmarkPresent, WidespreadHellmers (1955); Dinesen (1979); EPPO (2020)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentNCPPB catalogue (1988)
FinlandPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
FrancePresent, LocalizedMercier et al. (1967); Lemattre and Narcy (1972); Samson et al. (1974); Samson et al. (1987); EPPO (2020)
GermanyPresent, LocalizedBortels and Sauthoff (1965); Kohn (1974); EPPO (2020)First reported: 195*
GreecePresent, LocalizedPanagopoulos and Psallidas (1970); Alivizatos (1985); Sarris et al. (2011); EPPO (2020)
HungaryPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); Végh and Palkovics (2013); Végh et al. (2014)
ItalyPresent, LocalizedGaribaldi (1967); MAZZUCCHI (1970); EPPO (2020)
NetherlandsAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)NPPO of the Netherlands (2013); Saaltink and Maas-Geesteranus (1964); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)Absent, pest records unreliable.
NorwayAbsent, Formerly presentEPPO (2020)
PolandPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
PortugalPresent, Localized1991Ferreira-Pinto et al. (1994); EPPO (2020)
RomaniaPresent, LocalizedSAVULESCU et al. (1967); EPPO (2020)
RussiaPresent, LocalizedNikitina et al. (1976); EPPO (2020)
-Southern RussiaPresentEPPO (2020)
SerbiaPresentEPPO (2020)
SlovakiaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)EPPO (2020)
SpainPresent, LocalizedNoval (1989); EPPO (2020)
SwedenPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
SwitzerlandPresent, LocalizedCazelles and Schwärzel (1992); EPPO (2020)
UkrainePresentGvozdyak et al. (1985)
United KingdomPresent, LocalizedGRAHAM and DOWSON (1960); Dickey (1979); EPPO (2020)
-Channel IslandsAbsent, Formerly presentEPPO (2020)
-EnglandPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-ScotlandPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)

North America

ArubaPresentEPPO (2020)
CanadaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-OntarioPresentCREELMAN (1966)
Costa RicaPresentJiménez et al. (1990); EPPO (2020)
CubaPresent, WidespreadRivera et al. (1980); Pérez (1981); Stefanova et al. (1983); EPPO (2020)
GuadeloupePresentEPPO (2020)
GuatemalaPresentICMP catalogue (1997); EPPO (2020)
HaitiPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
HondurasPresentDickey (1979); EPPO (2020)
JamaicaPresentDickey (1979); EPPO (2020)
MartiniquePresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
PanamaPresentDickey (1979); EPPO (2020)
Puerto RicoPresentDickey (1979); Hepperly and Ramos-Dávila (1987); EPPO (2020)
Saint LuciaPresentNCPPB catalogue (1988); EPPO (2020)
United StatesPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-ArkansasPresentBoewe (1949)
-CaliforniaPresentDickey (1979); EPPO (2020)
-ColoradoPresentEPPO (2020)
-ConnecticutPresentDickey (1979); EPPO (2020)
-FloridaPresentSmith and Bartz (1990); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-GeorgiaPresentDickey (1979); EPPO (2020)
-IllinoisPresentBoewe (1949)
-MassachusettsPresentEPPO (2020)
-MinnesotaPresentEPPO (2020)
-NebraskaPresentEPPO (2020)
-New YorkPresentEPPO (2020)
-North CarolinaPresentKELMAN et al. (1957); EPPO (2020)
-North DakotaPresentEPPO (2020)
-OhioPresentDickey (1979); EPPO (2020)
-PennsylvaniaPresentDickey (1979); EPPO (2020)
-South DakotaPresentOtta and Wood (1977); EPPO (2020)
-TexasPresentDickey (1979); EPPO (2020)
-VirginiaPresentEPPO (2020)
-WisconsinPresentWoodward et al. (1978); EPPO (2020)

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
-New South WalesPresentCother (1980); EPPO (2020)
-QueenslandPresentSteindl (1957); EPPO (2020)
-VictoriaPresentEPPO (2020)
-Western AustraliaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
Cook IslandsPresentICMP catalogue (1997); EPPO (2020)
New ZealandPresent, LocalizedBoesewinkel (1975); EPPO (2020)
Papua New GuineaPresentTomlinson and Cox (1987); EPPO (2020)
Solomon IslandsPresentJackson and Gollifer (1975); EPPO (2020)

South America

BoliviaPresentEPPO (2020)
BrazilPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
-CearaPresentFreire and Mosca (2009)
-GoiasPresentMarques et al. (1994); EPPO (2020)
-Minas GeraisPresentMarques et al. (1994)
-ParaPresentMarques et al. (1994)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentMarques et al. (1994)
-Santa CatarinaPresentMarques et al. (1994)
-Sao PauloPresentAlmeida and Malavolta Júnior (1995); EPPO (2020)
ColombiaPresentVICTORIA and BARROS (1969); Victoria and Granada (1982); EPPO (2020)
EcuadorPresent, Few occurrencesEPPO (2020)
French GuianaPresentBereau and Samson (1981); EPPO (2020)
GuyanaPresentEPPO (2020)
PeruPresentLindo and French (1981); EPPO (2020)
VenezuelaPresentEPPO (2020)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Growing point / rot
Inflorescence / twisting and distortion
Leaves / rot
Leaves / wilting
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Stems / internal discoloration
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Stems / wilt
Whole plant / damping off
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback
Whole plant / uprooted or toppled

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Achbani E; Maazouz H; Boulif M, 1993. Inventory and importance of fungal and bacterial diseases of potato in the Meknes region. Al Awamia, 80:73-89

Agha NN; Anki N, 1991. A survey of fireblight on pear in the Alger region. Bulletin OEPP, 21(4):727-729

Alivizatos AS, 1985. Bacterial wilt of tomato in Greece caused by Erwinia chrysanthemi. Plant Pathology, 34(4):638-639

Allefs JJHM; Dooijeweert Wvan; Prummel W; Keizer LCP; Hoogendoorn J, 1996. Components of partial resistance to potato blackleg caused by pectolytic Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica and E. chrysanthemi. Plant Pathology, 45(3):486-496; 21 ref.

Almeida IMG; Malavolta J·nior VA, 1995. Occurrence and characterization of Erwinia chrysanthemi in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) in Brazil. Summa Phytopathologica, 21(2):184-187; 23 ref.

Avrova AO; Hyman LJ; Toth RL; Toth IK, 2002. Application of amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting for taxonomy and identification of the soft rot bacteria Erwinia carotovora and Erwinia chrysanthemi. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 68(4):1499-1508; 42 ref.

Balestra GM; Impiglia A, 1996. Disease and pest outbreaks. Syria. Occurrence of Erwinia chrysanthemi on Dieffenbachia maculata in Syria. Arab and Near East Plant Protection Newsletter, No. 23:33.

Banapoor A; Amani G, 1986. Occurrence of stalk rot of maize in Iran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 22(1-4):46

Bereau M; Samson R, 1981. A bacterial rot on a tropical fodder grass. Agronomie, 1(4):273-276

Bergey DH, 1994. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. Baltimore, USA: The Williams and Wilkins Co.

Boesewinkel HJ, 1975. Bacterial wilt threat. New Zealand Journal of Agriculture, 130(1):20-21

Boewe GH, 1949. Bacterial stalk rot of corn in Illinois. Plant Disease Reporter, 33:342

Bonnet P, 1973. Pectolytic Erwinia. I. Rapid biochemical diagnosis. Annales de Phytopathologie, 5(4):355-376

Bortels SH; Sauthoff W, 1965. Eine bakteriose an Dieffenbachia Schott in Deutschland. Phytopathology, 54:285-298.

Bradbury JF, 1986. Guide to Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Brady CL; Cleenwerk I; Denman S; Ventner SN; Rodriguez-Palenzuela P; Coutinho TA; Vos Pde, 2011. Proposal to reclassify Brenneria quercina (Hildebrand and Schroth 1967) Hauben et al. 1999 into a nevel genus, Lonsdalea gen., as Lonsdalea quercina comb. nov., descriptions of Lonsdalea quercina subsp. quercina comb. nov., Lonsdalea quercina subsp. iberica subsp. nov. and Lonsdalea quercina subsp. britannica subsp. nov., emendation of the description of the genus Brenneria, reclassification of Dickeya dieffenbachiae as Dickeya dadantii subsp. dieffenbachiae comb. nov., and emendation of the description of Dickeya dadantii. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, September 2011.

Brenner DJ; Fanning GR; Steigerwalt AG, 1977. Deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness among Erwiniae and other enterobacteria II. Corn stalk rot bacterium and Pectobacterium chrysanthemi. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 27(3):211-221

Brenner DJ; Steigerwalt AG; Miklos GV; Fanning GR, 1973. Deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness among erwiniae and other Enterobacteriaceae, the soft rot organisms (genus Pectobacterium Waldee). International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 23:205-216.

Bull CT; Boer SHde; Denny TP; Firrao G; Fischer-Le Saux M; Saddler GS; Scortichini M; Stead DE; Takikawa Y, 2010. Comprehensive list of names of plant pathogenic bacteria, 1980-2007. Journal of Plant Pathology, 92:551-592.

Burkholder WH; McFadden LA; Dimock AW, 1953. A bacterial blight of chrysanthemums. Phytopathology, 43:522-526.

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

Campbell WA, 1947. A bacterial root and stem disease of guayule. Phytopathology, 37:271-277.

Cating RA; Palmateer AJ, 2011. Bacterial soft rot of Oncidium orchids caused by a Dickeya sp. (Pectobacterium chrysanthemi) in Florida. Plant Disease, 95(1):74. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Cazelles O; Ruchti A; Schwarzel R, 1995. Pourriture bactTrienne des tubercules de pomme-de-terre : progrFs dans la dTtection des infections latentes d'Erwinia chrysanthemi et dans la prTvision des attaques au champ. (Bacterial soft rot of potato tubers: progress in detection of latent infections of Erwinia chrysanthemi and in forecasting field outbreaks). Revue Suisse d'Agriculture, 27(1):17-22.

Cazelles O; Schwarzel R, 1992. Survey of bacterial diseases caused by Erwinia in seed potato fields in western Switzerland. Revue Suisse d'Agriculture, 24(4):215-218

CFBP catalogue, 1997. Catalogue de souches de bactéries phytopathogFnes, Collection Frantaise de Bactéries PhytopathogFnes, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Angers, France.

Chellemi DO; Dankers HA; Hill K; Cullen RE; Simone GW; Gooch MD; Allingham JE, 1998. Occurrence of bacterial stem rot, caused by Erwinia chrysanthemi, on field-grown tomato in Florida. Plant Disease, 82(7):831; 1 ref.

Chen FX; Lin WX; Xiu ZW, 1994. Selection of the sweet potato cultivar Jinshan 57. Journal of Fujian Agricultural University, 23(3):243-248; 8 ref.

Choi JE; Han KS, 1989. Studies on the bacterial soft rot disease of Liliaceae crops in Korea 2. Soft rot of garlic caused by Erwinia. Korean Journal of Plant Pathology, 5(3):271-276

Choi JE; Han KS, 1990. Bacterial fruit rot of pineapple by Erwinia chrysanthemi. Korean Journal of Plant Pathology, 6(3):425-427

Cother EJ, 1980. Bacterial seed tuber decay in irrigated sandy soils of New South Wales. Potato Research, 23(1):75-84

Cother EJ; Bradley JK; Gillings MR; Fahy PC, 1992. Characterization of Erwinia chrysanthemi biovars in alpine water sources by biochemical properties, GLC fatty acid analyses and genomic DNA fingerprinting. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 73(2):99-107

Cother EJ; Gilbert RL, 1990. Presence of Erwinia chrysanthemi in two major river systems and their alpine sources in Australia. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 69(5):729-738

Creelman DW, 1966. Summary of the prevalence of plant diseases in Canada in 1965. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 46:37-79.

Cuppels D; Kelman A, 1974. Evaluation of selective media for isolation of soft rot bacteria from soil and plant tissue. Phytopathology, 64(4):468-475.

Dickey RS, 1979. Erwinia chrysanthemi: a comparative study of phenotypic properties of strains from several hosts and other Erwinia species. Phytopathology, 69(4):324-329

Dickey RS, 1981. Erwinia chrysanthemi: reaction of eight plant species to strains from several hosts and to strains of other Erwinia species. Phytopathology, 71(1):23-29

Dickey RS; Claflin LE; Zumoff CH, 1987. Erwinia chrysanthemi: serological comparisons of strains from Zea mays and other hosts. Phytopathology, 77(3):426-430

Dickey RS; Victoria JI, 1980. Taxonomy and emended description of strains of Erwinia isolated from Musa paradisiaca Linnaeus. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 30(1):129-134

Dickey RS; Zumoff CH; Uyemoto JK, 1984. Erwinia chrysanthemi: serological relationships among strains from several hosts. Phytopathology, 74(11):1388-1394

Dinesen IG, 1979. A disease of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana caused by Erwinia chrysanthemi. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 95(1):59-64

Dorel C; Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat N; Robert-Baudouy J; Lojkowska E, 1996. Production of Erwinia chrysanthemi pectinases in potato tubers showing high or low level of resistance to soft-rot. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 102(6):511-517; 28 ref.

Dowson WJ; Hayward AC, 1960. The bacterial mottle pathogen of Queensland sugar cane. International Sugar Journal, 62:275.

DYE DW, 1969. A taxonomic study of the genus Erwinia. III. The 'herbicola' group. New Zealand Journal of Science, 12(2):223-236.

Ebron LA; Tolentino MS; Lantin MM, 1987. Screening for bacterial stalk rot resistance in corn. Philippine Journal of Crop Science, 12(1):31-32

El-Hendawy HH; Freer JH; Clarke DD; El-Abyad MS; Saleh YE, 1997. Pectate lyase isozymes and the pathogenicity of soft rotting strains of Erwinia for melon and cucumber. Microbiological Research, 152(4):331-339; 13 ref.

Elias NA; Wajid SMA; Bhaktavatsalam G, 1987. Studies on bacterial leaf spot disease of tobacco. Tropical Pest Management, 33(1):2-4

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Fernandez-Borrero O, 1970. Pudricion acuosa seudo tallo del platano (musa paradisiaca) causada for Erwinia pardisiaca, n.sp. Centro Nacional de Invertigaciones de Cafe, 21:3-50.

Ferreira-Pinto MM; Cruz ML; Oliveira H, 1994. The occurrence in Portugal of the bacterial disease of maize crops caused by Erwinia chrysanthemi. Plant Pathology, 43(6):1050-1054

Freire Fdas CO; Mosca JL, 2009. Diseases of flowers and ornamental plants in Ceará State, Brazil. (Patógenos associados a doenças de plantas ornamentals no Estado do Ceará.) Revista Brasileira de Horticultura Ornamental, 15(1):83-89. http://www.sbfpo.com.br

Gappa-Adachi R; Morita Y, 2013. Bacterial soft rot of myoga (Zingiber mioga) caused by Erwinia chrysanthemi. Journal of General Plant Pathology, 79(4):270-276. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10327-013-0459-1

Garibaldi A, 1967. Il nanismo batterico del garofano In Italia. Informatore Fitopatologica, 17:1-3.

Goto M, 1979. Bacterial foot rot of rice caused by a strain of Erwinia chrysanthemi. Phytopathology, 69(3):213-216

Goto M, 1992. Fundamentals of bacterial plant pathology. San Diego, USA: Academic Press Inc.

Graham DC, 1964. Taxonomy of the soft rot coliform bacteria. Annual Revew of Phytopathology, 2:13-41.

Graham DC; Dowson WJ, 1960. The coliform bacteria associated with potato black-leg and other soft rots. I. Their pathogenicity in relation to temperature. Annals of Applied Biology, 48:51-57.

Gullino G, 1966. Il marciume batterico delle dieffenbachiae in Italia. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 5:239-243.

Gvozdyak RI; Sidorovich LE; Kabashnaya LV, 1985. Erwinia chrysanthemi and Erwinia carotovora var. carotovora, pathogens of bacterial rot of hyacinth and tulip. Mikrobiologicheskii Zhurnal, 47(5):49-53; [1 tab.]; 26 ref.

Hartman JR; Kelman A, 1973. An improved method for the inoculation of corn with Erwinia spp. Phytopathology, 63(6):658-663

Hauben L; Moore ERB; Vauterin L; Steenackers M; Mergaert J; Verdonck L Swings J, 1998. Phylogenetic position of phytopathogens within Enterobacteriaceae. Systematic and Applied Microbiology, 21:384-397.

Haynes KG; Potts WJE; Goth RW, 1997. Evaluation of the reliability of determining soft rot resistance in potatoes by the tuber slice method. American Potato Journal, 74(4):265-275; 26 ref.

Hellmers E, 1955. Bacterial wilt of carnations. Gardeners Chronicle, 137:194.

Hellmers E, 1958. Bacterial stunt of carnation (Pectobacterium parthenii var. dianthicola var. nov.). Dansk Botanisk Arkiv, 18:95-133.

Hepperly PR; Ramos-Davila E, 1987. Erwinia chrysanthemi Burk., McFaddan & Dimock: a bacterial whorl and stalk rot pathogen of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.]. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 71(3):265-275

Hildebrand DC; Schroth MN; Thomson SV, 1978. Nutritional properties useful for identification of soft-rotting Erwinia species. Proceedings of the IVth International Conference on Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. Vol. II. Sta. Path. Veg. Phytobact., INRA. Angers France, 561-562

Hiryati A, 1982. Studies of bacterial stalk rot disease of corn. Pertanika, 5(1):84-89

Horita H, 1994. Bacterial stem rot of chrysanthemum caused by Erwinia chrysanthemi in Hokkaido Prefecture. Annual Report of the Society of Plant Protection of North Japan, 45:104-107

Hsu ST; Tzeng KC, 1982. Species associated with soft rot disease of plant in Taiwan. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Plant Pathogenic Bacteria, Cali, Colombia: 9-18.

Huang LF; Fang BP; Luo ZX; Chen JY; Zhang XJ; Wang ZY, 2010. First report of bacterial stem and root rot of sweetpotato caused by a Dickeya sp. (Erwinia chrysanthemi) in China. Plant Disease, 94(12):1503. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

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